A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
The Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, or California Delta, is an expansive inland river delta and estuary in Northern California. The Delta is formed at the western edge of the Central Valley by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and lies just east of where the rivers enter Suisun Bay; the Delta is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. The city of Stockton is located on the San Joaquin River on the eastern edge of the delta; the total area of the Delta, including both land and water, is about 1,100 square miles. The Delta was formed by the raising of sea level following glaciation, leading to the accumulation of Sacramento and San Joaquin River sediments behind the Carquinez Strait, the sole outlet from the Central Valley to San Pablo and San Francisco Bays and the Pacific Ocean; the narrowness of the Carquinez Strait coupled with tidal action has caused the sediment to pile up, forming expansive islands. Geologically, the Delta has existed since the end of the last Ice Age.
In its natural state, the Delta was a large freshwater marsh, consisting of many shallow channels and sloughs surrounding low islands of peat and tule. Since the mid-19th century, most of the region has been claimed for agriculture. Wind erosion and oxidation have led to widespread subsidence on the Central Delta islands. Much of the water supply for central and southern California is derived from here via pumps located at the southern end of the Delta, which deliver water for irrigation in the San Joaquin Valley and municipal water supply for southern California; the Delta consists of 57 reclaimed islands and tracts, surrounded by 1,100 miles of levees that border 700 miles of waterways. The southwestern side of the Delta lies at the foothills of the California Coast Ranges, while to the northwest sit the lower Montezuma Hills. Most of the Delta lies within Contra Costa, San Joaquin and Yolo Counties; the total human population of the Delta was 515,264 as of 2000. Altogether, the Delta covers 1,153 square miles, with 841 sq mi, or nearly 73 percent, devoted to agriculture.
About 100 sq mi of the Delta area is urban and 117 sq mi. The rivers, streams and waterways of the Delta total about 95 sq mi of surface, although this fluctuates with seasons and tides. Geologically, it is not considered a true river delta, but rather an inverted river delta, as it formed inward rather than outward; the only other major river delta in the world located this far inland is the Pearl River Delta in China. The main source rivers include the Sacramento River from the north, the San Joaquin from the southeast, the Calaveras and Mokelumne Rivers from the east; the Calaveras and Mokelumne are both tributaries of the San Joaquin River. The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers join at the western end of the Delta near Pittsburg, at the head of Suisun Bay, although they are linked upstream by the Georgiana Slough, first used by steamboats in the 19th century as a shortcut between Sacramento and Stockton; the southwestern part of the Delta is transected by the Middle River and Old River, former channels of the San Joaquin.
These rivers transport more than 30 million acre feet of water through the Delta each year – about 50 percent of all California's runoff. Nearby cities include Lodi and Stockton to the east and Manteca to the south, Brentwood to the southwest, Pittsburg and Antioch to the west; the state capital, Sacramento, is located just to the north of the Delta. The Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel connects the Delta to the Port of Sacramento, with its terminus located near Rio Vista, on the northwestern side of the Delta; the Stockton Ship Channel is a dredged and straightened section of the San Joaquin River cutting directly through the Delta from the Port of Stockton to the San Joaquin's confluence with the Sacramento near Antioch. The Delta was located at the bottom of a large inland sea in the Central Valley, which formed as the uplift of the California Coast Ranges blocked off drainage from the Sierra Nevada to the Pacific. About 560,000 years ago, water breached the mountains, carving out the present-day Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay.
The drainage of all the water through this narrow gap formed a bottleneck in the Central Valley's outflow. The Delta in its contemporary state began to form about 10,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age. During the Ice Age global sea levels were about 300 ft lower than today, the Delta region, as well as Suisun Bay, the Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay, were a river valley through which the continuation of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers flowed to the Pacific Ocean; when sea levels rose again, ocean water backed up through the Carquinez Strait into the Central Valley. The early delta was composed of shifting channels, sand dunes, alluvial fans and floodplains that underwent constant fluctuation because of rising seas – one inch per year. About 8,000 years ago, the rate of sea-level rise slackened, allowing wetland plants to take hold in the Delta, trapping sediment. Th
The Sacramento River is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, is the largest river in California. Rising in the Klamath Mountains, the river flows south for 400 miles before reaching the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and San Francisco Bay; the river drains about 26,500 square miles in 19 California counties within the fertile agricultural region bounded by the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada known as the Sacramento Valley, but extending as far as the volcanic plateaus of Northeastern California. Its watershed has reached as far north as south-central Oregon where the now endorheic Goose Lake experiences southerly outflow into the Pit River, the most northerly tributary of the Sacramento; the Sacramento and its wide natural floodplain were once abundant in fish and other aquatic creatures, notably one of the southernmost large runs of chinook salmon in North America. For about 12,000 years, humans have depended on the vast natural resources of the watershed, which had one of the densest Native American populations in California.
The river has provided a route for travel since ancient times. Hundreds of tribes sharing regional customs and traditions inhabited the Sacramento Valley, first coming into contact with European explorers in the late 1700s; the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga named the river Rio de los Sacramentos in 1808 shortened and anglicized into Sacramento. In the 19th century, gold was discovered on a tributary of the Sacramento River, starting the California Gold Rush and an enormous population influx to the state. Overland trails such as the California Trail and Siskiyou Trail guided hundreds of thousands of people to the gold fields. By the late part of the century mining had ceased to be a major part of the economy, many immigrants turned to farming and ranching. Many populous communities were established along the Sacramento River, including the state capital of Sacramento. Intensive agriculture and mining contributed to pollution in the Sacramento River, significant changes to the river's hydrology and environment.
Since the 1950s the watershed has been intensely developed for water supply and the generation of hydroelectric power. Today, large dams impound the river and all of its major tributaries; the Sacramento River is used for irrigation and serves much of Central and Southern California through the canals of giant state and federal water projects. While its now providing water to over half of California's population and supporting the most productive agricultural area in the nation, these changes have left the Sacramento modified from its natural state and have caused the decline of its once-abundant fisheries; the Sacramento River originates in the mountains and plateaus of far northern California as three major waterways that flow into Shasta Lake: the Upper Sacramento River, McCloud River and Pit River. The Upper Sacramento begins near Mount Shasta, at the confluence of North and South Forks in the Trinity Mountains of Siskiyou County, it flows east into Lake Siskiyou, before turning south. The river flows through a canyon for about 60 miles, past Dunsmuir and Castella, before emptying into Shasta Lake near Lakehead in Shasta County.
The McCloud River rises on the east slope of Mount Shasta and flows south for 77 miles through the southern Cascade Range parallel to the Upper Sacramento to reach the McCloud Arm of Shasta Lake. The Pit River, by far the largest of the three, begins in Modoc County in the northeastern corner of California. Draining a vast and remote volcanic highlands area, it flows southwest for nearly 300 miles before emptying into Shasta Lake near Montgomery Creek. Goose Lake, straddling the Oregon–California border overflows into the Pit River during wet years, although this has not happened since 1881; the Goose Lake watershed is the only part of the Sacramento River basin extending into another state. Unlike most California rivers, the Pit and the McCloud Rivers are predominantly spring-fed, ensuring a large and consistent flow in the driest of summers. At the lower end of Shasta Lake is Shasta Dam, which impounds the Sacramento River for flood control and hydropower generation. Before the construction of Shasta Dam, the McCloud River emptied into the Pit River, which joined the Sacramento near the former mining town of Kennett, submerged when Shasta Lake was filled.
The Pit River Bridge, which carries Interstate 5 and the Union Pacific Railroad over the reservoir, is structurally the highest double-decked bridge in the United States. The Upper Sacramento River canyon provides the route for I-5 and the railroad between Lakehead and Mount Shasta. Below Shasta Dam, it flows through Keswick Dam, where it receives about 1,200,000 acre feet of water per year diverted from the Trinity River. It swings east through Redding, the largest city of the Shasta Cascade region, turns southeast, entering Tehama County. East of Cottonwood it receives Cottonwood Creek – the largest undammed tributary – from the west Battle Creek a short distance downstream. Below Battle Creek it carves its last gorge, Iron Canyon, emerging from the hills at Red Bluff, where a pumping station removes water for irrigation. Beyond Red Bluff the river reaches the low floodplain of the Sacramento Valley, receiving Mill Creek from the east and Thomes Creek from the west near Los Molinos Deer Creek from the east near Vina.
Southeast of Corni
Oroville Dam is an earthfill embankment dam on the Feather River east of the city of Oroville, California, in the Sierra Nevada foothills east of the Sacramento Valley. At 770 feet high, it is the tallest dam in the U. S. and serves for water supply, hydroelectricity generation and flood control. The dam impounds Lake Oroville, the second largest man-made lake in the state of California, capable of storing more than 3.5 million acre feet. Built by the California Department of Water Resources, Oroville Dam is one of the key features of the California State Water Project, one of two major projects passed that set up California's statewide water system. Construction was initiated in 1961, despite numerous difficulties encountered during its construction, including multiple floods and a major train wreck on the rail line used to transport materials to the dam site, the embankment was topped out in 1967 and the entire project was ready for use in 1968; the dam began to generate electricity shortly afterwards with completion of the Edward Hyatt Pump-Generating Plant the country's largest underground power station.
Since its completion in 1968, the Oroville Dam has allocated the flow of the Feather River from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into the State Water Project's California Aqueduct, which provides a major supply of water for irrigation in the San Joaquin Valley as well as municipal and industrial water supplies to coastal Southern California, has prevented large amounts of flood damage to the area—more than $1.3 billion between the years of 1987 and 1999. The dam has confined fish migration up the Feather River and the controlled flow of the river as a result of the Oroville Dam has affected riparian habitat. Multiple attempts at trying to counter the dam's impacts on fish migration have included the construction of a salmon/steelhead fish incubator on the river, which began shortly after the dam was completed. In February 2017, the main and emergency spillways threatened to fail, leading to the evacuation of 188,000 people living near the dam. After deterioration of the main spillway stabilized and the water level of the dam's reservoir dropped below the top of the emergency spillway, the evacuation order was lifted.
In 1935, work began on the Central Valley Project, a federal water project that would develop the Sacramento and San Joaquin river systems for irrigation of the fertile Central Valley. However, after the end of World War II in 1945, the state experienced an economic boom that led to rapid urban and commercial growth in the central and southern portions of the state, it became clear that California's economy could not depend on a state water system geared towards agriculture. A new study of California's water supplies by the Division of Water Resources was carried out under an act of the California State Legislature in 1945. In 1951, California State Engineer A. D. Edmonston proposed the Feather River Project, the direct predecessor to the SWP, which included a major dam on the Feather River at Oroville, aqueducts and pumping plants to transfer stored water to destinations in central and southern California; the proposed project was opposed by voters in Northern California and parts of Southern California that received water from the Colorado River, but was supported by other Southern Californians and San Joaquin Valley farmers.
However, major flooding in the 1950s prompted the 1957 passage of an emergency flood-control bill that provided sufficient funding for construction for a dam at Oroville – regardless of whether it would become part of the SWP. Groundbreaking on the dam site occurred in May 1957 with the relocation of the Western Pacific Railroad tracks that ran through the Feather River canyon; the Burns-Porter Act of the California Legislature, which authorized the SWP, was not passed until November 8, 1960 – and only by a slim margin. Engineer Donald Thayer of the DWR was commissioned to design and head construction of Oroville Dam, the primary work contract was awarded to Oro Dam Constructors Inc. a joint venture led by Oman Construction Co. Two concrete-lined diversion tunnels, each 4,400 feet long and 35 feet in diameter, were excavated to channel the Feather River around the dam site. One of the tunnels was located at river level and would carry normal water flows, while the second one would only be used during floods.
In May 1963, workers poured the last of 252,000 cu yd of concrete that comprised the 128 feet high cofferdam, which would protect the construction site from floods. This structure would serve as an impervious core for the completed dam. With the cofferdam in place, an 11-mile rail line was constructed to move earth and rock to the dam site. An average of 120 train cars ran along the line each hour, transporting fill, excavated from enormous piles of hydraulic mining debris that were washed down by the Feather River after the California Gold Rush. On December 22, 1964, disaster nearly struck when the Feather River, after days of heavy rain, reached a peak flow of 250,000 cubic feet per second above the Oroville Dam site; the water rose behind the completed embankment dam and nearly overtopped it, while a maximum of 157,000 cubic feet per second poured from the diversion tunnels. This Christmas flood of 1964 was one of the most disastrous floods on record in Northern California, but the incomplete dam was able to reduce the peak flow of the Feather River by nearly 40 percent, averting massive amounts of damage to the area.
Ten months four men died in a tragic accident on the construction rail line. On October 7, 1965, two 40-car w
The Governor Edmund G. Brown California Aqueduct is a system of canals and pipelines that conveys water collected from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and valleys of Northern and Central California to Southern California. Named after California Governor Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. the over 400-mile aqueduct is the principal feature of the California State Water Project. The aqueduct begins at the Clifton Court Forebay at the southwestern corner of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta; the aqueduct heads south splitting into three branches: the Coastal Branch, ending at Lake Cachuma in Santa Barbara County. The Department of Water Resources operates and maintains the California Aqueduct, including one pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, Gianelli Power Plant. Gianelli is located at the base of San Luis Dam, which forms San Luis Reservoir, the largest offstream reservoir in the United States; the Castaic Power Plant, while similar and, owned and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, is located on the northern end of Castaic Lake, while Castaic Dam is located at the southern end.
The aqueduct begins at the San Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta at the Banks Pumping Plant, which pumps from the Clifton Court Forebay. Water is pumped by the Banks Pumping Plant to the Bethany Reservoir; the reservoir serves as a forebay for the South Bay Aqueduct via the South Bay Pumping Plant. From the Bethany Reservoir, the aqueduct flows by gravity 60 mi to the O'Neill Forebay at the San Luis Reservoir. From the O'Neill Forebay, it flows 16 mi to the Dos Amigos Pumping Plant. After Dos Amigos, the aqueduct flows about 95 mi to where the Coastal Branch splits from the "main line"; the split is 16 mi south-southeast of Kettleman City. After the coastal branch, the line continues by gravity another 66 mi to the Buena Vista Pumping Plant. From the Buena Vista, it flows 27 mi to the Teerink Pumping Plant. After Teerink it flows about 2.5 mi to the Chrisman Pumping Plant. Chrisman is the last pumping plant before Edmonston Pumping Plant, 13 mi from Chrisman. South of the plant the west branch splits off in a southwesterly direction to serve the Los Angeles Basin.
At Edmonston Pumping Plant it is pumped 1,926 ft over the Tehachapi Mountains. Water flows through the aqueduct in a series of abrupt rises and gradual falls; the water flows down a long segment, built at a slight grade, arrives at a pumping station powered by Path 66 or Path 15. The pumping station raises the water, where it again flows downhill to the next station. However, where there are substantial drops, the water's potential energy is recaptured by hydroelectric plants; the initial pumping station fed by the Sacramento River Delta raises the water 240 ft, while a series of pumps culminating at the Edmonston Pumping Plant raises the water 1,926 ft over the Tehachapi Mountains. The Edmonston Pumping station requires so much power that several power lines off of Path 15 and Path 26 are needed to ensure proper operation of the pumps. A typical section has a concrete-lined channel 40 feet at the base and an average water depth of about 30 ft; the widest section of the aqueduct is 110 feet and the deepest is 32 feet.
Channel capacity is 13,100 cubic feet per second and the largest pumping plant capacity at Dos Amigos is 15,450 cubic feet per second. From its beginning until its first branch, the aqueduct passes through parts of Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Merced and Kings counties; the aqueduct divides into three branches: the Coastal Branch in the Central Valley, the East and West Branches after passing over the Tehachapi Mountains. The Coastal Branch splits from the main line 11.3 mi south-southeast of Kettleman City transiting Kings County, Kern County, San Luis Obispo County, Santa Barbara County to deliver water to the coastal cities of San Luis Obispo, Santa Maria, Santa Barbara. Coastal Branch is 116 mi and five pump stations. Phase I, an above ground aqueduct totals 15 mi from where it branches from the California Aqueduct, was completed in 1968. With construction beginning in 1994, Phase II consists of 101 mi of a 42–57-inch diameter buried pipeline extending from the Devils Den Pump Plant, terminates at Tank 5 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in Santa Barbara County.
The Central Coast Water Authority extension, completed in 1997, is a diameter pipeline that travels 42 mi from Vandenberg through Vandenberg Village, Lompoc and Solvang where it terminates at Lake Cachuma in Los Padres National Forest. Las Perillas Pumping Plant Badger Hill Pumping Plant Devil's Den Pumping Plant Bluestone Pumping Plant Polonia Pass Pumping Plant Polonio Pass Water Treatment Plant Cuesta Tunnel Santa Ynez Pumping Facility The aqueduct splits off into the East Branch and West Branch in extreme southern Kern County, north of the Los Angeles County line; the East Branch supplies Lake Palmdale and terminates at Lake Perris, in the area of the San Gorgonio Pass. It passes through parts of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside counties. Pearblossom Pumping Plant Alamo Power Plant Mojave Siphon Power Plant San Bernardino Tunnel Devil Canyon Power Plant Greenspot Pump Station Crafton Hills Reservoir Crafton Hills Pump Station Cherry Valley Pump Station The West Branch continues to head towards its terminus at Pyramid Lake and Castaic Lake in the Angeles National Forest to supply the western