Pemiscot County, Missouri
Pemiscot County is a county located in the southeastern corner in the Bootheel in the U. S. state with the Mississippi River forming its eastern border. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,296; the largest city and county seat is Caruthersville. The county was organized on February 19, 1851, is named for the local bayou, taken from the Fox dialect word, pem-eskaw, meaning "liquid mud"; this has been an area of cotton plantations and other commodity crops. Murphy Mound Archeological Site has one of the largest platform mounds in Missouri, it is a major earthwork of the Late Mississippian culture, which had settlement sites throughout the Mississippi Valley and tributaries. The site is owned and is not open to the public; the site may have been occupied from as early as 1200 CE and continuing to about 1541. Bordering the river and floodplain, the county has been devoted to agricultural development and commodity crops. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, its major commodity crop was cotton, developed first by enslaved African Americans.
After the Reconstruction era, whites lynched four African Americans, all in the early 1900s in the county seat of Caruthersville. This was a period of heightened violence against them by whites. To leave such conditions, many African Americans left the area in the Great Migration to urban areas for work. With mechanization of agriculture requiring fewer workers, the county population has continued to decline since a peak in 1940. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 513 square miles, of which 493 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water. Fishing is a popular activity among residents in the area. New Madrid County Lake County, Tennessee Dyer County, Tennessee Mississippi County, Arkansas Dunklin County I-55 I-155 US 61 US 412 Route 84 Route 153 Route 164 As of the census of 2000, there were 20,047 people, 7,855 households, 5,317 families residing in the county; the population density was 41 people per square mile. There were 8,793 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 71.76% White, 26.23% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races. 1.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among the major first ancestries reported in Pemiscot County were 31.9% American, 7.8% Irish, 5.6% English, 5.5% German ancestry. There were 7,855 households out of which 33.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.00% were married couples living together, 18.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.10. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.00% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 25.00% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females there were 88.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,992, the median income for a family was $33,945. Males had a median income of $27,476 versus $17,358 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,599. About 24.80% of families and 30.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.20% of those under age 18 and 23.20% of those age 65 or over. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Pemiscot County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion; the most predominant denominations among residents in Pemiscot County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists and Churches of Christ. The Democratic Party controls politics at the local level in Pemiscot County. Democrats hold every elected position in the county. All of Pemiscot County is a part of Missouri’s 162nd District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Terry Swinger.
All of Pemiscot County is a part of Missouri's 25th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by State Senator Rob Mayer. In 2008, Mayer defeated Democrat M. Shane Stoelting 65.32-34.68 percent in the district. The 25th Senatorial District consists of Butler, New Madrid, Ripley and Wayne counties. Pemiscot County is included in Missouri’s 8th Congressional District and is represented by Jason T. Smith in the U. S. House of Representatives. Smith won a special election on Tuesday, June 4, 2013, to finish out the remaining term of U. S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson. Emerson announced her resignation a month after being reelected with over 70 percent of the vote in the district, she resigned to become CEO of the National Rural Electric Cooperative. At the presidential level, Pemiscot County is a independent-leaning or battleground county although, like many counties in the impoverished Bootheel with a large African American population, it has a significant tendency to vote Democratic. While George W. Bush carried Pemiscot County by just 17 votes in 2004, Al Gore won the county in 2000, although both times the margin of victory was closer than in many other rural areas.
Bill Clinton carried Pemiscot County in both 1992 and 1996 by double-digit margins. As was the case in many o
Tiptonville is a town in northwest Tennessee and the county seat of Lake County, Tennessee. Its population was 2,439 as of the 2000 census and 4,464 in 2010, showing an increase of 2,025, it is home to the Northwest Correctional Complex, a maximum security prison, known for once housing mass murderer Jessie Dotson, Jr. Tiptonville was established in 1857, but was not incorporated until 1900, it was designated the county seat when Lake County was created in 1870. Tiptonville was the scene of the surrender of Confederate forces at the end of the 1862 Battle of Island Number Ten in the American Civil War; the monument for this battle is located on State Route 22 three miles north of Tiptonville, since the island itself, the focal point of the battle, has been eroded by the flow of the Mississippi River and no longer exists. On March 19, 1901, Tiptonville was destroyed by a fire three days after a mob of white townsmen had lynched Ike Fitzgerald, a black man accused of raping a white woman. Whites speculated that the blaze, which burned 30 buildings and residences, including all of the stores on the main street, had been deliberately set by African Americans in reprisal for Fitzgerald's lynching.
