The largemouth bass is a carnivorous freshwater gamefish in the Centrarchidae family, a species of black bass native to much of the United States And Northern Mexico. It is known by a variety of regional names, such as the widemouth bass, bigmouth bass, black bass, largies, Potter's fish, Florida bass, Florida largemouth, green bass, Green trout, gilsdorf bass, Oswego bass, southern largemouth and northern largemouth, LMB; the largemouth bass is the state fish of Georgia and Indiana, the state freshwater fish of Florida and Alabama, the state sport fish of Tennessee. The largemouth bass is an olive-green to greenish gray fish, marked by a series of dark, sometimes black, blotches forming a jagged horizontal stripe along each flank; the upper jaw of a largemouth bass extends beyond the rear margin of the orbit. In comparison to age, a female bass is larger than a male; the largemouth is the largest of the black basses, reaching a maximum recorded overall length of 29.5 in and a maximum unofficial weight of 25 pounds 1 ounce.
The fish lives 10 to 16 years on average. The juvenile largemouth bass consumes small bait fish, small shrimp, insects. Adults consume smaller fish, snails, frogs, salamanders and small water birds and baby alligators. In larger lakes and reservoirs, adult bass occupy deeper water than younger fish, shift to a diet consisting entirely of smaller fish like shad, yellow perch, ciscoes and sunfish, it consumes younger members of larger fish species, such as catfish, walleye, white bass, striped bass, smaller black bass. Prey items can be larger. Studies of prey utilization by largemouths show that in weedy waters, bass grow more due to difficulty in acquiring prey. Less weed cover allows bass to more find and catch prey, but this consists of more open-water baitfish. With little or no cover, bass can starve or be stunted. Fisheries managers must consider these factors when designing regulations for specific bodies of water. Under overhead cover, such as overhanging banks, brush, or submerged structure, such as weedbeds, humps and drop-offs, the largemouth bass uses its senses of hearing, sight and smell to attack and seize its prey.
Adult largemouth are apex predators within their habitat, but they are preyed upon by many animals while young. Notably in the Great Lakes Region, Micropterus salmoides along with many other species of native fish have been known to prey upon the invasive round goby. Remains of said fish have been found inside the stomachs of largemouth bass consistently; this feeding habit may impact the ecosystem positively, but more research must be conducted to verify this. Note that it is illegal to use Neogobius melanostomus as bait in the Great Lakes Region. Largemouth bass reach sexual maturity and begin spawning when they are about a year old. Spawning takes place in the spring season when the water temperature first holds steady above 60˚F. In the northern region of the United States, this occurs anywhere from late April until early July. In the southern states, where the largest and healthiest specimens inhabit, this process can begin in March and is over by June. Males create nests by moving debris from the bottom of the body of water using their tails.
These nests are about twice the length of the males, although this can vary. Bass prefer sand, muck, or gravel bottoms, but will use rocky and weedy bottoms where there is cover for their nest, such as roots or twigs. After finishing the nest, the males swim near the nest looking for a female to mate with. After one is found, the two bass swim around the nest together, turning their bodies so that the eggs and sperm that are being released will come in contact on the way down to the nest. Bass will spawn twice per spring, with some spawning three or four times, although this is not as common; the male will guard the nest until the eggs hatch, which can take about 2 to 4 days in the southern U. S and Northern Mexico, longer in the northern part of its Native Range. Depending on the water temperature, the male will stay with the nest until the infant bass are ready to swim out on their own, which can be about two more weeks after they hatch. After this, the male and newborns will switch to more of a summer mode, in which they focus more on feeding.
Largemouth bass are keenly sought after by anglers and are noted for the excitement of their'fight,' meaning how vigorously the fish resists being hauled into the boat or onto shore after being hooked. The fish will become airborne in their effort to throw the hook, but many say that their cousin species, the smallmouth bass, is more aggressive. Anglers most fish for largemouth bass with lures such as plastic worms, jigs and live bait, such as worms and minnows. A recent trend is the use of large swimbaits to target trophy bass that forage on juvenile rainbow trout in California. Fly fishing for largemouth bass may be done using both topwater and worm imitations tied with natural or synthetic materials. Other Live baits, such as frogs or crawfish, can be productive. In fact, large golden shiners are a popular live bait used to catch trophy bass when they are sluggish in the heat of summer or in the cold of winter. Largemouth bass hang around big patches of weeds and other shallow water cover.
