Flint River (Georgia)
The Flint River is a 344-mile-long river in the U. S. state of Georgia. The river drains 8,460 square miles of western Georgia, flowing south from the upper Piedmont region south of Atlanta to the wetlands of the Gulf Coastal Plain in the southwestern corner of the state. Along with the Apalachicola and the Chattahoochee rivers, it forms part of the ACF basin. In its upper course through the red hills of the Piedmont, it is considered scenic, flowing unimpeded for over 200 miles, it was called the Thronateeska River. The Flint River rises in west central Georgia in the city of East Point in southern Fulton County on the southern outskirts of the Atlanta metropolitan area as ground seepage; the exact start can be traced to the field located between Plant Street, Willingham Drive, Elm Street, Vesta Avenue. It travels under the runways of the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Flowing south through rural western Georgia, the river passes through Sprewell Bluff State Park 10 miles west of Thomaston.
Farther south, it comes within 5 miles of Andersonville, the site of the Andersonville prison during the Civil War. In southwestern Georgia, the river flows through the largest city on the river. At Bainbridge it joins Lake Seminole, formed at its confluence with the Chattahoochee River upstream from the Jim Woodruff Dam near the Florida state line. From this confluence, the Apalachicola River flows south from the reservoir through Florida to the Gulf of Mexico; the Flint River is fed by Kinchafoonee Creek just north of Albany, by Ichawaynochaway Creek in southwestern Mitchell County 15 miles northeast of Bainbridge. In addition to Lake Seminole, the Flint River is impounded 15 miles upstream from Albany to form the Lake Blackshear reservoir; the Flint River is one of only 40 rivers in the nation to flow more than 200 miles unimpeded by dams or other manmade systems, is valued for that. In the 1970s, a plan by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to build a dam at Sprewell Bluff in Upson County was defeated by the Jimmy Carter, Governor of Georgia, other supporters.
Carter's hometown of Plains is located near the Flint River. The river is considered to have three distinct sections as it flows southward through western Georgia. In its upper reaches in the red hills of the Piedmont, it flows through a incised channel etched into crystalline rocks. South of its fall line near Culloden, the channel transforms to a broad, forested swampy flood plain. South of Lake Blackshear, it transforms again, flowing through a channel in limestone rock above the Upper Floridan Aquifer below southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida; the river has been prone to floods throughout its history. In 1994, during flooding from Tropical Storm Alberto, the river crested at 43 feet in Albany, resulting in the emergency evacuation of over 23,000 residents, it caused one of the worst natural disasters in the state's history. Interstate 75 was closed in Macon, Albany State University was seriously flooded, as the river became a few miles or several kilometers wide in some places; the water lifted caskets from cemeteries and left them, along with drowned cattle and other livestock, stuck in trees and other places.
Montezuma, Georgia was inundated after the Flint River topped the 29-foot levee protecting the town from floodwater. The official depth of the river at the height of the flood was estimated at 34 feet; the nearby gauge was underwater. Cleanup and restoration of Albany took months to complete. In 1998 another serious flood occurred in Albany, but it was not as damaging as the one of 1994. Bainbridge flooded in 1998. Other significant floods occurred in 1841 and 1925. In January 2002, a winter storm blew through Atlanta the day after New Year's Day; the airport's drainage system overflowed. Although the antifreeze entered the drinking water of some residents, no one became ill; the airport changed its drainage system to prevent the problem in the future. No problems were reported after an unusually heavy 4 inches of rain fell at the airport at the beginning of March 2009. In May 2009, the National Fish Habitat Action Plan named the Lower Flint River one of its "10 Waters to Watch" for 2009 for its habitat restoration work.
In October 2009, AmericanRivers.org declared the Flint to be one of the most endangered rivers in the country due to new plans to put a dam on it. The Flint is one of four rivers in the southeast with significant remaining populations of Hymenocallis coronaria, the Shoals spider-lily. Four separate stands of the plant have been studied and documented in the river, ranging from Yellow Jacket Shoals to Hightower Shoals. In Gone With the Wind, author Margaret Mitchell describes the Flint River as bordering the fictional plantation Tara. American country music singer Luke Bryan, a native of Georgia, references the river in his songs "That's My Kind of Night". List of Georgia rivers Georgia Wildlife Federation: Flint River Sherpa Guides: Flint River Basin Jimmy Carter: Land Between the Rivers De Soto Trail historical marker
The Ochlockonee River is a fast running river, except where it has been dammed to form Lake Talquin in Florida, originating in Georgia and flowing for 206 miles before terminating in Florida. The name is from the Hitchiti language words for yellow river; the Ochlockonee originates south of the town of Sylvester in Worth County in southwest Georgia and empties into Ochlockonee Bay and Apalachee Bay in Florida. The river forms the western boundaries of Leon County and Wakulla County and eastern boundaries of Gadsden County, Liberty County, Franklin County in Florida, it flows through the Red Hills, the Jackson Bluff Dam, Talquin State Forest, Lake Talquin State Park and the Apalachicola National Forest, past Ochlockonee River State Park, where it is tidally influenced and a mixture of fresh and salt water, on the way to its terminus in Ochlockonee Bay, which empties into Apalachee Bay, with tidal influences extending upstream over 15 miles from the river's mouth. When the Spanish arrived in northern Florida, the Ochlockonee River formed the western boundary of the Apalachee Province.
Late 17th century Spanish documents refer to the river as Amarillo. A 1716 Spanish document called it Rio de Lagna. An English map from 1720 shows it as the Yellow River. A 1778 map spells the river's name Okalockney; the modern name derieves from the Hitchiti/Mikasuki Oki and Lagana. About 1840, Fort Stansbury was established on the river by placing a two story home, abandoned by its owner due to Seminole raids during the Second Seminole War; this fort was important in the forced removal of Indians from the area. Boats traveled upriver to collect and move Native Americans down to Gulf of Mexico ports for removal to "Indian Territories." By 1844, Fort Stansbury had been abandoned. From 1839 to 1842, Fort Virginia Braden was established on the river located at Fort Braden in Florida; the fort was named after the commander's wife. The Ochlockonee River saw action during the Civil War. On 15 July 1863, the screw steamer gunboat USS Stars and Stripes and wooden side-wheel steam ferryboat USS Somerset attacked the salt works at Mashes Sands.
On 29 December 1863, Stars and Stripes sank the blockade-running schooner Caroline Gertrude, aground on the sandbar at the mouth of the Ochlockonee. Stars and Stripes captured the blockade-running steamer Laura off the Ochlockonee on 18 January 1864. On 19 and 20 October 1864, Stars and Stripes destroyed an extensive Confederate fishery at Mashes Island and captured the troops stationed there as guards. In 1927 the Jackson Bluff Dam was constructed on the Ochlockonee River to produce hydroelectric power; the waters held back by the dam formed Lake Talquin. The Ochlockonee River corridor is home to many threatened fish and plant species, it has been designated under the State of Florida's Outstanding Florida Waters program and has been identified by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission as a Strategic Habitat Conservation Area. Rare animals that can be found along the Ochlockonee include red-cockaded woodpecker, least tern, the Apalachicola dusky salamander; the river is rich in rare freshwater mussels, including three federally listed endangered species: the Ochlockonee moccasinshell, the Shinyrayed pocketbook, the Oval pigtoe.
"The Florida maybell tree can be found only along the Chipola Rivers. The Ochlockonee is connected to and a source of water for Lake Iamonia during flooding. Fishing for bass, perch and catfish can be excellent on the Ochlockonee River, a state-designated canoe trail can be found both upstream and downstream of Lake Talquin. Telogia Creek and the Little River near State Road 12 are popular for canoeing; the Florida National Scenic Trail follows the river for two miles. The Ochlockonee is a vital link in the production of seafood to the southwest in Apalachicola Bay. During floods, the river transports organic matter downstream into the estuary of Ochlockonee Bay where the shallows of the bay were created by the great volume of sand and clay brought down by the river; this estuary serves as a nursery for numerous species of fish and shellfish which are the basis for recreational and commercial fishing as well as the Apalachicola seafood that this area is known for. A number of major highways cross the Ochlockonee River along its course, including Interstate 10 and U.
S. highways 19, 27, U. S. Route 84 and 98. South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Ochlockonee River and Bay profile and documents from the Northwest Florida Water Management District U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Ochlockonee River
Nora Mill Dam
Nora Mill Dam is a log dam about one mile or 1.5km south of Helen, Georgia on the Chattahoochee River. The dam was built in 1824, there is still a working grist mill at the site; the historic Nora Mill Granary was established in 1876, is operated a business open to the public, selling grits and other products which it mills in front of customers
North Highlands Dam
North Highlands Dam is a dam on the Chattahoochee River in Georgia, United States, 1 mile south of Lake Oliver. The dam was built in 1899 to provide power for the former Bibb City Mill; the dam was one of the first large dams in the South. North Highland Dam impounds Bibb Pond; the dam is owned by Georgia Power
West Point Lake
West Point Lake is a man-made reservoir impounded by the West Point Dam, a dam built by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers on the Chattahoochee River that provides flood control and hydroelectric power, it provides a reservoir for water to aid the navigation of the lower Chattahoochee. The reservoir extends for about 35 mi along the Chattahoochee River near the Alabama-Georgia state boundary. West Point Lake contains recreational areas surrounding the lake; the east bank of the lake includes recreational areas such as R. Shaefer Heard Park and Long Cane Park, which contains a boat launching area hidden deep in the woods west of US 29; this park is named for the former unincorporated community which today consists only of intersections with US 29 at Gabbettville Road and Lower Glass Bridge Road, including a local gas station/bait and tackle shop. Parklands on the Lower Glass Bridge Road side of the lake include Maple Creek Park, Potts Road Park and the Earl Cook Access area; the north end of the lake along Georgia State Route 109 includes the proposed Wehalkee Service Area, the Whitetail Ridge Campground, Horace King Access area and Pyne Road Park.
On the west bank in Alabama, recreation areas surround Chambers CR 212 and consist of the Hardley Creek Recreation Area, West Overlook Area, Burnt Village Park, West Lake Recreation Area, all of which are addressed as being in Lanett. Amity Park and the Amity Campground can be accessed along CR 394; the northwest side of the lake includes Veasey Creek Recreation Area, which can only be accessed from Chambers CRs 264 and 463 and Oakland Park which can only be accessed along Chambers CR 263. West Point Lake - US Army Corps of Engineers West Point Lake News, Lake Levels and more
Lake Lanier is a reservoir in the northern portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. It was created by the completion of Buford Dam on the Chattahoochee River in 1956, is fed by the waters of the Chestatee River; the lake encompasses 38,000 acres or 59 square miles of water, 692 miles of shoreline at normal level, a "full summer pool" of 1,071 feet above mean sea level. Named for American poet Sidney Lanier, it was built and is operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers for flood control and water supplies, it is patrolled by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, as well as local law enforcement. The states of Georgia and Florida all have rights to the water of the reservoir, as it feeds rivers going through those areas; the Corps of Engineers has responsibilities to regulate flow for water use. In addition, it has to ensure that water is available to fulfill such federal mandates as under the Endangered Species Act, to support downstream species; the rapid suburbanization of the Atlanta region, in particular, has increased water consumption by private homeowners for lawns and gardens.
During droughts of the 21st century, Lake Lanier reached record lows, regional actions have been needed to reduce area water usage. The lake is in Hall, Dawson and Lumpkin counties, split about 60%, 30%, 5%, 4%, 1% filling the valley into numerous small arms and fingers; the former thalweg of the Chestatee and the Chattahoochee south of it form the county line between Hall and a corner of Gwinnett to the east, Dawson and Forsyth counties to the west. One of the main purposes of the lake is flood control of the Chattahoochee River downstream protecting metro Atlanta. Since the construction of Buford Dam, there have been only three major flooding events on the downstream section; the most severe flooding event was following a two-year drought. The lake's original purposes were to provide hydroelectricity and flood control of the Chattahoochee River, water supply for the city of Atlanta; the $1 billion project was approved, with ground breaking in 1950. 700 families were moved from the area after their properties were bought by the USCOE, in order to flood the area and create the lake.
A stretch of Georgia Highway 53 had to be abandoned. Gainesville's Looper Speedway was condemned and abandoned. More than $2 million had been spent by the Corps on preliminary construction when the House Committee on Appropriations refused to provide more funds in June 1951. During that summer Atlanta mayor William Hartsfield traveled to Washington numerous times pressing southern Democratic Senators Richard Russell, Jr. and Walter F. George to restore funding to ensure Atlanta's water supply during droughts. Hartsfield returned to Washington in 1955 to lobby for $11 million more for the dam, which had a target date of 1956, again stressing the importance of an adequate water supply for his growing city. Congress approved the funds, the dam was completed and opened on schedule. Lake Lanier began filling in 1956, in 1957, 20 miles downstream, Morgan Falls Dam was raised to regulate the flow from Buford Dam and regulate the flow of water to Atlanta. In early fall of 1958, the region had two solid months of drought, which would have left the Chattahoochee and its tributaries nearly dry, if not for the construction of Buford Dam and the reserve of Lake Lanier.
Since the 1990s, the Corps of Engineers, Florida and Alabama have all been fighting for use of the water held in Lake Lanier. Federal law mandates that when a river flows between two or more states, each state has a right to an equal share of the water. Additionally, laws such as the Endangered Species Act require that water be available to preserve and support the threatened or endangered species that live in or around Chattahoochee River and Apalachicola Bay. Pertinent information on the reservoir, power plant, etc. can be found on the Mobile District Corps of Engineers web site. Historic operational information on lake elevations, discharges and power generation for all the Corps projects on the ACF are available. In June 2006, the USACE revealed that the new lake gauge at the dam, replaced in December 2005, was not properly calibrated, yielding a lake level reading nearly two feet higher than the actual level; because of this, nearly twenty-two billion U. S gallons of excess water had been released.
This was above the planned excess releases to support the successful spawning of gulf sturgeon in the Apalachicola River and to protect several species of oysters in Apalachicola Bay from excessive saltwater intrusion. Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue said that the Corps had created a "manmade drought", because most of the state was having dry conditions; this came at a time when outdoor water-use restrictions were being put in place by local governments. The high rate of suburban growth in the area resulted in a high rate of water consumption to care for the many lawns which had replaced forests; because of the error in managing Lake Lanier, the governor's office declared a drought and enacted a ban on outdoor water use from 10AM to 4PM, in addition to the permanent weekly odd/even address system. Other local counties imposed further restrictions or total bans, based on each water system's conditions. Outdoor watering was banned as the state suffered its worst drought in its recorded history. On October 16, 2007, Governor Perdue gave the USACE until the evening of October 17 to come up with a plan for the continued release of water for Florida wildlife.
Senator Johnny Isakson s
Langdale Dam is a lowhead dam on the Chattahoochee River just south of Langdale, Alabama. The dam was built in 1908 to provide electricity for the former Langdale Mills, is now owned and operated by Georgia Power, it produces an average of 1 megawatt of hydroelectric power. The river here lies on the Georgia side of the state line, but the dam itself does enter into Alabama territory. Georgia Power has applied for permission to remove Langdale Dam in 2023