Tiptonville is located at 36°22′39″N 89°28′34″W, on a small rise known as the Tiptonville Dome and within the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The Mississippi River is to the west and north, the Kentucky Bend is to the north, Reelfoot Lake is to the east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,439 people, 918 households, 570 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,704.0 people per square mile. There were 992 housing units at an average density of 693.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 62.57% White, 36.16% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.12% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population. There were 918 households out of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.5% were married couples living together, 19.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.9% were non-families.
35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.87. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.7% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 18.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $19,475, the median income for a family was $24,929. Males had a median income of $25,089 versus $18,333 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,843. About 21.1% of families and 26.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.0% of those under age 18 and 28.7% of those age 65 or over. A local newspaper, The Lake County Banner, is published in Tiptonville. Lake County High School Clifton Cates, 19th Commandant of the U.
S. Marine Corps Carl Perkins, musician Jerry Reese, general manager of the New York Giants Official website Reelfoot Lake Area Chamber of Commerce Lake County Banner, local newspaper since 1922 Lake County School System website Lake County Schools Alumni Association - serving THS RHS LCHS and Lincoln
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Dyer County, Tennessee
Dyer County is a county located in the westernmost part of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,335, its county seat is Dyersburg. Dyer County comprises TN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Dyer County was founded by a Private Act of Tennessee, passed on October 16, 1823; the area was part of the territory in Tennessee, legally occupied by Chickasaw Native American people. The county was named for Robert Henry Dyer. Dyer had been an army officer in the Creek War and War of 1812, a cavalry colonel in the First Seminole War of 1818 before becoming a state senator, he was instrumental in the formation of Madison County, Tennessee. On April 2, 2006 a severe weather system passed through Dyer County, producing tornadoes that killed 16 in the county and 24 in Tennessee. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 527 square miles, of which 512 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water; the county is drained by the Mississippi River. It is in the part of Tennessee called the "Mississippi bottomland".
Dyer County is bisected by U. S. Route 51, the older major highway connecting Memphis with Chicago from south to north; when upgraded to interstate standards, this road will become Interstate 69. To the west, Dyer County is connected to Missouri by Interstate 155 over the Mississippi River, providing the only highway connection, other than those at Memphis, between Tennessee and the states to the west of the river. Lake County Obion County Gibson County Crockett County Lauderdale County Mississippi County, Arkansas Pemiscot County, Missouri Bogota Wildlife Management Area Moss Island Wildlife Management Area Ernest Rice Wildlife Management Area Thorny Cypress Wildlife Management Area Tigrett Wildlife Management Area Tumbleweed Wildlife Management Area White Lake Refuge I-69 I-155 US 51 US 412 SR 77 SR 78 SR 89 SR 103 SR 104 SR 105 SR 181 SR 182 SR 210 SR 211 As of the census of 2000, there were 37,279 people, 14,751 households, 10,458 families residing in the county; the population density was 73 people per square mile.
There were 16,123 housing units at an average density of 32 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.40% White, 12.86% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. 1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,751 households out of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.20% were married couples living together, 13.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 25.70% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 13.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.00 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,788, the median income for a family was $39,848. Males had a median income of $31,182 versus $21,605 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,451. About 13.00% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.00% of those under age 18 and 17.60% of those age 65 or over. Burks Broadcasting WASL-FM SL100: "Everything That Rocks" 50,000 watts covering 30 counties in Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas since 1969 City of License: Dyersburg, Tennessee 500-foot Tower Site: Lenox WTNV-FM / Eagle 97.3: "Today's Country & Your All-Time Favorites" 6,000 watts covering 40-45 mile radius of 10 counties in Tennessee, Missouri, & Kentucky since June 2007 City of License: Tiptonville, Tennessee 500-foot Tower Site: Elbridge AM1450 & 101.7FM / WTRO: "The Greatest Hits of All Time" 1,000 watts covering Dyer County & Northwest Tennessee since 1959 City of License: Dyersburg, Tennessee AM Tower Site: St John Avenue, Tennessee 100-foot Transmitter Site: Burks Place, Tennessee 300-foot Translator Site: Radio Road, Tennessee State Gazette – 5 days/week.
The paper has served Dyersburg and Northwest Tennessee since 1865. Bel Air Bruce Camelot Edinburgh Gardner Heights Lakewood Lattawoods Milltown Pill Hill Pioneer Southtown The Farms Twin Oaks Crowne Point Flower Valley Oakview National Register of Historic Places listings in Dyer County, Tennessee Dyersburg-Dyer County Chamber of Commerce Dyer County Schools Dyer County, TNGenWeb – genealogy resources Dyer County at Curlie
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Reelfoot Lake is a shallow natural lake located in the northwest portion of U. S. state of Tennessee, in Lake and Obion counties. Much of it is more of a swamp, with bayou-like ditches connecting more open bodies of water called basins, the largest of, called Blue Basin. Reelfoot Lake is noted for its nesting pairs of bald eagles. Public use of the lake and grounds has been preserved since it was acquired by the state of Tennessee in the early 1900s and the area established as Reelfoot Lake State Park. Lake Isom, a similar, smaller lake to the immediate south, has been designated as a National Wildlife Refuge area. In 1966, Reelfoot Lake was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service. According to the United States Geological Survey, Reelfoot Lake was formed in northwestern Tennessee when the region subsided during the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes, which were centered around New Madrid, Missouri; the earthquakes resulted in several major changes in the landforms over a widespread area, with shocks being felt as far away as Quebec, Canada.
A land survey begun by Henry Rutherford in 1785 identified the existent waterway as the Reel Foot River. The now extinct river flowed into the Mississippi River prior to the earthquakes of 1811 and 1812. Jedidiah Morse, in 1797, described the river seven miles from the mouth. Eliza Bryan, an eyewitness to the earthquakes, wrote in 1816 from Missouri Territory that an enormous lake had grown on the other side of Mississippi River: Lately it has been discovered that a lake was formed on the opposite side of the Mississippi River, in the Indian country, upwards of one hundred miles in length, from one to six miles in width, of the depth of from ten to fifty feet, it has communication with the river at both ends, it is conjectured that it will not be many years before the principal part, if not the whole of the Mississippi, will pass that way. Samuel Cole Williams argued Bryan's dimensions were a "fantastic exaggeration typical of that time of excitement." On early maps, the new lake sometimes took the names of Wood Lake.
By 1834, Reel Foot River was identified as a north fork of the Obion River. The regional body of water identified as Wood Lake was located from the north line of Obion county extending south as a marshy swamp. Much of the old lower portion of the Bayou de Chien is submerged in the lake; the Mississippi River beheaded the Bayou de Chien near Hickman, Kentucky while the remaining southern portion feeds Reel Foot Lake along with contributions from Reelfoot Creek and Indian Creek. Radiocarbon dating of artifacts from the Otto Sharpe site indicate a Native American presence in the Reel Foot Lake Basin circa 1650 AD; the site includes European artifacts. Willard Rouse Jillson suggested the Reelfoot River Basin as the location of the Monsoupelea settlement during Jacques Marquette's exploration of the Mississippi River in 1673. An archaeological investigation for the Army Corps of Engineers in 1987 stated that Henry Rutherford's survey party encountered a small Native American settlement near the Bayou de Chien, named the river Reelfoot for the local leader of the village.
According to legend, Reelfoot Lake is said to be named for an Indian chief who had a deformed foot and was nicknamed "Reelfoot" by settlers in the early 19th century. A Chickasaw legend states that the name originated from a prince of a Chickasaw tribe inhabiting the present West Tennessee, born with a deformed foot and walked with a rolling motion, so was nicknamed Kolopin, meaning Reelfoot; when he became chief, Reelfoot determined to marry a Choctaw princess, but her father would not permit it. The Great Spirit warned Reelfoot that if he attempted to kidnap the maiden, his village and his people would be destroyed. Reelfoot disobeyed the Spirit, seized the princess by force and carried her to Chickasaw territory, where he arranged a marriage ceremony. In the middle of the ceremony, the Great Spirit stamped his foot in anger, causing the earth to quake, the Father of the Waters raised the Mississippi River over its banks, inundating Reelfoot's homeland; the water flowed into the imprint left by the Spirit's foot, forming a beautiful lake beneath which Reelfoot, his bride, his people lie buried.
Though the legend is about the Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes that once inhabited the area, these tribes left around the early 14th century, reserving this area as hunting grounds. Other origins are cited, for example, in his 1911 story "Fishhead," Irvin S. Cobb claimed the lake " its name from a fancied resemblance in its outline to the splayed, reeled foot of a cornfield Negro." Original landowners and their descendants retained title to ground under the water, but local people grew used to treating it as a common resource. Farmers and landowners all derived their livelihoods from the lake and nearby lands. In the early 20th century, outside parties began to try to take over control of the lake and its lands. A group of investors bought up most of the land around the shoreline, organized as the West Tennessee Land Company. In this period, major planters in both Kentucky and Tennessee, sometimes based in cities, were expanding large-scale cotton cultivation into this area. Beginning in the spring of 1908, the Reelfoot area was marked by widespread lawlessness in western Kentucky and Tennessee as white farmers and residents organized as Night Riders to resist the acquisition by the West Tennessee Land Company of the lake and surrounding lands.
They were reacting to the expansion of large-scale cotton production into this area, dominated by yeomen farmers. The troubles began when a group of landowners purchased the en
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol