U.S. Route 54
U. S. Route 54 is an east–west United States highway that runs northeast-southwest for 1,197 miles from Griggsville, Illinois to El Paso, Texas, it leaves Texas twice. The Union Pacific Railroad's Tucumcari Line runs parallel to US-54 from El Paso to Pratt, which comprises about two-thirds of the route; the highway's eastern terminus is at Interstate 72 in Illinois. Its western terminus is El Paso, near the United States-Mexico border. US 54 begins in El Paso at Loop 375 downtown; the highway serves as a major freeway for the Metro area's network, running north-south along the city's eastern slope of the Franklin Mountains range. The highway runs through the city for 20 miles before reaching the New Mexico state line. Within the network, it is a military connector for Holloman Air Force Base. US 54 enters New Mexico in Chaparral as part of the El Texas Metro area network, it serves as a military highway to connect Fort Bliss in El Paso to Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo, New Mexico. The speed limit is 70 mph on the divided highway section upon entering the state to 10 miles south of Alamogordo, with a 35 mph zone in Orogrande.
Upon entering Alamogordo, US 54 becomes concurrent with U. S. Route 70. US 54/US 70 intersects the beginning of U. S. Route 82 at the north end of Alamogordo; the limit is 60 mph from Alamogordo to Tularosa and 55 mph north of Tularosa, where the concurrency with US 70 ends, the highway reverts to being two lanes wide and not divided. The highway runs north through the central portion of the state, passing through Carrizozo and intersecting U. S. Route 380; the route turns northeast before passing through Vaughn. Upon entering Vaughn, the route is concurrent with U. S. Route 60 and U. S. Route 285. In Vaughn, US 285 splits off to the south. Exiting Vaughn, US 60 splits off to the southeast, the route continues northeast to Santa Rosa where it becomes concurrent with Interstate 40; the I-40 concurrency lasts for 59 miles to Tucumcari. The highway exits the state back into Texas at Nara Visa; the highway runs for 354 miles in New Mexico, is signed as a north-south route through the state. The highway re-enters the Texas Panhandle just beyond Nara Visa, New Mexico, continues northeast for 92 miles to the Oklahoma border.
Major Texas cities along US 54 in the panhandle are Stratford. US-54 runs through the Oklahoma Panhandle from southwest to northeast, it enters at Texhoma continues northeast through Goodwell before entering Guymon. In Guymon, it intersects US-412 and begins a concurrency with US-64, it goes northeast through Hooker, where US-64 turns east. After going northeast through Tyrone, it enters Kansas just before entering Kansas. US-54 is a known drug trafficking route with a drug task force located in Guymon, OK. US-54 enters the state from Oklahoma in Seward County, travels through the cities of Liberal and Plains, where it begins a concurrency with US-160 in Meade County. Just east of the city of Meade, US-54 splits from US-160 and continues in a northeasterly direction through Meade and Ford counties before beginning a long concurrency with US-400 in Mullinville in Kiowa County; the highway travels through the town of Greensburg and continues as a two-lane road through Pratt and Kingman. At Pratt, the Union Pacific railroad tracks which paralleled the highway for over 600 miles from El Paso turn to the northeast and leave US-54.
The road becomes a divided highway in eastern Kingman County. From Kingman to Garden Plain in Sedgwick County it is a freeway but becomes an at-grade expressway as it passes through Goddard and approaches Wichita; the freeway resumes as the road crosses the city limits of Wichita near Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport. In Wichita, US-54/400 is known as Kellogg Avenue, has junctions with Interstate 235, Interstate 135 and Interstate 35, the Kansas Turnpike, before a junction with K-96; the Kellogg Avenue freeway has six lanes and extends 13 miles from 111th Street on the west side of Wichita to Cypress just before the I-35/Kansas Turnpike interchange on the east side. Upgrading of Kellogg Avenue from a surface arterial to a freeway has been underway since the mid-1980s, with the latest interchange project opening in late 2009; the road gets its name from Milo Bailey Kellogg, a shopkeeper and Civil War veteran, the city's first civilian postmaster in 1870. The concurrency of US-54 and US-400 continues through Augusta in Butler County before US-400 heads east toward the Missouri state line, while US-54 forms a brief concurrency with US-77 through El Dorado.
At El Dorado, US-54 continues its easterly course through rural areas in Greenwood and Woodson counties before passing through the cities of Iola and Fort Scott, with US-77 heading north to Junction City. US-54 exits Kansas in Bourbon County before reaching Nevada, Missouri. In Missouri, US 54 runs from the southwest portion of the state to the northeast, it is a major conduit through the Ozarks and is the primary access road to Pomme de Terre Lake and Lake of the Ozarks. After entering the state it passes through Nevada, El Dorado Springs, crossing Lake of the Ozarks the first time just north of Ha Ha Tonka State Park, it passes through Camdenton and crosses the lake a second time on the Grand Glaize Bridge at Osage Beach before bypassing Eldon and going through Jefferson City, where it crosses the Missouri River via the Jefferson City Bridge and overlaps U. S. Route 63. Just north of the bridge, it splits passing through Fulton, cross
Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state
Goddard is a city in Sedgwick County, United States, a suburb of Wichita. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 4,344. In 1883, Ezekiel Wilder purchased farmland on the planned railway of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway south of Blendon, Kansas 10 miles west of Wichita. There, he established the town of Goddard in honor of J. F. Goddard, former third vice-president of the ATSF Railway; the railroad reached Goddard in 1884, a post office was established there the same year. Several buildings were relocated from Blendon, including the town hall and the planned Methodist church. Goddard was incorporated in 1910. On June 23, 1969, an F4 tornado struck Goddard. No fatalities occurred. In recent decades as Wichita has expanded westward, a growing number of commuters have settled in Goddard, transforming it from a rural agricultural community into a suburb. Goddard is located at 37°39′35″N 97°34′27″W at an elevation of 1,463 feet. Goddard lies on U. S. Route 54 in south-central Kansas west of Wichita.
The community lies 12 miles southwest of the Arkansas River and 8 miles north-northeast of the Ninnescah River in the Wellington-McPherson Lowlands region of the Great Plains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.49 square miles, of which, 4.43 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Goddard is part of KS Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,344 people, 1,442 households, 1,124 families residing in the city. The population density was 979.5 people per square mile. There were 1,542 housing units at an average density of 347.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.5% White, 1.2% Asian, 0.9% African American, 0.8% American Indian, 2.6% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race were 6.4% of the population. There were 1,442 households of which 49.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.5% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 22.1% were non-families.
18.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.98, the average family size was 3.44. The median age in the city was 29.5 years. 35.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. The median income for a household in the city was $65,139, the median income for a family was $66,533. Males had a median income of $51,058 versus $33,542 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,095. About 3.7% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.1% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,037 people, 666 households, 534 families residing in the city; the population density was 837.5 people per square mile. There were 698 housing units at an average density of 287.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.14% White, 0.29% African American, 0.98% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, 2.21% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.91% of the population. There were 666 households out of which 49.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.8% were non-families. 17.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.34. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.4% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $50,352, the median income for a family was $53,690. Males had a median income of $39,881 versus $23,807 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,957. About 2.6% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line.
As of 2012, 75.9% of the population over the age of 16 was in the labor force. 0.5% was in the armed forces, 75.3% was in the civilian labor force with 70.4% being employed and 5.0% unemployed. The composition, by occupation, of the employed civilian labor force was: 40.3% in management, business and arts. The three industries employing the largest percentages of the working civilian labor force were: manufacturing; the cost of living in Goddard is low. S. average of 100, the cost of living index for the city is 84.5. As of 2012, the median home value in the city was $140,400, the median selected monthly owner cost was $1,341 for housing units with a mortgage and $373 for those without, the median gross rent was $1,013. Goddard is a city of the second class with a mayor-council form of government; the city council consists of the mayor and five council memb
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geophysical and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed. Observatories were as simple as containing an astronomical sextant or Stonehenge. Astronomical observatories are divided into four categories: space-based, ground-based, underground-based. Ground-based observatories, located on the surface of Earth, are used to make observations in the radio and visible light portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most optical telescopes are housed within a dome or similar structure, to protect the delicate instruments from the elements. Telescope domes have a slit or other opening in the roof that can be opened during observing, closed when the telescope is not in use. In most cases, the entire upper portion of the telescope dome can be rotated to allow the instrument to observe different sections of the night sky. Radio telescopes do not have domes.
For optical telescopes, most ground-based observatories are located far from major centers of population, to avoid the effects of light pollution. The ideal locations for modern observatories are sites that have dark skies, a large percentage of clear nights per year, dry air, are at high elevations. At high elevations, the Earth's atmosphere is thinner, thereby minimizing the effects of atmospheric turbulence and resulting in better astronomical "seeing". Sites that meet the above criteria for modern observatories include the southwestern United States, Canary Islands, the Andes, high mountains in Mexico such as Sierra Negra. A newly emerging site which should be added to this list is Mount Gargash. With an elevation of 3600 m above sea level, it is the home to the Iranian National Observatory and its 3.4m INO340 telescope. Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory in the US, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, Paranal Observatory in Chile.
Specific research study performed in 2009 shows that the best possible location for ground-based observatory on Earth is Ridge A — a place in the central part of Eastern Antarctica. This location provides the least atmospheric disturbances and best visibility. Beginning in 1930s, radio telescopes have been built for use in the field of radio astronomy to observe the Universe in the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; such an instrument, or collection of instruments, with supporting facilities such as control centres, visitor housing, data reduction centers, and/or maintenance facilities are called radio observatories. Radio observatories are located far from major population centers to avoid electromagnetic interference from radio, TV, other EMI emitting devices, but unlike optical observatories, radio observatories can be placed in valleys for further EMI shielding; some of the world's major radio observatories include the Socorro, in New Mexico, United States, Jodrell Bank in the UK, Arecibo in Puerto Rico, Parkes in New South Wales and Chajnantor in Chile.
Since the mid-20th century, a number of astronomical observatories have been constructed at high altitudes, above 4,000–5,000 m. The largest and most notable of these is the Mauna Kea Observatory, located near the summit of a 4,205 m volcano in Hawaiʻi; the Chacaltaya Astrophysical Observatory in Bolivia, at 5,230 m, was the world's highest permanent astronomical observatory from the time of its construction during the 1940s until 2009. It has now been surpassed by the new University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory, an optical-infrared telescope on a remote 5,640 m mountaintop in the Atacama Desert of Chile; the oldest proto-observatories, in the sense of a private observation post, Wurdi Youang, Australia Zorats Karer, Armenia Loughcrew, Ireland Newgrange, Ireland Stonehenge, Great Britain Quito Astronomical Observatory, located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. Chankillo, Peru El Caracol, Mexico Abu Simbel, Egypt Kokino, Republic of Macedonia Observatory at Rhodes, Greece Goseck circle, Germany Ujjain, India Arkaim, Russia Cheomseongdae, South Korea Angkor Wat, CambodiaThe oldest true observatories, in the sense of a specialized research institute, include: 825 AD: Al-Shammisiyyah observatory, Iraq 869: Mahodayapuram Observatory, India 1259: Maragheh observatory, Iran 1276: Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory, China 1420: Ulugh Beg Observatory, Uzbekistan 1442: Beijing Ancient Observatory, China 1577: Constantinople Observatory of Taqi ad-Din, Turkey 1580: Uraniborg, Denmark 1581: Stjerneborg, Denmark 1642: Panzano Observatory, Italy 1642: Round Tower, Denmark 1633: Leiden Observatory, Netherlands 1667: Paris Observatory, France 1675: Royal Greenwich Observatory, England 1695: Sukharev Tower, Russia 1711: Berlin Observatory, Germany 1724: Jantar Mantar, India 1753: Stockholm Observatory, Sweden 1753: Vilnius University Observatory, Lithuania 1753: Navy Royal Institute and Observatory, Spain 1759: Trieste Observatory, Italy 1757: Macfarlane Observatory, Scotland 1759: Turin Observatory, Italy 1764: Brera Astronomical Observatory, Italy 1765: Mohr Observatory, Indonesia 1774: Vatican Observatory, Vatican 1785: Dunsink Observatory, Ireland 1786: Madras Observatory, India 1789: Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland 1790: Real Observatorio de Madrid, Spain, 1803: National Astronomical Observatory, Bogotá, Colombia.