These fish are capable of surviving in a wide variety of climates and waters
Mercer County, New Jersey
Mercer County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. Its county seat is the state capital; the county constitutes the Trenton-Ewing, NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area and is considered part of the New York Metropolitan Area by the United States Census Bureau, but directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and is included within the Federal Communications Commission's Philadelphia Designated Market Area and the greater Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 374,733, making it the state's 12th-most populous county, an increase of 2.2% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 366,513, in turn an increase of 15,752 from the 350,761 enumerated in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the 12th-most populous county in the state. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $63,247, the sixth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 121st of 3,113 counties in the United States.
Mercer County stands among the highest-income counties in the United States, with the Bureau of Economic Analysis having ranked the county as having the 78th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county was formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 22, 1838, from portions of Burlington County, Hunterdon County, Middlesex County; the former Keith Line bisects the county and is the boundary between municipalities, separated into West Jersey and East Jersey. It was named for Continental Army General Hugh Mercer, who died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777; the Mercer Oak, against which the dying general rested as his men continued to fight, appears on the county seal and stood for 250 years until it collapsed in 2000. Mercer County is home to Princeton University, Princeton Theological Seminary, the Institute for Advanced Study, Rider University, The College of New Jersey, Thomas Edison State University and Mercer County Community College.
Trenton-Mercer Airport, in Ewing Township, is a commercial and corporate aviation airport serving Mercer County and its surrounding vicinity. The official residence of the governor of New Jersey, known as Drumthwacket, is located in Princeton, is listed on both the U. S. National Register of Historic Places and the New Jersey Register of Historic Places. Founded February 22, 1838, from portions of surrounding counties, Mercer County has a historical impact that reaches back to the pivotal battles of the American Revolutionary War. On the night of December 25–26, 1776, General George Washington led American forces across the Delaware River to attack the Hessian barracks in Trenton on the morning of December 26 known as the First Battle of Trenton. Following the battle, Washington crossed back to Pennsylvania, he crossed a third time in a surprise attack on the forces of General Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek, on January 2, 1777 known as the Second Battle of Trenton, at the Battle of Princeton on January 3.
The successful attacks built morale among the pro-independence colonists. Mercer County has the distinction of being the famed landing spot for a fictional Martian invasion of the United States. In 1938, in what has become one of the most famous American radio plays of all time, Orson Welles acted out his The War of the Worlds invasion, his imaginary aliens first "landed" at what is now West Windsor Township. A commemorative monument is erected at Grover's Mill park. There were 27 Mercer County residents killed during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in Lower Manhattan. A 10-foot long steel beam weighing one ton was given to the county by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in March 2011 and is now displayed at Mercer County Park. According to the 2010 Census, Mercer County had a total area of 228.89 square miles, including 224.56 square miles of land and 4.33 square miles of water. The county is flat and low-lying on the inner coastal plain with a few hills closer to the Delaware River.
Baldpate Mountain, near Pennington, is the highest hill, at 480 feet above sea level. The lowest point is at sea level along the Delaware; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 366,513 people, 133,155 households, 89,480.160 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,632.2 per square mile. There were 143,169 housing units at an average density of 637.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.39% White, 20.28% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 8.94% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 6.24% from other races, 2.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.09% of the population. There were 133,155 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.8% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.16.
In the county, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.8 years. For every 100 females there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 an
A regatta is a series of boat races. The term comes from the Venetian language regata meaning "contest" and describes racing events of rowed or sailed water craft, although some powerboat race series are called regattas. A regatta includes social and promotional activities which surround the racing event, except in the case of boat type championships, is named for the town or venue where the event takes place. Although regattas are amateur competitions, they are formally structured events, with comprehensive rules describing the schedule and procedures of the event. Regattas may be organized as championships for a particular area or type of boat, but are held just for the joy of competition and general promotion of the sport. Sailing race events are held for a single class and last more than one day. Regattas may be hosted by a yacht club, sailing association, town or school as in the case of the UK's National School Sailing Association and Interscholastic Sailing Association regattas or Intercollegiate Sailing Association regattas.
