The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army, the Imperial Austrian Landwehr, the Royal Hungarian Honvéd. In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian Kingdom and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being, it existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918. The joint "Imperial and Royal Army" units were poorly trained and had limited access to new equipment because the governments of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k.u.k.
Regiments had four. The long-standing white infantry uniforms were replaced in the half of the 19th century with dark blue tunics, which in turn were replaced by a pike grey uniform used in the initial stages of World War I. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new official uniform colour; the last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, who died in May 2008 at the age of 107. The major decisions 1867-1895 were made by Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, the nephew of the Emperor Franz Joseph and his leading advisor in military affairs. According to historians John Keegan and Andrew Wheatcroft: He was a firm conservative in all matters and civil, took to writing pamphlets lamenting the state of the Army’s morale as well as fighting a fierce rearguard action against all forms of innovation…. Much of the Austrian failure in the First World War can be traced back to his long period of power…, his power was that of the bureaucrat, not the fighting soldier, his thirty years of command over the peacetime Habsburg Army made it a flabby instrument of war.
Austria-Hungary avoided major wars in the era between 1867 and 1914 but engaged in a number of minor military actions. The general staff maintained plans for major wars against neighboring powers Italy and Russia. By contrast, the main enemies Russia and Serbia had engaged in large scale warfare in the decade before the First World War. In the late 19th century the army was used to suppress unrest in urban areas of the empire: in 1882 and 1887 in Vienna and notably against German nationalists at Graz and Czech nationalists in Prague in November 1897. Soldiers under the command of Conrad von Hotzendorf were used against Italian rioters in Trieste in 1902; the most significant action by soldiers of the Dual Monarchy in this period was the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the summer of 1878. When troops under the command of Josip Filipović and Stjepan Jovanović entered the provinces expecting little or no resistance, they were met with ferocious opposition from elements of both Muslim and Orthodox populations there.
Despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October. Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the unexpected violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders. In 1868, the number of active-duty troops in the army was 355,000, the total could be expanded to 800,000 upon mobilization. However, this was less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than one million men. Though the population of the empire had risen to nearly 50 million by 1900, the size of the army was tied to ceilings established in 1889. Thus, at the start of the 20th century, Austria-Hungary conscripted only 0.29% of its population, compared to 0.47% in Germany, 0.35% in Russia and 0.75% in France. The 1889 army law was not revised until 1912; the ethnic make-up of the enlisted ranks reflected the diversity of the empire. From a religious standpoint, the Austro-Hungarian army officer corps was dominated by Roman Catholics.
In 1896, out of 1000 officers, 791 were Roman Catholics, 86 Protestants, 84 Jews, 39 Greek-Orthodox, one Uniate. Of the pre–World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command. While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy 4.4% including Bosnia-Herzegovna), Jews made up nearly 18% of the reserve officer corps. There were no official barriers to military service for Jews, but in years this tolerance eroded to some extent, as important figures such as Conrad von Hötzendorf and Archduke Franz Ferdinand sometimes expressed anti-Jewish sentiments. Franz Ferdinand was accused of discriminating against Protestant officers. Following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség.
In 1867 the military budget accounte
Berkeley Springs, West Virginia
Berkeley Springs is a town in, the county seat of, Morgan County, West Virginia, United States, in the state's Eastern Panhandle. While the area was part of Virginia, the town was incorporated as Bath. Since 1802, it has been referred to by the name of its original Virginia post office, Berkeley Springs; the population of the town was 800. The town is located within MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Berkeley Springs is a sister city to Bath, England; the area contains mineral water springs that were frequented by Native Americans indigenous to the area for thousands of years. After settlement by Europeans, the mineral springs drew many visitors from urban areas. Notable colonial visitors to the area included James Rumsey. Berkeley Springs remained a popular resort area during the early years of the United States, it is the home of the Berkeley Springs International Water Tasting, the longest running and largest such event in the world. The area continues to be a popular resort area with tourism the main industry in the county and four full-service spas using the mineral water.
A historic building whose construction began in 1888, was built as a retreat for Rosa and Samuel Taylor Suit overlooking the town. It is called "Berkeley Castle". Berkeley Springs is a noted arts community with working artists accounting for 1% of the county population of 16,000. Since 1994, the town has been listed in all four editions of John Villani's "100 Best Art Towns in America". During colonial times in 1748, George Washington just 16 years old, was part of the team that surveyed the Eastern Panhandle region for Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Washington returned several times over the next several years with his half-brother, ill, in hopes that the warm springs might improve his health; the springs, their rumored medicinal benefits, attracted numerous Native Americans as well as Europeans to the area. While vacationing in the area in 1767, Washington made note of how busy the colonial town had become. Lord Fairfax had built a summer home there and a "private bath" making the area a popular destination for Virginia's social elite.
With the advent of independence, An act for establishing a town at the Warm Springs in the county of Berkeley was adopted by the Virginia General Assembly in December 1776. The town was named Bath, in honor of England's spa city of Bath. George Washington, his family members and several of the colonial elite were among the town's first landowners; the town's main north-south street was named Washington and the main east-west street was named Fairfax. Four acres were set aside for "suffering humanity." The area around the springs always was public land known as The Grove and overseen by a state-appointed group of Berkeley Springs trustees. This would become a historic park with its springs and bathhouses, made part of the West Virginia state park system in 1925. Nearby, Cacapon State Park was opened in 1933; the mountain that gives its name to the park has an elevation of 2,320 feet above sea level. Bath's population increased during and after, the Revolutionary War as wounded soldiers and others came to the area believing that the warm springs had medicinal qualities.
Bath gained a reputation as a somewhat wild town where eating, drinking and gambling on the daily horse races were the order of the day. In 1772, the springs were part of the newly formed Berkeley County, named after its colonial governor, Norborne Berkeley; the waters became known as Berkeley Springs because the existing protocol was to name springs after the colonial Virginia county in which they were located. The area had been called Warm Springs and Medicinal Springs among other names. Bath became known permanently to the world as Berkeley Springs in 1802 when the Virginia postal system was established in the new nation and there was a Bath, Virginia, in Bath County. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, in which 50 northwestern counties of Virginia decided to break away from Virginia during the American Civil War; the new state was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863. Berkeley Springs remained the conventional name used for the town, its Sister City is England.
Berkeley Springs is located at 39°37′32″N 78°13′37″W, in the Appalachian Mountains. The town lies in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia 26 miles NW of Martinsburg, West Virginia and 36 miles W of Hagerstown, Maryland. Berkeley Springs is the county seat of Morgan County. Morgan County makes up one of the western counties in the Eastern Panhandle. According to the United States Census Bureau, the incorporated town of Bath has a total area of 0.34 square miles, all land. The main road through the town is U. S. Route 522. West Virginia Route 9 runs west through the town. There are two rivers in Morgan County; the Potomac makes up the northern border and the Cacapon River cuts through the center of the county connecting with the Potomac at Great Cacapon. The Cacapon and Sleepy Creek Mountains are the two most notable mountains in the county. Berkeley Springs is nestled in the extreme northern Shenandoah Valley at an elevation of 499 feet. Warm Spring Run cuts through the center of the town and connects with the Potomac River near the Hancock Station.
Sleepy Creek connects with the Potomac along River Road east of the town. As of the census of 2010, there were 624 people, 314 households, 158 families residing in the incorporated town of Bath; the population density was 1,835.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 416 housing units at an aver
The Székelys, sometimes referred to as Szeklers, are a subgroup of the Hungarian people living in the Székely Land in Romania. A significant population descending from the Székelys of Bukovina lives in Tolna and Baranya counties in Hungary and in certain districts of Vojvodina, Serbia. In the Middle Ages, the Székelys, along with the Transylvanian Saxons, played a key role in the defense of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Ottomans in their posture as guards of the eastern border. With the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, Transylvania became part of Romania, the Székely population was a target of Romanianization efforts. In 1952, during the Socialist Republic of Romania, the former province of Mureș, was designated as the Hungarian Autonomous Region, it was superseded in 1960 by the Mureș-Hungarian Autonomous Region, itself divided in 1968 into three non-autonomous counties, Harghita and Mureș. In post-Cold War Romania, where the Székelys form half of the ethnic Hungarian population, members of the group have been among the most vocal of Hungarians seeking an autonomous Hungarian region in Transylvania.
They were estimated to number about 860,000 in the 1970s and are recognized as a distinct minority group by the Romanian government. Today's Székely Land corresponds to the Romanian counties of Harghita and central and eastern Mureș. Based on the official 2011 Romanian census, 1,227,623 ethnic Hungarians live in Romania in the region of Transylvania, making 19.6% of the population of this region. Of these, 609,033 live in the counties of Harghita and Mureș, which taken together have a Hungarian majority; the Hungarians in Székely Land therefore account for half of the Hungarians in Romania. When given the choice on the 2011 Romanian census between ethnically identifying as Székely or as Hungarian, the overwhelming majority of the Székelys chose the latter – only 532 persons declared themselves as ethnic Székely; the Székelys derive their name from a Hungarian expression meaning "frontier guards". The Székely territories came under the leadership of the Count of the Székelys a royal appointee from the non-Székely Hungarian nobility, de facto a margrave.
The Székelys were considered a distinct ethnic group and formed part of the Unio Trium Nationum, a coalition of three Transylvanian estates, the other two "nations" being the nobility and the Saxons burghers. These three groups ruled Transylvania from 1438 onward in harmony though sometimes in conflict with one another. During the Long Turkish War, the Székelys formed an alliance with Prince Michael the Brave of Wallachia against the army of Andrew Báthory appointed Prince of Transylvania; the origin of the Székelys has been much debated. It is now accepted that they are descendants of Hungarians transplanted to the eastern Carpathian Mountains to guard the frontier, their name meaning "frontier guards"; the Székelys have claimed descent from Attila's Huns and believed they played a special role in shaping Hungary. Ancient legends recount that a contingent of Huns remained in Transylvania allying with the main Hungarian army that conquered the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century; the thirteenth-century chronicler Simon of Kéza claimed that the Székely people descended from Huns who lived in mountainous lands prior to the Hungarian conquest.
After the theory of Hunnic descent lost scholarly currency in the 20th century two substantial ideas emerged about Székely ancestry: Some scholars suggested that the Székelys were Magyars, like other Hungarians, transplanted in the Middle Ages to guard the frontiers. Researches could not prove. In this case, their strong cultural differences from other Hungarians stem from centuries of relative isolation in the mountains. Others suggested Turkic origin as Kabar or Esegel-Bulgar ancestries; some historians have dated the Székely presence in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains as early as the fifth century, found historical evidence that the Székelys were part of the Avar confederation during the so-called Dark Ages, but this does not mean that they were ethnically Avar. Research indicates. Toponyms at the Székely settlement area give proof of their Hungarian mother tongue; the Székely dialect does not have more Bulgaro-Turkish loan-words derived from before the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin than standard Hungarian does.
If the Székelys had been a Turkic stock they had to have lost their original vernacular at a early date. An autosomal analysis, studying non-European admixture in Europeans, found 4.4% of admixture of non-European and non-Middle Eastern origin among Hungarians, the strongest among sampled populations. It was found at 3.6% in Belarusians, 2.5% in Romanians, 2.3% in Bulgarians and Lithuanians, 1.9% in Poles and 0% in Greeks. The authors stated "This signal might correspond to a small genetic legacy from invasions of peoples from the Asian steppes during the first millennium CE." Among 100 Hungarian men, the following haplogroups and frequencies are obtained: The 97 Székelys belong to the following haplogroups: It can be infer
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The Royal Hungarian Ludovica Defense Academy, shortened to Ludovica or Ludovica Academy, was Hungary's officer cadets training institute prior to 1945. The main edifice of the Academy was erected in 1836 at the Ludovica Garden, in Budapest's centrally located VIIIth district; the building was designed by Mihály Pollack in the classical style. The academy combined the functions of an advanced Military High School level preparatory school, a military academy on the level of United States Military Academy at West Point, an advanced college to facilitate assignments as junior staff officers to the Austrian Imperial General Staff; the high school provided volunteers of pre-conscription age, between the ages of 14 and 17, the opportunity to join the Royal Hungarian Defense Forces as cadets or junior officers, depending on academic excellence. Ninety students per year were accepted where, 34 students were financed by private foundation grants, 10 students received free tuition provided by the Government, 23 students paid the full annual tuition of 600 Forints, 23 paid half tuition per annum.
The officers training course required four years to complete, the interdependence of functions fulfilled several needs of the Defense Forces. It provided a well trained officer corps, a training ground for instructional opportunities for officers, advanced military training to match the academic level of the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt, Austria; the parallel curriculum, the matched level of quality, between the two schools guaranteed that the majority of officers of the Hungarian Defense forces were selected from the Ludovica Academy. From the beginning of the final school year, some subjects, of both practical and theoretical nature, were taught in German, qualified graduates received dual commissions as officers in both forces; this was important for the combined Hussar Corps, because this arrangement provided for, in a cycle of 2 to 3 years, a fresh assignment of Hungarian-speaking officers to command Hungarian-speaking troops. The academy was established at the 1808 National Assembly session.
It was named after Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este the Royal Princess and the third wife of Ferenc I King of Hungary, who contributed 50,000 Forint for its upkeep from the funds of the Honours list proclaimed at the Coronation. With additional public donations and patriotic contributions like that of Count János Buttler, who contributed 12,000 Forints, a substantial amount was collected, the foundation stone was laid by Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary in 1831; the government did everything in its power to prevent the Academy's establishment, the contributed funds were diverted to other projects. The National Assembly of 1832-36 forbade the language of instruction to be in Hungarian, this policy was re-introduced, adhered to, after the Revolt of 1848, its existence and regulation was enshrined in the 1872 XVI article of law to function as the Royal Hungarian Ludovica Military Defense Academy, it opened its doors on November 21, 1872. Academic accreditation, with the required level of curriculum, was introduced in 1897 during the government of Prime Minister Baron Dezső Bánffy.
Several well-known military officers served as instructors at the Academy, with General Henrik Werth, who, as of 1926, served as the commanding officer. After World War II, the Communist regime left the Academy building, like the Buda Castle, in their damaged condition; the horse riding school building housed the Alfa cinema, which, in the early 1990s, was destroyed by fire. The damaged main building was used by the faculty of Natural Sciences of Eötvös Loránd University. Today, the beautifully rebuilt southern wing houses the Raoul Wallenberg School of Social Sciences And, the expanded underground areas, linking the renovated covered riding school and the rebuilt main building, provide home for The Hungarian Museum of Natural History; as the heir of Ludovica Academy, on May 15, 2009, the Miklos Zrinyi National Defense University celebrated the first 100 days of the merged institutes for advanced military curricula. The celebrations were held in the Orzcy Garden located behind the main edifice and the programs were attended by the Army's choir with the participation of the citizens of the Józsefváros district.
Kamill Aggházy military officer, military historian. Pál Almásy military officer, military engineer. Tibor Berczelly fencer, sport target shooter. Béla H. Bánáthy, military officer and systems scientist Lajos Bánfalvy military officer, military intelligent. István Berkó military officer, military historian. Miklós Bonczos Minister of the Interior. Károly Csáky military officer, Minister of Defense. Béla Dálnoki Miklós military officer, Prime Minister of the temporary government. Gyula Erdélyi military officer, military historian. Kamill Erdoss folklorist, linguist. Gábor Faragho military officer, Minister of Public Welfare. Ferenc Fáy poet. Zoltán Franyó writer, editor. Loránd Fráter lyricist. Sándor Győrffy-Bengyel military officer, Minister of Public Welfare. Samu Hazai military officer, Minister of Defence. Vilmos Hellebronth military officer, politician. Jenő Horváth military officer, military historian, member of Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Gyula Kádár military officer. Géza Káplány (
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
Covasna County is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Sfântu Gheorghe. In 2011, it had a population of 210,177, making it the second least populous of Romania's 41 counties and the population density was 55.6/km². In 2002 the ethnic composition of the county was as follows: Hungarians – 73.58% Romanians – 23.28% Romani – 2.68% According to the 2011 census, the composition of the county was: Hungarians – 73.74% Romanians – 22.02% Romani – 4.05% Others - 0.19%Covasna County has the second-greatest percentage of Hungarian population in Romania, just behind the neighboring county of Harghita. The Hungarians of Covasna are Székelys. Covasna county has a total area of 3,710 km²; the main part of the relief consists of mountains from the Eastern Carpathians group. Most localities can be found in the valleys and depressions located along the different rivers crossing the county; the main river is the Olt River. Vrancea County and Bacău County in the east Brașov County in the west Harghita County in the north Buzău County in the south Covasna County's industry's main sectors are food industry, ready-made garment and textile and wooden products, metals and automotive suppliers, building materials.
Other sectors of industry are chemicals, water, energy and other industrial activities. Industry represents 42.53% of Covasna County's economy. The other main sectors are trade with 30.98%, services 11.38%, agriculture 9.71%, construction 5.78%, R&D and high-tech 2.63%. Companies from Covasna County's industry produced in 2014 half a billion EUR turnover, with a staggering 10.78% increase in volume compared to the preceding year's income. One of Covasna County's main industrial sectors is the ready-made garment industry, where processing companies are owned by German investors, who started to establish first brown-field investments in 1992, since they operate nine factories producing yearly 5 million trousers for brands like Bosch, Wegener. Other owned companies in the field of textiles, producing different articles. In 2015 the Schweighoffer Holzindustrie started, after investing 150 million EUR in a new plant for primary wood processing. With the rich forested areas, Covasna has a long tradition of sawn timber export and production of furniture and other finished wooden products.
Created the ProWood Cluster in the interest of the industry. A few years ago automotive industry suppliers were established, with two new plants producing steering wheels and electric circuits for vehicles; the automotive industry suppliers from Covasna and neighboring Braşov are offers a vast pallet of competitive products, from boards for Mercedes cars to Airbus helicopters, while having a good potential for growth. Is important to mention Poliprod, the French owned family business of Champrenaut Group involved in steel work, welding, machining or the major producer of electric ceramic heaters in Eastern Europe, member of the Canadian Delta Group; this industry can build up its workforce with new students from the large technical university in Brasov. Covalact is a nationwide well-known dairy product brand, now owned by Dutch investors. Another milk processing plant is under brand Olympus, with Greek investors, establishing its HQ in the county. Meat processing companies are the Bertis and Toro Impex, who are regionally active players, while the Norvegian Orkla food producing network has a meat canning plant in Covasna.
Dunapack, a member of the Austrian Prizhorn, supplies corrugated cardboard boxes to all industry branches, from FMCG to fruit and electronics. While IT&C as an industry sector is in emerging state, Covasna County's strategy for development plans to use this field of activity as one pillar for development. Many new start-ups are in the area successful deploying large projects for sound international companies. A large number of young technicians arrive from universities. Agriculture represents 4.83% of Covasna County's economy producing varieties of potatoes, several companies being able to supply selected and packaged crops for hyper-markets. Other agricultural products are rapeseed and cabbage. Covasna County, with a large number of mineral water springs, has developed during history a network of spas for treating different health problems cardio-vascular. There is a good potential for development of this field of spa tourism; the main tourist destinations in the county are: The city of Sfântu Gheorghe The resorts in the mountains around: Covasna Balványos Malnaş-Băi Vâlcele Șugaș-Băi Baile Fortyogo Biborțeni Ozunca-Bai The mountains: Baraolt Mountains Bodoc Mountains Nemira Mountains Întorsurii Mountains The Covasna County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 31 counselors, with the following party composition: Covasna County has two municipalities, three towns and 40 communes.
Municipalities Sfântu Gheorghe – capital city.