Witjira National Park
Witjira National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia about 987 kilometres north of the state capital of Adelaide. The national park was proclaimed on 21 November 1985 to "protect Australia’s largest array of arterial springs: the nationally significant Dalhousie Mound Springs complex". In 2007, it became the first protected area in South Australia to have formal joint management arrangements between its traditional owners and the Government of South Australia; as of 2018, it covered an area of 7,726.73 square kilometres. The extent of land occupied by the national park was gazetted as a locality in April 2013 under the name'Witjira'; the historic Dalhousie Homestead Ruins, from the former Dalhousie Station, lie within the national park and are listed on the South Australian Heritage Register. The national park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area, it was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate during or after 1998. Protected areas of South Australia Witjira National Park official webpage Witjira National Park webpage on protected planet
Department for Environment and Water (South Australia)
The Department for Environment and Water is a department of the Government of South Australia. Created on 1 July 2012 by the merger of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Department for Water as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, it was given its present name on 22 March 2018, it is responsible for ensuring that South Australia's natural resources are managed productively and sustainably, while improving the condition and resilience of the state's natural environment. Following the Liberal Party's victory in the 2018 state election, the department was renamed as the Department for Environment and Water on 2 March 2018. On 23 December 1971, a new department called the Department of Environment and Conservation was created by the amalgamation of the Museum Department and the State Planning Office, part of the Department of the Premier and of Development. On 18 December 1975, the Department of Environment and Conservation was renamed as the Department for the Environment following a merger with the Botanic Garden Department.
On 11 May 1981, the Department for the Environment and the Department of Urban and Regional Affairs were merged with the Department of Environment and Planning, created on 7 August 1980 when it only consisted of the office of its first permanent head. On 8 October 1992, the Department of Environment and Planning was abolished on 8 October 1992 and its parts were distributed to new entities including the Department of Environment and Land Management which included the entirety of the former Department of Lands, abolished on 8 October 1992. On 1 October 1993, the Department of Environment and Land Management was renamed as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. On 23 October 1997, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources was abolished and replaced in part by the Department for Environment and Aboriginal Affairs which included “employees” of other abolished “Administrative Units” such as the Department of State Aboriginal Affairs and the Department of Mines and Energy.
In 1999, the Department for Environment and Aboriginal Affairs became the Department for Environment and Heritage. On 1 July 2010, the Department for Environment and Heritage was renamed for the second time as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. On 1 July 2012, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources became the Department of Environment and Natural Resources after acquiring the roles and responsibilities of the former Department of Water. Protected areas of South Australia State Herbarium of South Australia List of environmental ministries Water Witch Friends of Parks National Parks and Wildlife Service Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council Premier's Climate Change Council The Department for Environment and Water. Government of South Australia. Retrieved 24 March 2018
Naracoorte Caves National Park
Naracoorte Caves National Park is a national park near Naracoorte in the Limestone Coast tourism region in the south-east of South Australia. It was recognised in 1994 for its extensive fossil record when the site was inscribed on the World Heritage List, along with Riversleigh; the park preserves 6 km² of remnant vegetation, with 26 caves contained within the 3.05 km² World Heritage Area. The caves, which are located within the boundaries of what is now the national park, were first encountered in 1845 with the discovery of Blanche Cave. In 1885, the Department of Woods and Forests appointed a caretaker due to “the popularity of the caves and their vulnerability to vandalism.” In 1916, the control of the portion of the forest reserve which contained many of the caves and which consisted of about 20 hectares of land was transferred from the Department of Woods and Forests to the Immigration and Tourist Bureau who would manage it as a national pleasure resort under the National Pleasure Resort Act 1914 until 1972.
The change of control was gazetted on 1 March 1917. The national pleasure resort's development into “an important regional tourist destination was assisted by the discovery in 1969 in Victoria Cave of the largest known Australian Pleistocene vertebrate fossil cave deposit.” On 27 April 1972, it was renamed as the Naracoorte Caves Conservation Park upon the proclamation of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 which repealed the former act along with other statutes concerned with conservation. In 1982, the conservation park was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate. On 17 December 1994, part of the conservation park, being an area of 300 hectares was “inscribed on the World Heritage List” along with the Riversleigh fossil site in Queensland as the Australian Fossil Mammal Sites. On 18 January 2001, the Naracoorte Caves Conservation Park was abolished and the land that it occupied was reconstituted as a national park because it was considered to be “of national significance by reason of the natural features of the land” and was assigned the name, Naracoorte Caves National Park.
On 21 May 2007 The Australian Fossil Mammal Sites was one of 15 World Heritage places to be added to the Australian National Heritage List. On 17 May 2017, the extent of the national park was listed as a state heritage place on the South Australian Heritage Register with the name of the Naracoorte Caves Complex; the park is a visitor destination in itself, with a camping ground and caravan park, dormitory accommodation for groups, picnic grounds and a licensed cafe. The range of visitor activities is extensive. Show cave tours are guided by professional interpreters through decorated caves with some tours visiting amazing fossil deposits. Modern technology has been utilised to show visitors the inaccessible interior of Bat Cave, where thousands of southern bent-wing bats breed each year. Other opportunities include a selection of specialty tours and special events; the Wonambi Fossil Centre, the park's visitor centre, features displays of fossils and bones found in the caves and dioramas of extinct animals.
The limestone of the area was formed from coral and marine creatures 200 million years ago and again 20 million years ago when the land was below sea level. Ground water since has dissolved and eroded some of the limestone, creating the caves; the caves, such as the Victoria Fossil Cave and Blanche Cave, are not far below ground, holes open up creating traps for the unwary. This is the source of the remarkable collection of fossils. Mammals and other land creatures have been unable to escape; the fossil record has been preserved in strata formed from eroded topsoil blown in. In some places, the fossil-bearing silt is up to 20 metres thick; some of these areas are being preserved for future research when better methods of dating and reconstructing fossil records may have been found. These fossil traps are significant for tracing Australian megafauna. Protected areas of South Australia List of World Heritage Sites in Oceania List of fossil parks Achenbach, Joel, "Lost Giants", National Geographic, 218: 90–109.
"Naracoorte Caves". ParksWeb: Wonambi Fossil Centre. Government of South Australia. 2006-09-05. Archived from the original on 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2008-02-22. World heritage listing for Naracoorte UNESCO site with information on Riversleigh, Australia Naracoorte Caves National Park webpage on protected planet Naracoorte Lucindale Tourism
Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park
Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park is a protected area located in the suburbs of Aldinga Beach and Sellicks Beach about 46 kilometres south by west of Adelaide in South Australia. The park was proclaimed in November 1975 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 for the purpose of protecting a parcel of undeveloped land considered to be'a significant remnant of the natural habitat that once occurred all along the southern Adelaide coastline'; the conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area. List of protected areas in Adelaide Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park official site Friends of Aldinga Scrub Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park webpage on protected planet
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.
Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation. Protected areas will encompass several other zones that have been deemed important for particular conservation uses, such as Important Bird Areas and Endemic Bird Areas, Centres of Plant Diversity and Community Conserved Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites and Key Biodiversity Areas among others. A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example.
As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success. Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, 15.2% is contained within protected areas. Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the world's carbon stock, the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests: 18.8% of the world's forest is covered by protected areas and sixteen of the twenty forest types have 10% or more protected area coverage. Of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI.
Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover 14.3% of the world's mountain areas, these mountainous protected areas made up 32.5% of the world's total terrestrial protected area coverage in 2009. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990 and out of the 198 countries with mountain areas, 43.9% still have less than 10% of their mountain areas protected. Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning. Through its World Commission on Protected Areas, the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.
The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category Ia — Strict Nature Reserve Category Ib — Wilderness Area Category II — National Park Category III — Natural Monument or Feature Category IV — Habitat/Species Management Area Category V — Protected Landscape/Seascape Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources Protected areas are cultural artifacts, their story is entwined with that of human civilization. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
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Canunda National Park
Canunda National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located about 350 km southeast of Adelaide, on the coast about 13 km southwest of Millicent. It consists of coastal dunes, limestone cliffs, natural bushland; the beaches are popular for beach fishing and 4WD's. The national park consists of two parts - the first part being land in the gazetted localities of Southend and Canunda while the second part is located to the south in the gazetted locality of Carpenter Rocks at the headland of Cape Banks. From as far back as 10,000 years ago, members of the Boandik group of Indigenous Australians lived in temporary camps along the coast during summer, for the rest of the year they lived near inland swamps in permanent huts. Much of the national park is accessible only to walkers; the national park's office is located in the town of Southend at the northernmost end of the park. The northern end of the national park was once part of Mayurra Station; the remnants of Canunda's pastoral history can be seen at Coola Outstation.
Protected areas of South Australia Cape Banks Lighthouse Lower South East Marine Park Canunda National Park official webpage Canunda National Park webpage on protected planet
Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park
The Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park is situated 400 km north of Adelaide in the northern central part of South Australia's largest mountain range, the Flinders Ranges. The park covers an area of 912 km², northeast of the small town of Hawker; the Heysen Trail and Mawson Trails pass through the park. The park's most characteristic landmark is Wilpena Pound, a large, sickle-shaped, natural amphitheatre covering nearly 80 km², containing the range's highest peak, St Mary Peak. On 12 February 2016 the park was renamed to include the Adnyamathanha word, Ikara, "meeting place", referring to the traditional name for Wilpena Pound; the park centre at Wilpena Pound is accessible by sealed road from Hawker. Other areas in the park can be reached by un-sealed roads, which are accessible by two-wheel drive vehicles except in bad weather or after heavy rain. There are many lookouts, scenic vistas, small canyons and unusual rock formations located in the park; these include Wilpena Pound, Wilkawillina Gorge, Hucks Lookout, Brachina Gorge, Bunyeroo Gorge and Arkaroo Rock.
The park has some stone ruins from early European settlement and Aboriginal rock art sites. A rock formation called. Camping is permitted at many locations in the park; the Flinders Ranges are composed of folded and faulted sediments of the Adelaide Geosyncline. This thick sequence of sediments were deposited in a large basin during the Neoproterozoic on the passive margin of the ancient continent of Rodinia. During the Cambrian 540 million years ago, the area underwent the Delamerian orogeny where the geosynclinal sequence was folded and faulted into a large mountain range. Since this time the area has undergone erosion resulting in the low ranges today. Most of the high ground and ridgetops in the Flinders are sequences of quartzites that outcrop along strike; the high walls of Wilpena Pound are formed by the outcropping beds of the eponymous Pound Quartzite in a synclinal structure. The same formation forms many of the other high parts of the Flinders, including the high plateau of the Gammon Ranges and the Heysen Range.
Cuesta forms are very common in the Flinders. The flora of the Flinders Ranges is composed of species adapted to a semi-arid environment such as cypress-pine and black oak. Moister areas near Wilpena Pound support grevilleas, Guinea flowers and ferns. Reeds and sedges grow near permanent water sources such as waterholes. Since the eradication of dingos and the establishment of permanent waterholes for stock, the numbers of red kangaroos, western grey kangaroos and euros in the Flinders Ranges have increased; the yellow-footed rock-wallaby, which neared extinction after the arrival of Europeans due to hunting and predation by foxes, has now stabilized. Other endemic marsupials include planigales. Echidnas are the sole monotreme species in the park. Insectivorous bats make up significant proportion of mammals in the area. Reptiles include goannas, dragon lizards and geckos; the streambank froglet is an endemic amphibian. There are a large number of bird species including various parrots, the wedge-tailed eagles and small numbers of waterbirds.
The land within the national park has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it contains an sustainable population of the range-restricted short-tailed grasswren. There are a number of heritage-listed sites within the national park: Eddie Pumpa Outstation Hayward Homestead Ruins Impact Ejecta Horizon Late Precambrian Shales Geological Site Enorama Mail Station and Rubbish Dump Oraparinna Diapir Wilpena Homestead Complex Wilpena Pound Stromatolites in the Precambrian Trezona Formation, Enorama Creek Wills Homestead Complex Ruins Appealinna Mine Ruins and Miners Hut Wilkawillina Archaeocyathae Geological Site Dingley Dell Homestead Ruins Hill's Cottage, Wilpena Pound Enorama Diapir Oraparinna Station Blacksmith's Shop Protected areas of South Australia Cazneaux Tree Arkaroola Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park Mawson Plateau Mount Chambers Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park official website Flinders Rangers & Outback at SouthAustralia.com Flinders Ranges National Park page on ProtectedPlanet