The Three Bridge Fiasco, conducted by the Singlehanded Sailing Society of San Francisco Bay with more than 350 competitors is the largest sailboat race in the United States. One of the largest and most popular rowing regattas is the Henley Royal Regatta held on the River Thames, England. One of the largest and oldest yachting regattas in the world is Cowes Week, held annually by the Royal Yacht Squadron in Cowes and attracts over 900 sailing boats. Cowes Week is predated by the Cumberland Cup, Port of Dartmouth Royal Regatta and Port of Plymouth Regatta. North America's oldest regatta is the Royal St. John's Regatta held on Quidi Vidi Lake in St. John's, Newfoundland every year since 1818. Etymology: From Venetian regata, from regatare from recatare. 1775 - Cumberland Cup - organized by the Royal Thames Yacht Club, UK 1777 - Lough Ree Regatta - organised by Athlone Yacht Club, Ireland. 1792 - Whitstable Regatta UK 1822 - Port of Dartmouth Royal Regatta, Dartmouth, UK 1823 - Port of Plymouth Regatta, Plymouth, UK 1826 - Cowes Week, Isle of Wight, UK 1828 - Kingstown Regatta, Ireland 1828 - Royal Harwich Regatta, Harwich, UK 1834 - Lough Derg Regatta, at Killaloe and Drumineer, Ireland.
1837 - Sydney Australia Day Regatta - held every year since 1837 - longest running without a break 1838 - Royal Hobart Regatta, Australia 1840 - Auckland Anniversary Regatta, New Zealand 1844 - Royal Geelong Regatta / Audi Victoria Week, Royal Geelong Yacht Club, Australia 1845 - New York Yacht Club Regatta, United States 1949 - Pass Christian Regatta Club July 21, 1849 - twelve boats participated - First regatta on the U. S. Gulf Coast 1849 - Sandy Bay Australia Day Regatta Australia 1850 - Race to the Coast - Southern Yacht Club Regatta, Oldest continuously running regatta in the Western Hemisphere United States 1851 - America's Cup competed for in the country of the current defender/holder 1851 - Port Esperance Regatta, Australia 1857 - Gorey Regatta, Channel Islands 1882 - Kiel Week, Germany 1885 - Appledore & Instow Regatta, North Devon, UK 1886 - Torbay Royal Regatta, Torbay, UK 1894 - Britannia Boating Club, Ontario, Canada The Athlone Yacht Club Regatta on Lough Ree, Ireland Appledore & Instow Regatta - founded in 1885, tracing its origins back to 1831, is held annually on the River Torridge between the Villages of Appledore & Instow North Devon, UK.
Balaton Regatta, held every year on the Lake Balaton between the teams of Veszprém Campus and Keszthely Campus of University of Pannonia Chichester-Cowes Challenge, held annually at the end of June on the Solent, welcomes only classic wooden boats built in the 1920s-1930s. Dad Vail Regatta, Pennsylvania Head of the Charles Regatta, on the Charles River between Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts Head of the Hooch, on the Tennessee River in Chattanooga, Tennessee Henley Royal Regatta, held every year on the River Thames is one of several prestigious British events Lent and May Bumps, the two main intercollegiate bumps races of the University of Cambridge, held on the Cam. Maltese National Regatta, held bi-annually on 31 March and 8 September in the Grand Harbour, Valletta Marathon Rowing Championship a continuous 42.195-kilometre rowing regatta on Cane River Lake in Natchitoches, Louisiana Port of Dartmouth Royal Regatta, held annually at the end of August on the River Dart. Poughkeepsie Regatta was an historical regatta that hosted the IRA National Championship from 1895 until 1949.
Regata delle Antiche Repubbliche Marinare, Italy Regata Storica Venice, Italy Regattas on the River Thames lists all Thames rowing regattas and other rowing events Royal Canadian Henley Regatta, in St. Catharines, Canada, in the first week of August is one of the largest annual regattas in North America, attracting hundreds of clubs in 128 junior and master's events. Royal St. John's Regatta, held every year on Quidi Vidi Lake in St. John's, North America's oldest annual sporting events. Summer Eights, along with Torpids, the two intercollegiate bumps races of Oxford University, held on the Isis in Oxford; the Boat Race is a rowing race between the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club. It is rowed annually each Spring on the Thames in London; the Croco's Cup, international rowing regatta at University level held every year in Paris since 1985, organised by students of ENSTA. The City of Exeter Rowing Regatta, the oldest rowing regatta in th
Dredging is the operation of removing material from one part of the water environment and relocating it to another. In all but a few situations the excavation is undertaken by a specialist floating plant, known as a dredger. Dredging is carried out in many different locations and for many different purposes, but the main objectives are to recover material that has some value or use, or to create a greater depth of water. Dredging is the form of excavation carried out underwater or underwater, in shallow waters or ocean waters, it keeps waterways and ports navigable, assists coastal protection, land reclamation and coastal redevelopment, by gathering up bottom sediments and transporting it elsewhere. Dredging can be done to recover materials of commercial value. Dredging is a four-part process: loosening the material, bringing the material to the surface and disposal; the material can be brought to the surface by mechanical means. The extract can be disposed of locally or transported by barge or in a liquid suspension in kilometre long pipelines.
