Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was an American soldier and international statesman, who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. During the American Civil War Grant led the Union Army as its commanding general to victory over the Confederacy with the supervision of President Abraham Lincoln. During the Reconstruction Era, President Grant led the Republicans in their efforts to remove the vestiges of Confederate nationalism and slavery. From early childhood in Ohio, Grant was a skilled equestrian, he served with distinction in the Mexican -- American War. Upon his return, Grant married Julia Dent, together they had four children. In 1854, Grant abruptly resigned from the army, he and his family struggled financially in civilian life for seven years. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Grant joined the Union Army and rose in rank to general. Grant was persistent in his pursuit of the Confederate enemy, winning major battles and gaining Union control of the Mississippi River. In March 1864, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to Lieutenant General, a rank reserved for George Washington.
For over a year Grant's Army of the Potomac fought the Army of Northern Virginia led by Robert E. Lee in the Overland Campaign and at Petersburg. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, the war ended. On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated. Grant continued his service under Lincoln's successor President Andrew Johnson and was promoted General of the Army in 1866. Disillusioned by Johnson's conservative approach to Reconstruction, Grant drifted toward the "Radical" Republicans. Elected the youngest 19th Century president in 1868, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, created the Department of Justice, prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan, he appointed Jewish-Americans to prominent federal offices. In 1871, Grant created the first Civil Service Commission; the Democrats and Liberal Republicans united behind Grant's opponent in the presidential election of 1872, but Grant was handily re-elected. Grant's new Peace Policy for Native Americans had both failures. Grant's administration resolved the Alabama claims and the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his Dominican annexation initiative.
Grant's presidency was plagued by numerous public scandals, while the Panic of 1873 plunged the nation into a severe economic depression. After Grant left office in March 1877, he embarked on a two-and-a-half-year world tour that captured favorable global attention for him and the United States. In 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term. In the final year of his life, facing severe investment reversals and dying of throat cancer, he wrote his memoirs, which proved to be a major critical and financial success. At the time of his death, he was memorialized as a symbol of national unity. Historical assessments of Grant's legacy have varied over the years. Historians have hailed Grant's military genius, his strategies are featured in military history textbooks. Stigmatized by multiple scandals, Grant's presidency has traditionally been ranked among the worst. Modern scholars have shown greater appreciation for his achievements that included civil rights enforcement and has raised his historical reputation.
Grant has been regarded as an embattled president who performed a difficult job during Reconstruction. Hiram Ulysses Grant was born in Point Pleasant, Ohio, on April 27, 1822, to Jesse Root Grant, a tanner and merchant, Hannah Grant, his ancestors Matthew and Priscilla Grant arrived aboard the ship Mary and John at Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. Grant's great-grandfather fought in the French and Indian War, his grandfather, served in the American Revolution at Bunker Hill. Afterward, Noah married Rachel Kelley, the daughter of an Irish pioneer, their son Jesse was a fervent abolitionist. Jesse Grant found work as a foreman in a tannery, he soon met his future wife and the two were married on June 24, 1821. Ten months Hannah gave birth to their first child, a son. At a family gathering several weeks the boy's name, was drawn from ballots placed in a hat. Wanting to honor his father-in-law, who had suggested Hiram, Jesse declared the boy to be Hiram Ulysses, though he would always refer to him as Ulysses.
In 1823, the family moved to Georgetown, where five more siblings were born: Simpson, Orvil and Mary. At the age of five, Ulysses began his formal education, starting at a subscription school and in two private schools. In the winter of 1836–1837, Grant was a student at Maysville Seminary, in the autumn of 1838, he attended John Rankin's academy. In his youth, Grant developed an unusual ability to manage horses. Since Grant expressed a strong dislike for the tannery his father put his ability with horses to use by giving him work driving wagon loads of supplies and transporting people. Unlike his siblings, Grant was not forced to attend church by his Methodist parents. For the rest of his life, he prayed and never joined any denomination. To others, including late in life, his own son, Grant appeared to be an agnostic, he inherited some of Hannah's Methodist quiet nature. Grant was apolitical before the war but wrote, "If I had had any political sympathies they would have been with the Whigs. I was raised in that school."
