Shire of Nebo
The Shire of Nebo was a local government area in Central Queensland, Australia, about 80 kilometres south-west of the regional city of Mackay. The Shire, administered from the town of Nebo, covered an area of 10,034.6 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1883 until 2008, when it was amalgamated with the Shires of Belyando and Broadsound to form the Isaac Region. Traditionally a rural area, producing beef, sugar and other grains, coal mining is now a major employer, with eight coal mines in the area and capacity for a further five; the area was first explored by Europeans when Ludwig Leichhardt came in 1845, was named Nebo by William Landsborough in 1856. On 11 November 1879, the Broadsound Division was established as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. Following a short-lived gold rush in the area, on 7 February 1883, part of subdivisions 2 and 3 of Broadsound Division were separated to create Nebo Division. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Nebo Division became the Shire of Nebo on 31 March 1903.
On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, Nebo merged with the Shires of Belyando and Broadsound to form the Isaac Region. The Shire of Nebo included the following settlements: Nebo Coppabella Elphinstone Glenden Suttor 1908: William Conyngham Ussher 1927: J. Dillon "Nebo Shire". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
The Isaac Region is a local government area located in Central Queensland, Australia created in March 2008 as a result of the report of the Local Government Reform Commission released in July 2007. Prior to 2008, the Isaac Region was an entire area of three previous and distinct local government areas: the Shire of Belyando; the report recommended that the new local government area should not be divided into wards and elect eight councillors and a mayor. The Isaac Regional Council covers an area of 58,862 square kilometres, contain an estimated resident population in 2006 of 20,443 and have an operating budget of A$46.0m. The region takes its name from the Isaac River which in turn takes its name from Queensland pioneer Frederick Isaac who accompanied the explorer Ludwig Leichhardt on his first expedition; the Isaac Region includes the following settlements: * - The former town of Blair Athol, obliterated by the Blair Athol coal mine was within the region. Isaac Regional Council operates public libraries in Carmila, Dysart, Middlemount, Nebo, St Lawrence.
2008-2012: Cedric Marshall 2012–2016: Anne Baker 2016–: Anne Baker The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008. Isaac Regional Council - Local Transition Committee Isaac Regional Council
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, therefore are distinct from lagoons, are larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are flowing. Most lakes streams. Natural lakes are found in mountainous areas, rift zones, areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic, recreational purposes, or other activities.
The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, from the Proto-Indo-European root *leǵ-. Cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in: de:Wolfslake, de:Butterlake, German Lache, Icelandic lækur. Related are the English words leak and leach. There is considerable uncertainty about defining the difference between lakes and ponds, no current internationally accepted definition of either term across scientific disciplines or political boundaries exists. For example, limnologists have defined lakes as water bodies which are a larger version of a pond, which can have wave action on the shoreline or where wind-induced turbulence plays a major role in mixing the water column. None of these definitions excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds and lakes. Definitions for lake range in minimum sizes for a body of water from 2 hectares to 8 hectares. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more.
The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. In common usage, many lakes bear names ending with the word pond, a lesser number of names ending with lake are in quasi-technical fact, ponds. One textbook illustrates this point with the following: "In Newfoundland, for example every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin every pond is called a lake."One hydrology book proposes to define the term "lake" as a body of water with the following five characteristics: it or fills one or several basins connected by straits has the same water level in all parts it does not have regular intrusion of seawater a considerable portion of the sediment suspended in the water is captured by the basins the area measured at the mean water level exceeds an arbitrarily chosen threshold With the exception of the seawater intrusion criterion, the others have been accepted or elaborated upon by other hydrology publications.
The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a deranged drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes, but is estimated to be at least 2 million. Finland has larger, of which 56,000 are large. Most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lake's average level by allowing the drainage of excess water; some lakes do not have a natural outflow and lose water by evaporation or underground seepage or both. They are termed endorheic lakes. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply. Evidence of extraterrestrial lakes exists. Globally, lakes are outnumbered by ponds: of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area. Small lakes are much more numerous than large lakes: in terms of area, one-third of the world's standing water is represented by lakes and ponds of 10 hectares or less.
However, large lakes account for much of the area of standing water with 122 large lakes of 1,000 square kilometres or more representing about 29% of the total global area of standing inland water. Hutchinson in 1957 published a monograph, regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, distribution; as summarized and discussed by these researchers, Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. This
Mackay is a city and its centre suburb in the Mackay Region on the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. It is located about 970 kilometres north on the Pioneer River. Mackay is nicknamed the sugar capital of Australia because its region produces more than a third of Australia's sugar. There is controversy about the location of the region for administrative purposes, with most people referring to it as a part of either Central Queensland or North Queensland. Indeed, much confusion lies within the Queensland Government, with government services being provided through both Townsville and Rockhampton; the area is known as the Mackay–Whitsunday Region. The city was named after John Mackay. In 1860, he was the leader of an expedition into the Pioneer Valley. Mackay proposed to name the river Mackay River after his father George Mackay. Thomas Henry Fitzgerald surveyed the township and proposed it was called Alexandra after Princess Alexandra of Denmark, who married Prince Edward. However, in 1862 the river was renamed to be the Pioneer River, after HMS Pioneer in which Queensland Governor George Bowen travelled to the area, the township name was changed to be Mackay in honour of John Mackay.
Fitzgerald decided to use the name Alexandra for his sugar cane plantation and sugar mill, which provided the name to the Mackay suburb of Alexandra today. There has always been much contention over the pronunciation of the name Mackay. Correspondence received by Mackay City Library in 2007, from descendants of John Mackay, confirms that the correct pronunciation is, from the Gaelic name "MacAoidh", pronounced "ɑɪ" not "eɪ"; the area, now Mackay City was inhabited by the local Yuibera people. One of the first white settlers to travel through the Mackay region was Captain James Cook, who reached the Mackay coast on 1 June 1770 and named several local landmarks, including Cape Palmerston, Slade Point and Cape Hillsborough, it was during this trip that the Endeavour's botanist, Sir Joseph Banks recorded seeing Aboriginal people. In 1860, John Mackay led an expedition to the Pioneer Valley and was the first European to visit the area now named after him. In 1918, Mackay was hit by a major tropical cyclone causing severe damage and loss of life with hurricane-force winds and a large storm surge.
The resulting death toll was further increased by an outbreak of bubonic plague. The foundation stone of the Mackay War Memorial was laid on the river bank on 18 November 1928 by the mayor George Albert Milton, it was unveiled on 1 May 1929 by the mayor. Due to flooding, the memorial was relocated to Jubilee Park in 1945. Due to the construction of the Civic Centre, it was relocated to another part of the park in March 1973; the largest loss of life in an Australian aircraft accident was a B17 aircraft, with 40 of 41 people on board perishing, on 14 June 1943, after departing from Mackay Aerodrome, crashing in the Bakers Creek area. The Rats of Tobruk Memorial commemorates those who died since the Battle of Tobruk; the memorial was dedicated on 4 March 2001. On 18 February 1958, Mackay was hit with massive flooding caused by heavy rainfall upstream with 878 mm of rain falling at Finch Hatton in 24 hours; the flood peaked at 9.14 metres. The water flooded Mackay within hours. Residents were taken to emergency accommodation.
The flood broke Australian records. On 15 February 2008 exactly 50 years from the last major flood, Mackay was devastated by severe flooding caused by over 600 mm of rain in 6 hours with around 2000 homes affected. Mackay was battered by Tropical Cyclone Ului, a category three cyclone which crossed the coast at nearby Airlie Beach, around 1:30 am on Sunday 21 March 2010. Over 60,000 homes lost power and some phone services failed during the storm, but no deaths were reported; the Dudley Denny City Library opened in 2016. Mackay has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Alfred Street: Mackay Technical College Alfred Street: World War I Cenotaph 251 Alfred Street: Mackay Central State School Cemetery Road: Mackay General Cemetery Cowleys Road: Selwyn House, Mackay 38 East Gordon Street: East Gordon Street Sewerage Works 39 Gordon Street: Holy Trinity Church Habana Road: Richmond Mill Ruins 21 MacAlister Street: St Pauls Uniting Church 10 River Street: WH Paxton & Co buildings 31 River Street: Mackay Customs House 239 Nebo Road: Sugar Research Institute 63 Sydney Street: Mackay Town Hall Victoria Street: Mackay Court House and Police Station 63 Victoria Street: Commonwealth Bank Building 79 Victoria Street: Queensland National Bank 1 Wood Street: Pioneer Shire Council Building 57 Wood Street: Mackay Masonic Temple Mackay is situated on the 21st parallel south on the banks of the Pioneer River.
The Clarke Range lies to the west of the city. The city is expanding to accommodate for growth with most of the expansion happening in the Beachside, Southern and Pioneer Valley suburbs. Suburbs to the North of the city such as Midge Point are fast growing with residential estates in demand. Mackay has a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification. Average maximum temperatures range from 30 °C in summer to 23 °C in winter, while minimums range from 23 °C to 11 °C. Winters are sunny and dry, with minimum temperatures around 10 °C, but any lower than 5 °C. Days are warm. Frost is rare in Mackay however may be recorded to the west of the city some winters. Mackay gets around 110.0 clear days annually. Spring is dry, but hotter and more humid than winter, with temperatures