Chelan is a city in Chelan County, United States. The population was 3,890 at the 2010 census; the population was 4,060 at 2015 Estimate from Office of Financial Management. It lies on the southeast tip of Lake Chelan. Chelan is part of the Wenatchee−East Wenatchee Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Chelan area was home to Salish speaking Native Americans known as the Chelan tribe prior to white settlement in the late 1800s. But before the settlers arrived, a new beast, the horse and with it just as were smallpox and other deadly infectious diseases; these diseases wiped out an estimated 90% of the Indians before David Thompson, the first explorer in the area, arrived on the Columbia in 1811. The horse and the culture of the horse so prevalent with Indians of the Plains took over by the time explorers and settlers arrived, so it is difficult to know what the original inhabitants' lives were like and who the Indians were before these monumental changes to their way of life. A people of the horse, they became, adopting Plains Indian dress and more, with white settlers came far more changes.
The Indians in the area were organized as small family groups who made decisions, not having a single chief who decided everything. But after white people came there was a struggle for power: to maintain control of the lands that once were theirs, they needed one person to be able to speak for them. Though not a Chelan Indian himself, Chief Moses had a large section of land set aside for a reservation. However, with the low number of Indians and the ever-increasing number of miners looking for riches in the mountains, he found that defending his newly acquired territory was impossible and lost it all. During a period of unrest between settlers and Native Americans in the 1870s, Lt. Colonel Henry Clay Merriam of the United States Army established Camp Chelan at the foot of Lake Chelan to control and safeguard the Indian population on the Moses Columbia Reservation, his family was with him for the 1880 Federal Census. The lake was inaccessible because of its sheer cliffs on most sides, so a makeshift road was built from the fort to the Columbia River where a courier and mail service from Walla Walla were established.
The fort operated for about a year and was abandoned in October 1880 when the troops relocated to Fort Spokane. The first European settlers in the area were William Sanders and Henry Dumpke, who arrived in 1886. After traversing several cliffs and streams and losing their horse, they safely arrived at the foot of the lake and were welcomed by the natives who encouraged them to stake claims; the presence of these settlers paved the way for more settlers to move to the valley. In 1888, L. H. Woodin of Minneapolis paddled up the lake in a skiff. Impressed by the area, Woodin constructed a sawmill at the foot of the lake. Chelan's main street is named for Woodin. At the same time, local ranchers were beginning to discover that orchards could be planted without the need of irrigation; the town was platted and lots sold quickly. A post office was established in 1890. A school was built in 1892 followed by the first resort hotel, taking advantage of the area's natural beauty. Following the Panic of 1893, hard times began in earnest but never affected Chelan completely.
The first bank was established in 1893. Chelan was incorporated on May 7, 1902. In 1903, the city gained electric lights and water service via nearby Donaldson Springs. A permanent town hall was constructed in 1904; the town continues to grow as an agricultural center and resort community which helps it thrive to this day. Chelan is located at 47°50′34″N 120°1′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.35 square miles, of which, 6.29 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Chelan's climate is typical for Eastern Washington. Located behind the rainshadow of the Cascade Mountains, it receives a near-desert amount of precipitation each year; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,890 people, 1,602 households, 1,031 families residing in the city. The population density was 618.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,516 housing units at an average density of 400.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.1% White, 0.4% African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 14.1% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.2% of the population. There were 1,602 households of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.6% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the city was 44.1 years. 22.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,522 people, 1,471 households, 939 families residing in the city; the population density was 933.9 people per square mile. There were 2,058 housing units at an average density of 545.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city
National Register of Historic Places listings in Chelan County, Washington
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Chelan County, Washington. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Chelan County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 46 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Another property has been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington state
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and navigability. Hydropower is used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities; the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, mentioned in 1120; the word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth".
The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. Early dam building took place in the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, 100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman. This gravity dam featured an 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart; the structure is dated to 3000 BC. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide; the structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV dug a canal 16 km long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.
Two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called "Mer-wer" or Lake Moeris is known today as Birket Qarun. By the mid-late third millennium BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built; the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Initiated somewhere between 1750 and 1700 BC, it was made of packed earth – triangular in cross section, 580 m in length and 4 m high – running between two groups of rocks on either side, to which it was linked by substantial stonework. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC, 250 years the dam height was increased to 7 m. After the end of the Kingdom of Saba, the dam fell under the control of the Ḥimyarites who undertook further improvements, creating a structure 14 m high, with five spillway channels, two masonry-reinforced sluices, a settling pond, a 1,000 m canal to a distribution tank.
These extensive works were not finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite spring temple near Konya, Turkey, it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC. The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India. The basic structure dates to the 2nd century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, still in use; the purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals. Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow, it was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu, flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir, a reservoir, still present today.
Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale." Roman planners introduced the then-novel concept of large reservoir dams which could secure a permanent water supply for urban settlements over the dry season. Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than built, such as the Lake Homs Dam the largest water barrier to that date, the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria; the highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome. Roman engineers made routine use of ancient standard designs like embankment dams and masonry gravity dams. Apart from that, they displayed a high degree of inventiveness, introducing most of the other basic dam designs, unknown until then; these include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD. Roman workforces were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran
National Register of Historic Places listings in Asotin County, Washington
This list presents the full set of buildings, objects, sites, or districts designated on the National Register of Historic Places in Asotin County and offers brief descriptive information about each of them. The National Register recognizes places of national, state, or local historic significance across the United States. Out of over 90,000 National Register sites nationwide, Washington is home to 1,500, 8 of those are found in Asotin County; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington state Listings in neighboring counties: Garfield, Nez Perce, Whitman Historic preservation History of Washington Index of Washington-related articles Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Historic Register program National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places site Media related to National Register of Historic Places in Asotin County, Washington at Wikimedia Commons
Lake Chelan is a narrow, 50.5-mile long lake in Chelan County, north-central Washington state, U. S. Before 1927, it was the largest natural lake in the state by any measure. Upon the completion of Lake Chelan Dam in 1927, the elevation of the lake was increased by 21 feet to its present maximum-capacity elevation of 1,100 feet. Two communities lie on the southern end of the lake, a third sits at the far north end, providing a gateway to the North Cascades National Park; the name Chelan is a Salish Indigenous word, "Tsi - Laan," meaning'Deep Water'. On an annual basis, an average of 2,200 cubic feet per second flow into the lake. Seventy-five percent of the water that flows into the lake comes from two tributaries; the Stehekin River alone contributes 65% of all water to Lake Chelan, averaging 1,401 cu ft/s annually. The other major tributary, Railroad Creek, averages 202 cu ft/s annually; the remaining water is added via a number of smaller tributaries as well as direct rain and snowfall. With a maximum depth of 1,486 feet, Lake Chelan is the third deepest lake in the United States, the 26th deepest in the world.
At its deepest, the lake bottom is 388 feet below sea level. The total watershed of the lake is a modest 924 square miles More than 90% of the watershed is forested land; the remainder of the basin is composed of agriculture. Lake Chelan is composed of two basins; the lower basin, Wapato, is shallower and a fourth the total length of the lake. The upper basin, extends for the remainder of the length of the lake; the two basins are separated by a sill rising to within 122 feet of the surface, at a point known as the narrows, at which the lake is only 0.35 miles wide. The two basins were created by two independent glaciers that met and formed the sill when they retreated. First, the Chelan glacier came down from the Stehekin valley and scoured the valley as far as the Columbia River; the Okanogan lobe came up the Chelan Valley as far as Wapato Point. As the Okanogan lobe retreated, it left huge amounts of debris in the valley scoured by the Chelan glacier; the lower basin, Wapato, is the shallower of the two, with a maximum depth of only 400 feet.
About 600 feet of glacial sediment and rockslide deposits rest between bedrock. This section of the lake is 12 miles long, has an average depth of 190 feet. Due to the modest size of this basin, water resides in this basin for only 0.8 years, compared to 10 for Lucerne Basin. Lucerne basin, 38 miles long with an average depth of 1,148 feet, is by far the larger of the two basins, it is in this part of the lake. Lucerne basin contains 92% of the water in Lake Chelan and 74% of the surface area, leaving Wapato with only 8% of the total volume of water and 26% of the surface area; the upper basin of Lake Chelan is surrounded by mountainous terrain, resulting in few beaches along the shoreline. 50 miles of the shoreline of this basin are in National Forest lands, 12 miles in National Park lands. The climate of Lake Chelan's watershed is varied. From the southern end of the lake in the rain shadow of the Cascade Range, to the northern tip of the lake located in the eastern Cascades, the climate of Lake Chelan's watershed is as diverse as the lake is long.
The south end's weather is notably dry, with Chelan averaging only 11.4 inches of rain per year, along with 21.8 inches of snow. Stehekin receives an average of 35.5 inches of rain per year, 122.5 inches of snow. Other than precipitation trends, the climates are remarkably similar. Both locations average around 60 °F for a high, 40 °F for a low throughout the course of the year. Due to the isolated nature of Lake Chelan at its northern reaches, there is not a large population that resides along the shore. Chelan, which had 3,918 residents at the 2010 census, is the only incorporated city situated along the lake shore; the city is located at the southern terminus of the lake, adjacent to the Lake Chelan Dam and the Chelan River outflow. The census-designated place of Manson, which had 1,418 residents in 2010, is located at the southern end of the lake; the unincorporated community of Stehekin, with 75 residents, is located at the northern terminus of the lake, adjacent to the Stehekin River inflow.
At the mouth of the Railroad Creek sits Lucerne, a small community of private cabins served by commercial boats. Lucerne is the primary gateway to the community of Holden Village, a Lutheran retreat center located 11 miles inland from the lake. With 50 long-term residents, Holden includes one of the few remaining public K-12 two-room schools in the contiguous United States. Fishing is a popular recreating activity on Lake Chelan; the following fish are or were native to the lake: Bull Trout, Westslope cutthroat trout, Largescale sucker, Longnose sucker, Bridgelip sucker, Northern pikeminnow, Redside shiner, Mountain whitefish, Pygmy whitefish. In addition to these native species, six species have been introduced to the lake for sport fishing purposes: Yellowstone cutthroat trout, Rainbow trout, Brook trout, Chinook salmon, Lake trout) There is one state record fish, pulled from Lake Chelan. In 2013, a 35.63-pound Lake Trout was caught. At the north end of the lake, surrounding the town of Stehekin, is Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.
Surrounding much of the lake on either side is Wenatchee National Forest
National Register of Historic Places listings in Adams County, Washington
This list presents the full set of buildings, objects, sites, or districts designated on the National Register of Historic Places in Adams County and offers brief descriptive information about each of them. The National Register recognizes places of national, state, or local historic significance across the United States. Out of over 90,000 National Register sites nationwide, Washington is home to 1,500, 11 of those are found in Adams County; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington state Listings in neighboring counties: Franklin, Lincoln, Whitman Historic preservation History of Washington Index of Washington-related articles Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Historic Register program National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places site Media related to National Register of Historic Places in Adams County, Washington at Wikimedia Commons