Grant's father wrote to Representative Thomas L. Hamer requesting that he nominate Ulysses to the United States
Post Falls, Idaho
Post Falls is a city in Kootenai County, between Coeur d'Alene and Spokane, Washington. It is a suburb of Coeur d'Alene, to the east, a bedroom community to Spokane, to the west; the population was 27,574 at the 2010 census, up from 17,247 in 2000 census, making it Idaho's tenth largest city. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated 2014 population is 30,123. Post Falls is home to the last remaining 7-Eleven store in Idaho. Post Falls is named after Frederick Post, a German immigrant who constructed a lumber mill along the Spokane River in 1871 on land he purchased from Andrew Seltice, Chief of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe; the purchase of the land is preserved in a pictograph on a granite cliff in Treaty Rock park. 47.712°N 116.948°W / 47.712. Post Falls is located four miles east of the Washington-Idaho border along Interstate 90 in Kootenai County, it is bounded by Coeur d’Alene to the east, the state of Washington to the west, the Spokane River to the south and the Rathdrum prairie to the north. Post Falls is 20 miles east of Spokane and 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border.
The elevation of the city is 2,182 feet above sea level. Post Falls has a dry-summer continental climate, with four distinct seasons; the public schools are run by the Post Falls School District #273. Schools within Post Falls include: Classical Christian Academy Frederick Post Kindergarten Greensferry Elementary Mullan Trail Elementary Ponderosa Elementary Prairie View Elementary Seltice Elementary West Side Elementary West Ridge Elementary Post Falls Middle School Immaculate Conception Academy River City Middle School Post Falls High School New Visions Alternative High School Riverbend Professional Technical Academy Calvary Chapel Bible College Northwest North Idaho College Workforce Training Center St. Dominic School As of 2009 the per capita income for the city was $32,696 As of the census of 2010, there were 27,574 people, 10,263 households, 7,396 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,959.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,150 housing units at an average density of 792.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 94.0% White, 0.4% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.6% of the population. There were 10,263 households of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.9% were non-families. 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age in the city was 33 years. 29% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.2 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,247 people, 6,369 households, 4,668 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,786.1 people per square mile. There were 6,697 housing units at an average density of 693.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 96.13% White, 0.18% African American, 0.87% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from other races, 1.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.55% of the population. There were 6,369 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.7% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.7% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.6% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $39,061, the median income for a family was $42,758.
Males had a median income of $32,284 versus $22,798 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,692. About 7.1% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.4% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. Due to the proximity of numerous lakes and mountains, Post Falls has developed tourism and retirement communities. There is an increasing number of retail and entertainment businesses locating in the City. Kootenai County traditionally has had a timber-based economy; that is changing as the manufacturing base has become more diverse. Jobs Plus, Inc. the local economic development organization has recruited several small to medium-sized firms to the county. Manufacturing jobs are found in electronics and furniture at the present. Post Falls was the chosen location for Flexcel, Inc. a major furniture manufacturer that relocated to North Idaho nearly fifteen years ago and employs a workforce of 350. This was done with the help of Jobs Plus, Inc. and by creating an Urban Renewal District to help build infrastructure.
This District closed out at the end of December 2001
Bar (river morphology)
A bar in a river is an elevated region of sediment, deposited by the flow. Types of bars include mid-channel bars, point bars, mouth bars; the locations of bars are determined by the geometry of the flow through it. Bars reflect sediment supply conditions, can show where sediment supply rate is greater than the transport capacity. A mid-channel bar, is often referred to as a braid bar because they are found in braided river channels. Braided river channels are broad and shallow and found in areas where sediment is eroded like at a glacial outwash, or at a mountain front with high sediment loads; these types of river systems are associated with high slope, sediment supply, stream power, shear stress, bed load transport rates. Braided rivers have complex and unpredictable channel patterns, sediment size tends to vary among streams, it is these features. Braided streams are overfed with massive amounts of sediment which creates multiple stream channels within one dominant pair of flood bank plains.
These channels are separated by braid bars. Anastomosing river channels create mid-channel bars, however they are vegetated bars, making them more permanent than the bars found in a braided river channel which have high rates of change because of the large amounts of non-cohesive sediment, lack of vegetation, high stream powers found in braided river channels. Bars can form mid-channel due to snags or logjams. For example, if a stable log is deposited mid-channel in a stream, this obstructs the flow and creates local flow convergence and divergence; this causes erosion on the upstream side of the deposition on the downstream side. The deposition that occurs on the downstream side can create a central bar, an arcuate bar can be formed as flow diverges upstream of the obstruction. Continuous deposition downstream can build up the central bar to form an island; the logjam can become buried, which protects the island from erosion, allowing for vegetation to begin to grow, stabilize the area further.
Over time, the bar can attach to one side of the channel bank and merge into the flood plain. A point bar is an area of deposition found in meandering rivers. Point bars form on the inside of meander bends in meandering rivers; as the flow moves around the inside of the bend in the river, the water slows down because of the shallow flow and low shear stresses there reduce the amount of material that can be carried there. Point bars are crescent shaped and located on the inside curve of the river bend; the excess material falls out of transport and, over time, forms a point bar. Point bars are found in the slowest moving, shallowest parts of rivers and streams, are parallel to the shore and occupy the area farthest from the thalweg, on the outside curve of the river bend in a meandering river. Here, at the deepest and fastest part of the stream is the cut bank, the area of a meandering river channel that continuously undergoes erosion; the faster the water in a river channel, the better it is able to pick up greater amounts of sediment, larger pieces of sediment, which increases the river’s bed load.
Over a long enough period of time, the combination of deposition along point bars, erosion along cut banks can lead to the formation of an oxbow lake. A mouth bar is an elevated region of sediment found at a river delta, located at the mouth of a river where the river flows out to the ocean. Sediment is transported by mid channel, at the mouth of the river; this occurs because, as the river widens at the mouth, the flow slows, sediment settles out and is deposited. After initial formation of a river mouth bar, they have the tendency to prograde; this is caused by the pressure from the flow on the upstream face of the bar. This pressure creates erosion on that face of the bar, allowing the flow to transport this sediment over or around, re-deposit it farther downstream, closer to the ocean. River mouth bars stagnate, or cease to prograde when the water depth above the flow is shallow enough to create a pressure on the upstream side of the bar strong enough to force the flow around the deposit rather than over the top of the bar.
This divergent channel flow around either side of the sediment deposit continuously transports sediment, which over time is deposited on either side of this original mid channel deposit. As more and more sediment accumulates across the mouth of the river, it builds up to create a sand bar that has the potential to extend the entire length of the river mouth and block the flow. Pendant bar River island – Exposed land within a river. John Bridge and Robert Demicco. Earth Surface Processes and Sediment Deposits. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85780-2
Idaho v. United States
Idaho v. United States, 533 U. S. 262, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the United States, not the state of Idaho, held title to lands submerged under Lake Coeur d'Alene and the St. Joe River, that the land was held in trust for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe as part of its reservation, in recognition of the importance of traditional tribal uses of these areas for basic food and other needs; the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is an Indian tribe in northern Idaho. The Coeur d'Alene people once inhabited 3,500,000 acres in northern Idaho and Montana, but today, the only land controlled by the tribal nation is the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in Benewah and Kootenai counties, Idaho. In 1853, the territorial governor of Washington, Isaac Stevens, began to negotiate treaties with local tribes. By 1855, Stevens had treaties with most of the tribes in the area, but not including the Coeur d'Alene tribe. At the same time, gold had been discovered on the Yakima reservation. By September 1853, Yakima Indians killed six prospectors in retaliation for attacks on the tribes by trespassing miners.
Stevens negotiated a fragile peace in 1856, but the U. S. Army was unable to keep prospectors out of Indian lands. By 1858 hostilities sparked again. In May 1858, Colonel Steptoe led a group of about 130 dragoons north toward the Coeur d'Alene lands. On May 16, 1858, he was met by a force of about 600 Indians who, after blocking Steptoe's path forward, began to fight the next day. Steptoe withdrew upon running low in ammunition. In 1867, President Andrew Johnson established a reservation for the Coeur d'Alene tribe at the request of the territorial governor, but the tribe never accepted the reservation as Lake Coeur d'Alene and the main waterways, on which they depended for fishing, were not included; the tribe depended on the rivers and the lake for fish, reeds for baskets, other needs. In 1873, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs sent a commission to induce the Coeur d'Alenes to accept a reservation. Following negotiations, a reservation of 598,000 acres was established; the reservation boundaries included the Hangman Valley, the Coeur d'Alene River, the St. Joe River, all but a small portion of Lake Coeur d'Alene.
The agreement was implemented with an executive order, intended to be temporary until Congress approved it. Cession of land was supposed to be compensated. Congress never approved the action, in 1883 the United States conducted a survey of the reservation. Congress in 1886 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to negotiate with the tribe, to gain their cession of all of their land outside the reservation. In 1887 the tribe and the federal government came to an agreement under those terms, but Lake Coeur d'Alene and related waters were part of the reservation. In 1889, the tribe ceded the northern third of the reservation back to the federal government, including part of Lake Coeur d'Alene, for compensation. Unusually, in contrast to practices at the time, the reservation boundary was drawn across the lake, rather than by the meandering high water line; the agreement stated. Prior to Senate ratification of both agreements, Idaho became a state. Congress passed the Idaho Statehood Act that ratified the state constitution, which contained a section disclaiming the state's rights to unappropriated public lands and lands owned by tribes.
In 1891, Congress ratified the earlier agreements with the tribe. In 1894, the tribe ceded a one-mile wide strip for use by the Washington and Idaho Railway to extend its tracks. In 1908 Congress gave Idaho an area now known as Heyburn State Park; this area of Idaho was known for mining and has long held the nickname of "Silver Valley." It has been the second-largest area of silver production in the country. From 1880-1980 the Coeur d'Alene basin was one of the most productive silver and zinc mining regions in the country; the waste from the mining, estimated at 72 million tons, contaminated land and downstream waters, including the Coeur d'Alene River and Lake Coeur d'Alene. As of 2012, the Silver Valley was the second largest Superfund cleanup site in the nation, as designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. For years the Coeur d'Alene tried to work with the state on clean-up and management of Lake Coeur d'Alene, but was unable to reach agreement on gaining a larger role.
In 1991, the tribe notified the state of its intent to sue for title of the lake and submerged lands beneath. The case was brought in the U. S. District Court which held that a suit by the tribe against the state was barred by the Eleventh Amendment; the tribe appealed the decision to the Ninth Circuit Court. The Ninth Circuit affirmed in part and reversed in part, the state appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court. In the Supreme Court, Justice Anthony Kennedy delivered the majority opinion which held that the Eleventh Amendment barred direct lawsuits by tribes against a state; the decision was 5-4, with Chief Justice William Rehnquist and Justices O'Connor and Thomas joining Kennedy. Justice David Souter dissented, joined by Justices Stevens and Breyer; the Coeur d'Alene tribe requested that the United States sue to quiet title to the submerged lands on the reservation. The tribe moved to intervene on the side of the United States in this suit, the court granted the request; the court found that the earlier executive agreements had intended to reserve the lake and submerged land for the use of the tribe, ruled for the United States.
The state appealed the ruling to the Ninth Circuit Co
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
The Spokane River is a tributary of the Columbia River 111 miles long, in northern Idaho and eastern Washington in the United States. It drains a low mountainous area east of the Columbia, passing through the Spokane Valley and the city of Spokane, Washington; the Spokane River drains the northern part of Lake Coeur d'Alene in the Idaho Panhandle, emptying into the Columbia River at Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake 180 km downstream. From Lake Coeur d'Alene, the Spokane River traverses the Rathdrum Prairie until reaching Post Falls, Idaho where it passes over a dam, a natural 40-foot waterfall. Continuing westward. In Spokane, it flows over the Spokane Falls, which are located in the heart of Downtown Spokane one third of the way down the river's length. About a mile the river receives Latah Creek from the southeast. Soon afterwards, it is met from the northeast by the Little Spokane River, on the western edge of the city of Spokane, it flows in a zigzag course along the southern edge of the Selkirk Mountains, forming the southern boundary of the Spokane Indian Reservation, where it is impounded by the Long Lake Dam to form Long Lake, a 15 mi reservoir.
It joins Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake on the Columbia from the east at Miles; the site of historic Fort Spokane is located at the confluence of the Columbia rivers. The Spokane River's entire drainage basin is about 6,240 square miles large, of which 3,840 square miles are above Post Falls Dam at the outlet of Coeur d'Alene Lake, its mean annual discharge is 7,946 cubic feet per second. Until the 18th century, the Coeur d'Alene and Spokane Native Americans used to live and travel along the banks of the Spokane River. In 1807, David Thompson was the first European to explore the area. Today, the metropolitan area of the city of Spokane, Washington is the largest human settlement on the banks of the Spokane River; the metropolitan areas of Coeur d'Alene and Post Falls, Idaho are seated alongside the river. The Spokane River and Lake Coeur d'Alene area the primary sources of recharge for the Spokane Valley–Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer, the primary source of drinking water for each of these settlements.
The Spokane River contains some of the highest concentrations of heavy metals of any river in the state, resulting from pollution coming from Lake Coeur D'Alene and traveling from the Bunker Hill Mine and Smelting Complex Superfund Site. Spokane's sewage treatment facilities empty their outflow into the Spokane River. In 1889, Spokane built a sewage system that dumped raw sewage directly into the river, visibly noticeable by 1920. In 1957 a primary treatment facility was installed; this led to the construction of a more advanced treatment plant that utilized chemical precipitation technology, connected in 1975, operational by 1977. After the Northern Pacific Railway lines arrived in Spokane in 1882, there was rapid growth in milling operations along the river. Many of these mills required dams to provide power for their machinery; as a result of the dams blocking the river, salmon populations in the Spokane plummeted, leading to complaints from many of the people living upstream. After the construction of Little Falls Dam in 1910 by Washington Water Power blocked upstream passage, the river's salmon populations disappeared completely.
Steelhead were abundant on the Spokane River, prior to pollution and the construction of the dams. Today, the Spokane River system is one of the two largest unoccupied stretches of steelhead habitat within their former range. Today, the Spokane River supports populations of rainbow trout, northern pikeminnow, Bridgelip Suckers, as well as several non-native species. Many of the remaining fish, are not suitable for human consumption due to the chemical pollution in the river, with signs alongside the river warning that the fish are contaminated with PCBs. Bunker Hill Mine and Smelting Complex List of Idaho rivers List of longest streams of Idaho List of Washington rivers Spokane River Centennial Trail North Idaho Centennial Trail Harker Canyon National Research Council Committee on Superfund Site Assessment. Superfund and mining megasites: lessons from the Coeur D'Alene River basin. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-09714-7. Soltero, Raymond A.. "The Changing Spokane River Watershed". In Naiman, Robert J. Watershed Management: Environmental Change.
Springer. Pp. 458–478. ISBN 978-0-387-94232-2. Clark, Ella E. & Inverarity, Robert Bruce. "The Origin of the Spokane River". Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest. University of California Press. Pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-0-520-23926-5. Spokane River at night USGS: Spokane River Basin Spokane River: 6th Most Endangered River of 2004
Benewah County, Idaho
Benewah County is a county located in the northwest part of the U. S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 United States Census the county had a population of 9,285; the county seat and largest city is St. Maries, which has some area inside the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; the county was established on January 1915 of land partitioned from Kootenai County. It was named for a chief of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe; the federally recognized Coeur d'Alene Tribe is based on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in this and neighboring Kootenai County. Benewah County lies on the west line of the state, its west boundary line abuts the east boundary line of the state of Washington. The county has a total area of 784 square miles, of which 777 square miles is land and 7.3 square miles is water. It is the northern part of the Palouse, a wide and rolling prairie-like region of the middle Columbia basin. St. Joe National Forest Heyburn State Park McCroskey State Park As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 9,171 people, 3,580 households, 2,538 families in the county.
The population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 4,238 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.66% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 8.94% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, 1.82% from two or more races. 1.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 26.6 % were of 11.7 % English, 9.5 % American and 8.6 % Irish ancestry. There were 3,580 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.40% were married couples living together, 7.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.99. The county population contained 26.90% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 25 to 44, 26.60% from 45 to 64, 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 104.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,517, the median income for a family was $36,000. Males had a median income of $35,097 versus $20,288 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,285. About 10.50% of families and 14.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.20% of those under age 18 and 9.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,285 people, 3,837 households, 2,571 families in the county; the population density was 12.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,629 housing units at an average density of 6.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.6% white, 8.7% Native American, 0.3% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.5% from other races, 3.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.5% of the population.
In terms of European ancestry, 23.7% were German, 17.5% were Irish, 14.6% were English, 7.1% were Norwegian, 3.4% were American. Of the 3,837 households, 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families, 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age was 44.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,500 and the median income for a family was $41,759. Males had a median income of $37,214 versus $22,348 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,312. About 11.2% of families and 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.6% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. Benewah County voters tend to vote Republican in the last several decades. In only 2 national elections since 1968 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate.
Plummer St. Maries Tensed De Smet Parkline National Register of Historic Places listings in Benewah County, Idaho