1811: Tartu Old Observatory, Estonia 1812: Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Italy 1830/1842: Depot of Charts & Instruments
Wichita State University
Wichita State University is a public research university in Wichita, United States, governed by the Kansas Board of Regents. Wichita State University offers more than 60 undergraduate degree programs in more than 200 areas of study in six colleges; the Graduate School offers 44 master's degrees in more than 100 areas and a specialist in education degree. It offers doctoral degrees in applied mathematics. Wichita State University hosts classes at four satellite locations. WSU West is located in Maize; this 9-acre campus hosts 80–100 university classes each academic semester. WSU South began offering Wichita State University coursework at a new facility in Derby in January 2008; the WSU Downtown Center houses the university's Center for Community Support & Research and the Department of Physical Therapy. A quarter-mile northeast of campus, the Advanced Education in General Dentistry building, built in 2011, houses classrooms and a dental clinic, it is adjacent to the university's 75,000-square-foot Eugene M. Hughes Metropolitan Complex, where many of WSU noncredit courses are taught.
Wichita State University began in 1886 as a private Congregational preparatory school, founded by Rev. Joseph Homer Parker, it was referred to as "Young Ladies College", "Wichita Ladies College", "Congregational Female College". It was part of a boom in college and university creation and was envisioned to admit women twelve years and older who were "able to read, write and recite the parts of speech." In early 1887, the project's leaders received a land parcel from the developers of the adjacent Fairmount Neighborhood and in response, renamed their school Fairmount College. Envisioned to be the "Vassar of the West," the streets of the neighboring neighborhoods were named after prominent women's colleges including Vassar and Holyoke. Support came from the Plymouth Congregational Church to build it, but the school never opened its doors. In 1892, a corporation named the preparatory school Fairmount Institute, it opened in September with an emphasis on training in preaching or teaching. It closed because of financial difficulties.
In 1895, on the same site, Fairmount College opened collegiate classes for men and women with funding by the Congregational Education Society. Amid growing financial troubles, the college's supporters tried to get the city of Wichita to buy it in 1925, but failed. A second referendum passed in 1926, that fall it became the Municipal University of Wichita, it was the first municipal university west of the Mississippi, catered to students of limited means. On July 1, 1964, the school entered the state system of higher education as Wichita State University. WSU is one of three research institutions in the state of Kansas, along with Kansas State University and the University of Kansas. President John Bardo's executive team passed a tobacco-free campus policy in August 2016. In 2017, the university, all of its satellite campuses and all WSU-owned properties became tobacco free; the ban applies to all tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, oral tobacco and electronic cigarettes. It does not apply to products that deliver nicotine for the purpose of cessation, or to tobacco used in controlled research or for educational, clinical or religious ceremonial purposes.
Smoking was still allowed in designated areas outside of WSU-ICAA controlled athletic facilities and within designated areas of the WSU Innovation Campus. The Main Campus is located at 1845 North Fairmount in northeast Wichita, is bounded between the streets of 17th St N, 21st St N, Hillside St, Oliver Ave. Research facilities include the National Institute for Aviation Research, biology research labs, the WSU Field Station, chemistry research labs, physics research labs; the campus includes the Edwin A. Ulrich Museum of Art. WSU has four satellite locations: WSU South is located at 200 West Greenway in Derby, began offering Wichita State University coursework in January 2008. WSU West is located at 3801 North Walker in Kansas; this 9 acre campus hosts 80 to 100 university classes each academic semester. Since July 1, 2018, the Campus of Applied Sciences and Technology known as "WSU Tech" and known as the Wichita Area Technical College, is located at 4004 N. Webb Road in Wichita; the university comprises the following academic colleges and schools: College of Education College of Engineering College of Fine Arts College of Health Professions Dorothy and Bill Cohen Honors College Fairmount College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Graduate School Institute for Interdisciplinary Creativity W. Frank Barton School of BusinessWichita State University was ranked the 52nd top college in the United States in 2014 by the Social Mobility Index college rankings.