Disposal can be to infill sites, or the material can be used constructively to replenish eroded sand, lost to coastal erosion, or constructively create sea-walls, building land or whole new landforms such as viable islands in coral atolls. Ancient authors refer to habour dredging; the seven arms of the Nile were channelled and wharfs built at the time of the pyramids, there was extensive harbour building in the eastern Mediterranean from 1000 BC and the disturbed sediment layers gives evidence of dredging. At Marseille, dredging phases are recorded from the third century BC onwards, the most extensive during the first century AD; the remains of three dredging boats have been unearthed. Dredging machines were used during the construction of the Suez Canal. During the renaissance da Vinci drew a design for a drag dredger. Maintenance: dredging to deepen or maintain navigable waterways or channels which are threatened to become silted with the passage of time, due to sedimented sand and mud making them too shallow for navigation.
This is carried out with a trailing suction hopper dredge. Most dredging is for this purpose, it may be done to maintain the holding capacity of reservoirs or lakes. Land reclamation: dredging to mine sand, clay or rock from the seabed and using it to construct new land elsewhere; this is performed by a cutter-suction dredge or trailing suction hopper dredge. The material may be used for flood or erosion control. Capital dredging: dredging carried out to create a new harbour, berth or waterway, or to deepen existing facilities in order to allow larger ships access; because capital works involve hard material or high-volume works, the work is done using a cutter suction dredge or large trailing suction hopper dredge. Preparatory: dredging work and excavation for future bridges, piers or docksor wharves, This is to build the foundations. Winning construction materials: dredging sand and gravels from offshore licensed areas for use in construction industry, principally for use in concrete; this specialist industry is focused in NW Europe, it uses specialized trailing suction hopper dredgers self discharging the dry cargo ashore.
Contaminant remediation: to reclaim areas affected by chemical spills, storm water surges, other soil contaminations, including silt from sewage sludge and from decayed matter, like wilted plants. Disposal becomes a proportionally large factor in these operations. Flood prevention: dredging increases the channel depth and therefore increase a channel's capacity for carrying water. Fishing dredging is a technique for catching certain species of edible crabs. In Louisiana and other American states, with salt water estuaries that can sustain bottom oyster beds, oysters are raised and harvested. A heavy rectangular metal scoop is towed astern of a moving boat with a chain bridle attached to a cable; this drags along the bottom scooping up oysters. It is periodically winched aboard and the catch is sorted and bagged for shipment. Harvesting materials: dredging sediment for elements like gold, diamonds or other valuable trace substances. Hobbyists examine their dredged matter to pick out items of potential value, similar to the hobby of metal detecting.
Beach nourishment: this is mining sand offshore and placing on a beach to replace sand eroded by storms or wave action. This enhances the recreational and protective function of the beach, which are eroded by human activity; this is performed by a cutter-suction dredge or trailing suction hopper dredge. Peat extraction: dredging poles or dredge hauls were used on the back of small boats to manually dredge the beds of peat-moor waterways; the extracted peat was used as a fuel. This tradition is now less obsolete; the tools are now changed. Removing rubbish and debris: done in combination with maintenance dredging, this process removes non-natural matter from the bottoms of rivers and canals and harbours. Law enforcement agencies sometimes need to use a'drag' to recover evidence or corpses from beneath the water. Anti-eutrophication: A kind of contaminant remediation, dredging is an expensive option for the remediation of eutrophied water bodies. However, as artificially elevated phosphorus levels in the sediment aggravate the eutrophication process, controlled sed
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa