Lost River (California)
Lost River begins and ends in a closed basin in northern California and southern Oregon in the United States. The river, 60 miles long, flows in an arc from Clear Lake Reservoir in Modoc County, through Klamath County, Oregon, to Tule Lake in Siskiyou County, California. About 46 mi of Lost River are in Oregon, 14 miles are in California. From its source, the river flows into Langell Valley. Near Bonanza, the river passes through Olene Gap, about 10 mi east of Klamath Falls; the river turns southeast and flows along the base of Stukel Mountain, where it provides diversion canals for small lakes including Nuss Lake for irrigation and flood control. It re-enters California south of Merrill. Dams, canals and other artificial structures on the Lost River, Clear Lake, Tule Lake are part of the Klamath Project of the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, which manages the basin's water flow for farming and flood control; the project provides water to about 210,000 acres of cropland, 62% of which are in Oregon and 38% in California.
Water from the Lost River basin enters the Klamath River basin through the Lost River Diversion Channel, about 4 mi downstream of Olene. The 8 mi channel can supply water by reverse flow from the Klamath when irrigation water is needed for farms in drained parts of Tule Lake. After 1846, the Applegate Trail crossed the river on a natural bridge of stepping-stones covered by a Bureau of Reclamation dam, near Merrill. Earlier in that year, explorer John C. Frémont had named the stream McCrady River after a boyhood friend, but over time the Lost River name prevailed. A Lost River post office operated probably in the vicinity of Olene, Oregon, in 1875–76. A sluggish stream, Lost River offers fishing opportunities for bass, up to 7 lb, brown bullhead, yellow perch, Sacramento perch. Trout are uncommon in this river. Battle of Lost River List of longest streams of Oregon List of rivers of California List of rivers of Oregon
Trinity Lake called Clair Engle Lake, is an artificial lake on the Trinity River formed by the Trinity Dam and located in Trinity County, United States. The dam was built by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation; the lake's capacity is 2,447,650 acre ⋅ ft. The lake's surface is at 2,370 ft above MSL. Trinity Lake captures and stores water for the Central Valley Project, which provides the Central Valley with water for irrigation and produces hydroelectric power; this lake is known for its many small arms, glassy inlets, great water-skiing conditions. After the death in office of California United States Senator Clair Engle in 1964, the lake was renamed after him; the lake is serviced by three marinas: Trinity Alps Marina located on the southern end in view of the Dam. Most of the marinas rent houseboats to vacationers year round. Most marinas on the lake are now owned and operated by Forever Resorts, with the only exception being the Trinity Alps Marina. Trinity Lake is located northwest of Redding, off of Highway 299 north-northeast of the Gold Rush mining town of Weaverville.
The Alpine scenery surrounding the lake makes up the Trinity Alps. The Alps were formed in the late Jurassic Period by volcanic activity in the form of ultramafic and granitic plutons, tectonic activity and glaciation during frigid climate periods known as ice ages; the last remaining glaciers are at more than 9,000 feet. The lake bed was a series of deep valleys in the Alps; the Discovery of Gold in 1848 prompted hundreds of miners to move into the area. Towns like Weaverville were born overnight. In 1958, a plan to divert water from Trinity River to California’s Central Valley led to the construction of Trinity Dam and the creation of Trinity Lake; this project was designed to provide hydroelectric power to the local area. The Trinity River Division of the Central Valley Project came to fruition in 1961 with the completion of Trinity Dam; the lake was renamed Clair Engle Lake from 1964 to 1997. It was renamed Trinity Lake; the lake was filled with water from the Trinity River by 1963 and is the third largest lake in California with 145 miles of shoreline.
The area is known to have been inhabited by several Native American tribes, most notably the Yurok and Hoopa. Both tribes have reservation lands in the area to this day. Trinity Lake is less used by vacationers than the lower Lake Shasta due in part to the lengthy winding road up from the valley floor. Typical drive time from Redding to the lake is about 90 minutes along a winding mountain road; this makes it a destination spot for water sports. Popular fishing includes that of smallmouth and largemouth bass, kokanee and brown trout. Fish remain ample, despite the negative impact that the dams have had on spawning ground in part due to the Trinity River Fish Hatchery, located just below Lewiston Dam; the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in Trinity Lake based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in local species. House boating, speed boating, waterskiing are popular lake activities. Surrounding the lake, visitors enjoy hiking and camping in the pristine wilderness of the Trinity Alps and the Shasta-Trinity National Forest.
There has been a dramatic decline in various fish species in the river since the dams were built and the lake created. Spawning steelhead and Coho Salmon populations have all been affected by their loss of spawning ground. However, wildlife populations surrounding the lake remain strong. Black bears are common, so proper precautions must be taken to secure campsites, throw away garbage and store food safely. Additional wildlife includes mountain lions and many different bird species; the lake contains land-locked populations of kokanee salmon and king salmon, along with more typical California lake species such as largemouth and smallmouth bass, rainbow trout and catfish. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California List of largest reservoirs in the United States List of largest reservoirs of California BOR: Central Valley Operations Office California Department of Water Resources: Trinity Lake Reservoir Up-to-Date Data North Trinity Lake area Trinity Center Airport Trinity County Recreation Guide
The Klamath Mountains are a rugged and populated mountain range in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon in the western United States. They have a varied geology, with substantial areas of serpentinite and marble, a climate characterized by moderately cold winters with heavy snowfall and warm dry summers with limited rainfall in the south; as a consequence of the geology and soil types, the mountains harbor several endemic or near-endemic trees, forming one of the largest collections of conifers in the world. The mountains are home to a diverse array of fish and animal species, including black bears, large cats, owls and several species of Pacific salmon. Millions of acres in the mountains are managed by the United States Forest Service; the northernmost and largest sub-range of the Klamath Mountains are the Siskiyou Mountains. Physiographically, the Klamath Mountains include the Siskiyou Mountains, the Marble Mountains, the Scott Mountains, the Trinity Mountains, the Trinity Alps, the Salmon Mountains, the northern Yolla-Bolly Mountains.
They are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the Pacific Mountain System physiographic division. These are the ten highest points in the Klamath Mountains: 1. Mount Eddy 2. Thompson Peak 3. Mount Hilton 4. Caesar Peak 5. Sawtooth Mountain 6. Wedding Cake Mountain 7. Caribou Mountain 8. China Mountain 9. Gibson Peak 10. Boulder Peak A large portion of the Klamath Mountains is managed by the United States Forest Service. Several national forests lie in the Klamath Mountains region, including the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Siskiyou National Forest, Klamath National Forest, Six Rivers National Forest, Mendocino National Forest; the Klamath Mountains contain 11 wilderness areas in both Oregon and California: There are extensive hiking trail systems, recreation areas, campgrounds both primitive and developed in the Klamaths. A 211-mile stretch of the Pacific Crest Trail passes through these mountains as well; this section of the PCT is known locally as "The Big Bend" and is the transition from the California Floristic Province to the Cascades.
The Bigfoot Trail is a 400-mile trail through the Klamath Mountains from the Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness to Crescent City, California. Klamath Mountains is the name given to one of California's eleven geomorphic provinces; the rocks of the Klamath Mountains originated as island arcs and continental fragments in the Pacific Ocean. The island masses consisted of rifted fragments of pre-existing continents and volcanic island masses created over subduction zones; these island masses contain rocks as old as 500 million years, dating to the early Paleozoic Era. A succession of eight island terranes moved eastward on the ancient Farallon plate and collided with the North American plate between 260 and about 130 million years ago; each accretion left a terrane of rock of a single age. During the accretion, subduction of the plate metamorphosed the overlying rock and produced magma which intruded the overlying rock as plutons. Serpentinite, produced by the metamorphism of basaltic oceanic rocks, intrusive rocks of gabbroic to granodiorite composition are common rocks within the Klamath terranes.
Subsequent lava flows from active volcanoes in the Cascade Range and the erosion of the Oregon Coast Range to the north covered these rocks with basalt and sediments. As a consequence of the geology, the mountains harbor rich biodiversity, with several distinct plant communities, including temperate rain forests, moist inland forests, oak forests and savannas, high elevation forests, alpine grasslands; these communities form the Klamath Mountains ecoregion. One of the principal plant communities in the Klamath Mountains is Mediterranean California Lower Montane Black Oak-Conifer Forest; the ecoregion includes several endemic or near-endemic species, such as Port Orford cedar or Lawson's cypress, foxtail pine, Brewer's spruce, forming one of the largest collections of different conifers in the world. The flowering plant Kalmiopsis leachiana endemic to the Klamaths, is limited to the Siskiyou sub-range in Oregon. ConifersA large concentration of diverse coniferous species of trees exists in these mountains.
Thirty conifer species inhabit the area, including two endemic species, the Brewer's spruce and the Port Orford cedar, making the Klamath Mountains one of the richest coniferous forest regions of the world in terms of concentrated species diversity. The region has several edaphic plant communities, adapted to specific soil types, notably serpentine outcrops. In 1969, Drs. John O. Sawyer and Dale Thornburgh discovered 17 species of conifers in 1 square mile around Little Duck Lake and Sugar Creek in the Russian Wilderness, they called this diverse area the Miracle Mile. In 2013 Richard Moore identified western juniper, in the Sugar Creek canyon; this is now considered the richest assemblage of conifers per unit area in any temperate region on Earth. Conifer species in the Klamath Mountains include coast Douglas-fir, Port Orford cedar, ponder
Klamath National Forest
Klamath National Forest is a 1,737,774-acre national forest, in the Klamath Mountains, located in Siskiyou County in northern California, but with a tiny extension into southern Jackson County in Oregon. The forest contains continuous stands of ponderosa pine, Jeffrey pine, Douglas fir, red fir, white fir and incense cedar. Old growth forest is estimated to cover some 168,000 acres of the forest land. Forest headquarters are located in California. There are local ranger district offices located in Fort Jones, Happy Camp, Macdoel, all in California. Klamath was established on May 6, 1905; this park includes the Kangaroo Lake and the Sawyers Bar Catholic Church is located within the boundaries of the Forest. There are four designated wilderness areas in Klamath National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Two of them extend into neighboring national forests, one of those into land managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Marble Mountain Wilderness Russian Wilderness Red Buttes Wilderness Siskiyou Wilderness Trinity Alps Wilderness Media related to Klamath National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Klamath National Forest official website Mid Klamath Watershed Council website Salmon River Restoration Council website Pictures: Wilderness in the Klamath Mountains Panoramic Video: Outskirts of Klamath National Forest
Klamath County, Oregon
Klamath County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 66,380; the county seat is Klamath Falls. The county was named for the Klamath, the tribe of Native Americans living in the area at the time the first European explorers entered the region. Klamath County comprises OR Micropolitan Statistical Area; the Klamath or Clamitte tribe of Indians, for which Klamath County was named, are the descendants of varying cultures of indigenous peoples, who have lived in the area for more than 10,000 years. When European-Americans began to travel through the area in 1846 along the Applegate Trail, they competed with the Klamath for game and water, which precipitated clashes between the peoples; this was exacerbated by European-American settlers, who cleared the land to farm and encroached on hunting territory. They were successful in demanding the removal of American Indians to reservations; the Modoc people, having been removed to Oregon to share a reservation with the Klamath, traditional rivals, wanted a reservation created on Lost River, near present-day Merrill, Oregon.
Captain Jack led his band back to Lost River, but the US Army, accompanied by militia and citizens of Linkville arrived and convinced Captain Jack to return. An argument broke out, shots were fired, the Modoc War began as the Modoc fled to Captain Jack's Stronghold in northern California. A treaty was signed with the Klamath on October 14, 1864, which led to the establishment of the Klamath Reservation. At various times over the next 40 years, different individuals of the Modoc tribe were settled within the reservation; because of the extensive tracts of forest, the Klamath were well off as a people until the termination of the reservation by the U. S. government in 1954. Much of the money received after the termination was lost due to squandering, theft or criminal deception, resulting in increased poverty and loss of tribal identity. A few of the Klamath refused to accept the buyout money, most notably Edison Chiloquin. Instead of cash, he insisted on receiving the title to ancestral land along the Sprague River where he lived.
On December 5, 1980, the Chiloquin Act was signed into law, giving him title to the properties he wanted. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,136 square miles, of which 5,941 square miles is land and 194 square miles is water, it is the fourth-largest county in Oregon. Jackson County Douglas County Lane County Deschutes County Lake County Siskiyou County, California Modoc County, California As of the census of 2000, there were 63,775 people, 25,205 households, 17,290 families residing in the county; the population density was 11 people per square mile. There were 28,883 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.33% White, 0.63% Black or African American, 4.19% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 3.45% from other races, 3.47% from two or more races. 7.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.7 % were of 10.8 % Irish, 10.7 % English and 9.8 % United States or American ancestry.
92.6% spoke English and 6.1% Spanish as their first language. There were 25,205 households out of which 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.20% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.40% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 25.20% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,537, the median income for a family was $38,171. Males had a median income of $32,052 versus $22,382 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,719.
About 12.00% of families and 16.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 7.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 66,380 people, 27,280 households, 17,831 families residing in the county; the population density was 11.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 32,774 housing units at an average density of 5.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.9% white, 4.1% American Indian, 0.9% Asian, 0.7% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 4.1% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 10.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.0% were German, 14.7% were Irish, 11.9% were English, 5.5% were American. Of the 27,280 households, 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families, 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 41.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,818 and the median income for a family was $51,596. Males had a median income of $42,215 versus $30,413 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,081. About 12.7% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.8% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. Bonanza
Klamath Falls, Oregon
Klamath Falls is a city in and the county seat of Klamath County, United States. The city was called Linkville when George Nurse founded the town in 1867, it was named after the Link River. The name was changed to Klamath Falls in 1893; the population was 20,840 at the 2010 census. The city is on the southeastern shore of the Upper Klamath Lake and about 25 miles north of the California–Oregon border; the Klamath Falls area had been inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first European settlers. The Klamath Basin became part of the Oregon Trail with the opening of the Applegate Trail. Logging was Klamath Falls's first major industry. After its founding in 1867, Klamath Falls was named Linkville; the name was changed to Klamath Falls in 1892–93. The name Klamath, may be a variation of the descriptive native for "people" used by the indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau to refer to the region. Several locatives derived from the Modoc or Achomawi: lutuami, lit: "lake dwellers", móatakni, "tule lake dwellers" could have led to spelling variations that made the word what it is today.
No evidence suggests. The Klamath themselves called the region Yulalona or Iwauna, which referred to the phenomenon of the Link River flowing upstream when the south wind blew hard; the Klamath name for the Link River white water falls was Tiwishkeni, or "where the falling waters rush". From this Link River white water phenomenon "Falls" was added to Klamath in its name. In reality it's best described as rapids rather than falls; the rapids are visible a short distance below the Link River Dam, where the water flow is insufficient to provide water flow over the river rocks. The Klamath and Modoc Indians were the first known inhabitants of the area; the Modocs' homeland is about 20 miles south of Klamath Falls, but when they were pushed onto a reservation with their adversaries, the Klamath, a rebellion ensued and they hid out in nearby lava beds. This led to the Modoc War of 1872−1873, a hugely expensive campaign for the US Cavalry, costing an estimated $500,000 − the equivalent of over $8 million in year-2000 dollars.
Seventeen Indians and 83 whites were killed. The Applegate Trail, which passes through the lower Klamath area, was blazed in 1846 from west to east in an attempt to provide a safer route for emigrants on the Oregon Trail; the first non-Indian settler is considered to have been Wallace Baldwin, a 19-year-old civilian who drove fifty head of horses in the valley in 1852. In 1867, George Nurse, named the small settlement "Linkville", because of Link River north of Lake Ewauna; the Klamath Reclamation Project began in 1906 to drain marshland and move water to allow for agriculture. With the building of the main "A" Canal, water was first made available May 22, 1907. Veterans of World War I and World War II were given homesteading opportunities on the reclaimed land. During World War II, a Japanese-American internment camp, the Tule Lake War Relocation Center, was located in nearby Newell, a satellite of the Camp White, Oregon, POW camp was located just on the Oregon-California border near the town of Tulelake, California.
In May 1945, about 30 miles east of Klamath Falls, a Japanese Fu-Go balloon bomb killed a woman and five children on a church outing. This is said to be the only Japanese-inflicted casualty on the US mainland during the war. Timber harvesting through the use of railroad was extensive in Klamath County for the first few decades of the 20th century. With the arrival of the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1909, Klamath Falls grew from a few hundred to several thousand. Dozens of lumber mills cut fir and pine lumber, the industry flourished until the late 1980s when the northern spotted owl and other endangered species were driving forces in changing western forest policy. On September 20, 1993, a series of earthquakes struck near Klamath Falls. Many downtown buildings, including the county courthouse and the former Sacred Heart Academy and Convent, were damaged or destroyed. There were two deaths attributed to the earthquake; the city made national headlines in 2001 when a court decision was made to shut off Klamath Project irrigation water on April 6 because of Endangered Species Act requirements.
The Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker were listed on the Federal Endangered Species List in 1988, when drought struck in 2001, a panel of scientists stated that further diversion of water for agriculture would be detrimental to these species, which reside in the Upper Klamath Lake, as well as to the protected Coho salmon which spawn in the Klamath River. Many protests by farmers and citizens culminated in a "Bucket Brigade" on Main Street May 7, 2001, in Klamath Falls; the event was attended by 18,000 farmers, ranchers and politicians. Two giant bucket monuments erected in town to commemorate the event; such universal criticism resulted in a new plan implemented in early 2002 to resume irrigation to farmers. Low river flows in the Klamath and Trinity rivers and high temperatures led to a mass die-off of at least 33,000 salmon in 2002. Dwindling salmon numbers have shut down the fishing industry in the region and caused over $60 million in disaster aid being given to fishermen to offset losses.
Ninety percent of Trinity River water is diverted for California agriculture. According to a National Academy of Sciences report of October 22, 2003, limiting irrigation water did little if anything to help endangered fish and may have hurt the populations. A contrary report has criticized the National Academy of Sciences report. T