Wichita State is placed among National Universities in the United States in rankings done by U. S. News & World Report. For all engineering research and development expenditures, WSU ranked No. 63 in the USA for year 2013, with $47 million The National Science Foundation ranked Wichita State University No. 4 among all U. S. universities in money spent on aerospace research and development in fiscal year 2013, with $39 million in expenditures and No. 1 in industry-funded aerospace R&D. Wichita State's W. Frank Barton School of Business was listed in The Princeton Review 2011 "301 Best Busi
A telescope is an optical instrument that makes distant objects appear magnified by using an arrangement of lenses or curved mirrors and lenses, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. The first known practical telescopes were refracting telescopes invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses, they were used for both terrestrial applications and astronomy. The reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors to collect and focus light, was invented within a few decades of the first refracting telescope. In the 20th century, many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s; the word telescope now refers to a wide range of instruments capable of detecting different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in some cases other types of detectors. The word telescope was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei.
In the Starry Messenger, Galileo had used the term perspicillum. The earliest existing record of a telescope was a 1608 patent submitted to the government in the Netherlands by Middelburg spectacle maker Hans Lippershey for a refracting telescope; the actual inventor is unknown but word of it spread through Europe. Galileo heard about it and, in 1609, built his own version, made his telescopic observations of celestial objects; the idea that the objective, or light-gathering element, could be a mirror instead of a lens was being investigated soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. The potential advantages of using parabolic mirrors—reduction of spherical aberration and no chromatic aberration—led to many proposed designs and several attempts to build reflecting telescopes. In 1668, Isaac Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope, of a design which now bears his name, the Newtonian reflector; the invention of the achromatic lens in 1733 corrected color aberrations present in the simple lens and enabled the construction of shorter, more functional refracting telescopes.
Reflecting telescopes, though not limited by the color problems seen in refractors, were hampered by the use of fast tarnishing speculum metal mirrors employed during the 18th and early 19th century—a problem alleviated by the introduction of silver coated glass mirrors in 1857, aluminized mirrors in 1932. The maximum physical size limit for refracting telescopes is about 1 meter, dictating that the vast majority of large optical researching telescopes built since the turn of the 20th century have been reflectors; the largest reflecting telescopes have objectives larger than 10 m, work is underway on several 30-40m designs. The 20th century saw the development of telescopes that worked in a wide range of wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays; the first purpose built radio telescope went into operation in 1937. Since a large variety of complex astronomical instruments have been developed; the name "telescope" covers a wide range of instruments. Most detect electromagnetic radiation, but there are major differences in how astronomers must go about collecting light in different frequency bands.
Telescopes may be classified by the wavelengths of light they detect: X-ray telescopes, using shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet light Ultraviolet telescopes, using shorter wavelengths than visible light Optical telescopes, using visible light Infrared telescopes, using longer wavelengths than visible light Submillimetre telescopes, using longer wavelengths than infrared light Fresnel Imager, an optical lens technology X-ray optics, optics for certain X-ray wavelengthsAs wavelengths become longer, it becomes easier to use antenna technology to interact with electromagnetic radiation. The near-infrared can be collected much like visible light, however in the far-infrared and submillimetre range, telescopes can operate more like a radio telescope. For example, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope observes from wavelengths from 3 μm to 2000 μm, but uses a parabolic aluminum antenna. On the other hand, the Spitzer Space Telescope, observing from about 3 μm to 180 μm uses a mirror. Using reflecting optics, the Hubble Space Telescope with Wide Field Camera 3 can observe in the frequency range from about 0.2 μm to 1.7 μm.
With photons of the shorter wavelengths, with the higher frequencies, glancing-incident optics, rather than reflecting optics are used. Telescopes such as TRACE and SOHO use special mirrors to reflect Extreme ultraviolet, producing higher resolution and brighter images than are otherwise possible. A larger aperture does not just mean that more light is collected, it enables a finer angular resolution. Telescopes may be classified by location: ground telescope, space telescope, or flying telescope, they may be classified by whether they are operated by professional astronomers or amateur astronomers. A vehicle or permanent campus containing one or more telescopes or other instruments is called an observatory. An optical telescope gathers and focuses light from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical telescopes increase the apparent angular size of distant objects as well as their apparent brightness. In order for the image to be observed, photographed and sent to a computer, telescopes work by employing one or
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven