Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area
The Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area preserves the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries in northeastern Tennessee and southeastern Kentucky. In addition, the mining community of Blue Heron is preserved and interpreted via signage. Charit Creek Lodge is a lodge, accessible by trail. The Big South Forks most prominent feature is the river cutting through the softer Mississippian age rock beneath the hard Pennsylvanian capstone of the Cumberland Plateau. Water is the most influential agent of change in the Big South Fork region. Over time water action has many unique and amazing geologic features ranging from the river gorge with its magnificent bluffs to the natural arches. Flowing water hollows out the softer layers beneath and forms waterfalls, where there is hard capstone intact, arches can form creating natural bridges across streams or a dry ravines. Direct erosion widens a joint and forms a cavity below the more resilient rock thus creating a void between the hard capstone and the area below, as result, water eroded arches are formed in the Big South Fork.
Hoodoos are a rare but intriguing feature occurring in the Big South Fork and these hoodoos form in a similar manner to those found in the western United States. Where tough capstone still exists on the side of a hill for instance, the result is a naturally formed erect columnar rock where once was located a hill
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Established on June 11,1940, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located at the border between Kentucky and Virginia. The Cumberland Gap is a natural break in the Appalachian Mountains. The park lies in parts of Bell and Harlan counties in Kentucky, Claiborne County in Tennessee, the park contains the Kentucky-Virginia-Tennessee tri-state area, accessible via a short trail. Cumberland Gap National Historical Park covers 20,508 acres, the Cumberland Gap Visitor Center is located on U. S. Highway 25E just southeast of Middlesboro and just northwest of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel and Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. The visitor center is open day of the year except Christmas Day. The gap was used by Native Americans, as many species of migratory animals passed through it from north to south each year. It was fertile hunting territory and the only cut through the mountains from the southern wintering grounds of wild deer. Starting around 1775, the Gap became the route of transit for American settlers moving west into Kentucky.
Two families by the name of Hensley and Gibbons moved to Brush Mountain to escape the many changes that were taking place in the early 1900s, more family members followed and a community was begun. A church and school was established under the jurisdiction of the Bell County School System of Bell County, settlers continued their pioneer lifestyle until future generations began accepting employment and marriage partners off the mountain. Sherman Hensley, the founder of the settlement, was the last to leave in 1951, the park preserves the natural beauty of the surrounding area while focusing on historic preservation. The former roadbed of U. S. Highway 25E through the park has been restored to an early 19th-century wagon path and this was made possible with the 1996 completion of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel, which rerouted US 25E under the park
Pine Mountain State Resort Park
Pine Mountain State Resort Park is a Kentucky state park located in Bell County, United States. The park opened in 1924 as Kentuckys first state park, each spring, the park hosts the annual Kentucky Mountain Laurel Festival, as it has since 1933. When Pine Mountain State Resort Park was established in 1926, it was named Cumberland State Park, but the name was changed in 1938 in order to avoid confusion with the newly formed Cumberland Falls State Resort Park. During the parks early years, there was little development, in 1933 the Civilian Conservation Corps began constructing the main office building, roads, bridges and hiking trails. In 1960s, the Kentucky State Park System began updating their parks, for Pine Mountain State Park, they constructed a new wing to the lodge that contained 30 more guest rooms,10 additional cottages, swimming pool, and golf course. Today, the park serves as one of southeastern Kentuckys premier state parks, herndon J. Evans Lodge - The lodge has 30 guest rooms. Mountain View Restaurant seats 125 people and has a dining area that seats 25 people.
Wasioto Winds Golf Course - This 18 hole golf course was ranked fourth in the nation by Golf Digest Magazine as the Best New Affordable Public Golf Courses in January 2003, cottages - The park has nine one room cabins that were developed by the CCC in the 1920s. It has eleven modern two-bedroom cabins, chained Rock - During the 1930s, the people of Pineville, Kentucky decided to create a new tourist attraction. So in 1933, a group of people hauled a 101-foot-long chain to the top of Pine Mountain, supposedly the rock was chained to the mountain in order to keep it from rolling down the mountain and destroying the city. Other attractions - Miniature golf, hiking, Ray Harm artworks, interpretive center, playgrounds and gift shop
Jenny Wiley State Resort Park
Jenny Wiley State Resort Park was at first named Jenny Wiley State Park on January 1,1954 with Dewey Lake near Prestonsburg, Kentucky as its centerpiece. It is named for Virginia Jenny Wiley, a woman who is remembered as a survivor of Indian captivity. Taken captive October 1,1789, by Indians of the area, Shawnees and Delawares and she escaped after 11 months of captivity. Jenny Wiley became pregnant and gave birth during the captivity, and her dramatic escape in the spring of 1790 is now a legendary tale of early American frontier life in the Levisa Fork River area and the Big Sandy Valley. Of the parks 2,871 acres,1,100 acres is Dewey Lake, the Kentucky record for largest tiger muskie was at Dewey Lake. Dewey Lake was named for the hero of the Battle of Manila Bay, Admiral George Dewey, the park lies in a Moist Appalachian environment, dominated by maple and tulip poplars. The parks hotel, May Lodge, has 49 rooms, many rental cabins, the Music Highway Grill uses locally grown produce and dairy.
The Jenny Wiley Amphitheater produces numerous plays, such as The Wizard of Oz and A Chorus Line, fishing is very popular, with many boat launches as well as a full service boat dock at the May Lodge. The Jenny Wiley Trail marks the path Wiley took to escape her Cherokee tormentors, the beautiful scenery and low traffic make this one of the best kept secrets among Bicycle Tourists and Randoneers. Multiday bicycle camping and touring clinics are offered in fall and winter during the turning of the leaves, an 18-hole golf course is available among other outdoor activities. Dawkins Line Rail Trail Jenny Wiley State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Jenny Wiley Theatre
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation, as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the land area of the world. The U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, some areas are managed in concert between levels of government. The Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a park operated by a state park system. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. They are often considered the jewels of the protected areas.
Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands, mainly through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I, the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level I and II lands in the world. These lands had an area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency, for instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National Preserves and National Recreation Areas. The National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies. States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect these, the state of Colorado, for example, is very clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties.
State parks vary widely from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the National parks of England and Wales, about half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as forever wild by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska claims to be the largest state park by the amount of protected land, it is larger than many U. S. National Parks. Many states operate game and recreation areas. S, State and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are more than picnic areas or playgrounds, however
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 61st largest in the United States. Known as the Horse Capital of the World, it is the heart of the states Bluegrass region, with a mayor-alderman form of government, it is one of two cities in Kentucky designated by the state as first-class, the other is the states largest city of Louisville. In the 2016 U. S. Census Estimate, the population was 318,449, anchoring a metropolitan area of 506,751 people. Lexington ranks tenth among US cities in college education rate, with 39. 5% of residents having at least a bachelors degree and this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them but settlers did not come in force until the late 18th century, Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia,17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs, upon hearing of the colonists victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, they named their campsite Lexington.
It was the first of what would be many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town, the risk of Indian attacks delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and they built cabins and a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginias newly organized Fayette County, colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 6,1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide The Travelling Church, a migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County. It is the oldest black Baptist congregation in Kentucky and the third oldest in the United States, I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses, many of them elegant and three stories high.
The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a state of cultivation. Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as The Athens of the West since Espys poem dedicated to the city, in the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims, additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years. Often the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease, planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked primarily as servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, shippers
Jamestown is a home rule-class city in Russell County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of its county, the population was 1,624 at the 2000 U. S. census. Jamestown is located at 36°59′5″N 85°4′1″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.2 square miles, all land. The community was established in 1826 to be the seat of the newly formed Russell County, the act of the state legislature incorporating the city in December continued this name, which the city has used since. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,624 people,662 households, the population density was 722.5 people per square mile. There were 755 housing units at a density of 335.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94. 89% White,3. 51% African American,0. 43% Asian,0. 12% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 86% of the population. 34. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the city, the population was out with 23. 0% under the age of 18,7. 9% from 18 to 24,24. 4% from 25 to 44,22. 0% from 45 to 64. The median age was 41 years, for every 100 females there were 83.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.7 males, the median income for a household in the city was $18,587, and the median income for a family was $25,234. Males had an income of $24,375 versus $20,380 for females. The per capita income for the city was $11,140, about 25. 8% of families and 30. 0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44. 5% of those under age 18 and 14. 2% of those age 65 or over. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jamestown has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps
Natural Bridge State Resort Park
Its namesake natural bridge is the centerpiece of the park. The natural sandstone arch spans 78 ft and is 65 ft high, the natural process of weathering formed the arch over millions of years. The park is approximately 2,300 acres of which approximately 1,200 acres is dedicated by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission as a nature preserve, in 1981 this land was dedicated into the nature preserves system to protect the ecological communities and rare species habitat. The first federally endangered Virginia big eared bats, Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus, the park was founded as a private tourist attraction in 1895 by the Lexington and Eastern Railroad. In 1910, Louisville and Nashville Railroad acquired the land when it purchased the Lexingon, there are over 20 miles of trails over uneven terrain from moderate to strenuous difficulty, including trails to Whites Branch Arch, Hensons Cave Arch, and other scenic areas. Some of the most famous sites are the arch itself, Lovers Leap, the parks 0.
5-mile Original Trail to the natural bridge dates from the 1890s. Other trails include the 7. 5-mile Sand Gap Trail and the 0. 75-mile Balanced Rock Trail, five miles of the 307-mile Sheltowee Trace National Recreation Trail run through the park, including the Whittleton Trail which connects the park to the Red River Gorge Geologic Area. Activities such as hiking off-trails, disturbing wildlife, or collecting plants are not legal in any Kentucky State Park, Fat Mans Squeeze, a narrow passage in the rock formation, leads to the bottom of the arch. Natural Bridge has several unique sandstone formations, including the Balanced Rock. This is a block of sandstone balanced on the edge of a cliff near the Natural Bridge. The Balanced Rock, is located on Trail #2, not far above Hemlock Lodge, in the early days of the Park, it was called the Sphinx because, when viewed from the correct angle, it crudely resembles the Sphinx in Egypt. Although it is now called the Balanced Rock, it is in fact a pedestal rock - a single piece of stone that has weathered in such a fashion that its midsection is narrower than its cap or its base.
This formation is one of the biggest and most perfectly formed examples of a pedestal rock east of the Rocky Mountains, Natural Bridge State Park is a member of the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, and offers guided backpacking trips and natural history educational programs. Annual events open to the public include Herpetology Weekend each May, Natural Arches Weekend each February, the Kentucky Natives Societys Wildflower Weekend in April consists of Kentucky plants and how they are essential to the well-being of our natural ecosystems commonwealth. We incorporate research and support efforts to identify and protect endangered, the State Park is famous for hosting traditional Appalachian square dances. The traditional Appalachian style dances are held on Friday and Saturday evenings throughout the warm starlit Ky summers on the dance floor. The dance draws hundreds of participants and spectators, showcasing dance groups and singer/performer talents from all over
Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park
Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park is a Kentucky state park located on the northern shore of Kentucky Lake in Marshall County. The park encompasses 1,351 acres and is one of the more popular resort parks. The park features a center, 18-hole golf course. The park received a rating from two diamonds to three diamonds from the American Automobile Association in 2007. Cumberland Falls State Resort Park received the upgraded rating, the two facilities were the first state resort parks to achieve the three-diamond rating following AAAs revision of its rating system in 2001
Daniel Boone National Forest
Daniel Boone National Forest is the only national forest completely within the boundary of Kentucky. Established in 1937, it was named the Cumberland National Forest. The forest was named after Daniel Boone, a frontiersman and explorer in the late 18th century who contributed greatly to the exploration, in 1937, a national forest was established containing 1,338,214 acres within its proclamation boundary. As of June 1937, the Forest Service had purchased only 336,692 acres, most early purchases were large, isolated tracts owned by lumber and coal companies with but few inhabitants. The Forest Service has since had difficulty acquiring more land within the boundary, the bulk of which was. Due in part to World War II, funds for land acquisition were curtailed in the early 1940s, substantial acquisition efforts could not resume until the mid-1960s. The lengthy cessation of land acquisitions, except for period during the forests renaming, naming the forest entailed considerable debate. Protests began immediately after the national forest was named, the naming issue was reopened in the late 1950s.
The Forest Service investigated the name Cumberland, and found it came to Kentucky in 1750 when Thomas Walker named the Cumberland River in honor of Prince William Augustus, the Duke had defeated the Scottish Highlanders in 1746 at the Battle of Culloden, an especially brutal conflict. Many Scottish families fled to America and ultimately Kentucky as a result of the event, the Forest Service found that for their descendants still living in Eastern Kentucky, the name Cumberland was particularly distasteful. In addition, the Forest Service noted the influence of history on the names of places in Kentucky, during this period of time, place names with British connotations fell out of favor and changes were made. For example, prior to the Revolution, the Kentucky River was called the Louisa River, after the wife of the Duke of Cumberland, during the 1960s, a new movement to rename the national forest took place. Also during the 1960s, part of the national forest was designated a Primitive Weapons Area and set apart for hunting with longbow, crossbow, in 1970, this was the only US area where deer could legally be hunted with crossbows.
The park remains unique still for allowing only muzzle-loaded firearms, in 1967, a large and disconnected addition to the national forest was created, called the Redbird Purchase Unit, after a key purchase from the Red Bird Timber Company. About a third of the land within the national forest proclamation boundary is owned or managed by the Forest Service, the pattern of land ownership is highly fragmented and changes relatively frequently. One of the goals of the Forest Service is to consolidate holdings into larger blocks, the boundaries of Forest Service lands are marked in various ways, including red paint on trees. The shifting boundaries and growing size of Forest Service lands sometimes results in local complaints, in addition, it can be difficult for recreational users to know whether they are on Forest Service lands or not. No Trespassing signs are used by landowners, and conflicts between landowners and recreational users are not uncommon
Barren River Lake State Resort Park
Barren River Lake State Resort Park is a 1, 053-acre park located in Barren County and extending into parts of Allen County and Monroe County. Barren River Lake, its feature, is an artificial lake created with the building of a 146-foot-high dam by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers begun in 1960. It covers approximately 10,000 acres and has 141 miles of shoreline, the park was dedicated in 1965. Fishing is an attraction at this park. The largest hybrid striped bass ever taken in Kentucky was caught in Barren River Lake in 1991, the lake contains several other species of fish, including crappie, smallmouth bass, white bass, and big channel catfish. The lake includes a marina to support boating and water skiing, numerous trails provide hiking and biking opportunities. The most popular hiking trail is the 1-mile Lewis Hill Trail which is known as the Connell Nature Trail. Guided horseback rides are available seasonally, the park features an eighteen-hole golf course. The Trashmasters cleanup day is a popular event that helps keep the park clean.
Also, each June, the park plays host to Glasgows Highland Games, Barren River Lake State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Glasgow Highland Games