Castle of San Felipe de Lara
The Castle of San Felipe de Lara is a Spanish colonial fort at the entrance to Lake Izabal in eastern Guatemala. Lake Izabal is connected with the Caribbean Sea via the Dulce El Golfete lake; the fort was strategically situated at the narrowest point on the river. The Castillo de San Felipe was used by the Spanish for several centuries, during which time it was destroyed and looted several times by pirates; the fort is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List and is a popular regional tourist destination. This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on September 23, 2002 in the Cultural category; the fort is under the administrative care of the Guatemalan Institute of Tourism. It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the Río Dulce National Park. A significant increase in the number of visiting tourists was recorded in the period 2001–2003, over 90% of whom were Guatemalans; the figures for these period show a jump from 45,652 tourists in 2001 to just over 156,000 visitors in 2003.
The fort was badly damaged by an earthquake on 11 July 1999, suffering a number of cracks in its walls. The river water around the fort has been found to be contaminated with coliform bacteria resulting from local pollution. San Felipe had continuous occupation from the Mesoamerican Middle Preclassic period and was still inhabited when the Spanish first arrived in the region in the mid 16th century; the Castillo de San Felipe was built to protect the port of San Antonio de las Bodegas on the south shore of Lake Izabal from frequent pirate attacks by English pirates. After nightfall, passage along the river into the lake was blocked by a large chain that crossed from the fort to the far bank. San Antonio was the main port for receiving Spanish shipping carrying goods for the Captaincy General of Guatemala and was responsible for supplying and garrisoning the fort. Guatemalan records contain details of captains being appointed to the fort well into the 18th century; the position was a joint post including the position of mayor of San Pedro de Amatique and San Antonio de las Bodegas.
The latter post was in name only, since the towns were soon abandoned due to constant slave raids by the Mosquito Zambo that left the Motagua delta and shores of Lake Izabal deserted, with those inhabitants that did not flee being sold into slavery in the British colony of Jamaica. A census taken in October 1776 recorded 122 inhabitants of San Felipe, all of whom were either Spanish or mixed race. In 1797 the garrison numbered 36 infantry. A tower existed on the site by 1604, when it is recorded as having been destroyed; the fort was built in 1644 under the orders of Diego de Avendaño governor of the Kingdom of Guatemala. At the time it was known as the Torreón de Defensa; the design of the walls was modified by the oidor Lara y Mogrovejo, from whom it gained the "de Lara" part of its name. It was rebuilt in 1651 under orders of Lara y Mogrovejo; the fort was redesigned in 1687 by Diego Gómez de Ocampo in the style of the French military architect Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban. The modified design was implemented in 1689.
Three bastions were functioning by 1697. Additional fortifications were designed by engineer José Sierra and added in 1797. Two barracks were added; the fort consists of a semicircular bastion enclosed behind two converging outer walls, each terminating in a square tower. The fort has three storeys; the land approach to the fort was protected by a moat with drawbridge
Indigenous peoples known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture, associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate continent of the world. Since indigenous peoples are faced with threats to their sovereignty, economic well-being and their access to the resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity and access to employment, health and natural resources. Estimates put the total population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million. International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August each year; the adjective indigenous was used to describe animals and plant origins. During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be used to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislations, it is derived from the Latin word indigena, based on the root gen-'to be born' with an archaic form of the prefix in'in'. Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian which until was applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas. Any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their traditional indigenous land claim.
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, or first. The use of the term peoples in association with the indigenous is derived from the 19th century anthropological and ethnographic disciplines that Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines as "a body of persons that are united by a common culture, tradition, or sense of kinship, which have common language and beliefs, constitute a politically organized group". James Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others, they are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest". They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.
The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on 9 August as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. Throughout history, different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms. Indigenous people include people indigenous based on their descent from populations that inhabited the country when non-indigenous religions and cultures arrived—or at the establishment of present state boundaries—who retain some or all of their own social, economic and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains; the status of the indigenous groups in the subjugated relationship can be characterized in most instances as an marginalized, isolated or minimally participative one, in comparison to majority groups or the nation-state as a whole.
Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands and practices is frequently limited. This situation can persist in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state. In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese courts recognised their claim in law, stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture after being ruled over by the majority group, while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule, it must be recognised that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture of the former group requires greater consideration."In Russia, definition of "indigenous peoples" is contested referring to a number of population (less
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Hydrilla is a genus of aquatic plant treated as containing just one species, Hydrilla verticillata, though some botanists divide it into several species. It is native to the cool and warm waters of the Old World in Asia and Australia, with a sparse, scattered distribution; the stems grow up to 1–2m long. The leaves are arranged in whorls of two to eight around the stem, each leaf 5–20 mm long and 0.7–2 mm broad, with serrations or small spines along the leaf margins. It is monoecious, with male and female flowers produced separately on a single plant, it reproduces vegetatively by fragmentation and by rhizomes and turions, flowers are seen. They have air spaces to keep them upright. Hydrilla has a high resistance to salinity compared to many other freshwater associated aquatic plants. Hydrilla resembles some other related aquatic plants, including Egeria densa and Elodea canadensis. Synonyms include H. asiatica, H. japonica, H. lithuanica, H. ovalifolica. Hydrilla verticillata is allelopathic to the common hornwort and prickly hornwort, that is, it produces compounds that inhibit growth of the latter two species.
Hydrilla is naturalized and invasive in the United States following release in the 1950s and 1960s from aquariums into waterways in Florida, due to the aquarium trade. It is now established in Canada and the southeast from Connecticut to Texas, in California. By the 1990s control and management were costing millions of dollars each year. A Florida west coast aquarium dealer shipped live Hydrilla from Sri Lanka under the common name "Indian star-vine." After these plants were considered unsatisfactory, they were dumped into a canal near Tampa Bay, where they flourished. By 1955, the plants found their way from Tampa to Miami as they were transported for cultivation and pet trade sale, it is believed that several undocumented cases of accidental or careless releases followed, as there was extensive spread of the Hydrilla throughout Florida and the southeastern U. S; as an invasive species in Florida, Hydrilla has become the most serious aquatic weed problem for Florida and most of the U. S; because it was such a threat as an invasive species, one of the first cost-effective broadscale herbicide controls developed was fluridone.
This single-use herbicide resulted in fluridone resistant Hydrilla. “As Hydrilla spread to lakes across the southern United States in the past, the expansion of resistant biotypes is to pose significant environmental challenges in the future.”,Hydrilla populations have caused economic and ecological damage. Hydrilla is known to be an aggressive and competitive plant out-competing and displacing native species, such as pondweeds and eelgrass. Due to its competitive nature, Hydrilla has created monocultures, an area dominated by a singular species, rather than having a balance among many species, like in a normal ecosystem. In Australia, Hydrilla can become invasive if the nutrient levels are raised in disturbed ecosystems, though is not known to be problematic. Hydrilla can be controlled by herbicides, as well as grass carp, itself an invasive species in North America. Insects used as biological pest control for this plant include weevils of the genus Bagous and the Asian hydrilla leaf-mining fly.
Tubers pose a problem as they can lie dormant for a number of years, making it more difficult to remove from waterways and estuaries. Hydrilla holds the advantage in that in can spread efficiently through both turions. In 2011 the inlet of Cayuga Lake, one of the Finger Lakes in New York State, used the chemical herbicide endothall to try to head off a possible future disaster; the first year nearly $100,000 and numerous man-hours were spent trying to eradicate the Hydrilla infestation. Follow-up treatments were planned for at least five years; the City of Ithaca as well as other local officials are willing to pay the price because without quick action the plant could get into the lake and spread to other Finger Lakes in the region. This abundant source of biomass is a known bioremediation hyperaccumulator of Mercury, Cadmium and Lead, as such can be used in phytoremediation. In an article "Little known uses of common aquatic plant Hydrilla Verticillata" the researchers Dilipkumar Pal and Satish Nimse state:"The plant is the rich source of variable nutrients and chemical constituents like saponins, minerals, amino acids, detoxifying agents, etc.
Hydrilla is valuable to true vegetarians. Besides its other uses, therapeutically this plant may be used to provide complete nutrition, to improve digestion and gastrointestinal function, neurological health, blood sugar control, to strengthen immunity and increase endurance; the paper highlights various medicinal uses of the plant and different nutrients and chemical constituents present in it". Species Profile- Hydrilla, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Hydrilla
Lake El Golfete
Lake El Golfete is a long narrow lake in Guatemala. It lies at sea level and is connected by the Dulce River from Lake Izabal draining to the Amatique Bay in the Caribbean Sea
Guatemala the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. Guatemala is a representative democracy; the territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved by 1841. From the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company and the United States government. In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms.
A U. S.-backed military coup in 1954 installed a dictatorship. From 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military. Since a United Nations-negotiated peace accord, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections, though it continues to struggle with high rates of poverty, drug trade, instability; as of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot; the name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees" or more for the Cuate/Cuatli tree Eysenhardtia. This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory.
The first evidence of human habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in various parts of the country, suggests a human presence as early as 18,000 BC. There is archaeological proof. Pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, Sipacate and Escuintla on the central Pacific coast. Archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, the Postclassic period; until the Preclassic was regarded as a formative period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts, few permanent buildings. However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; the Classic period of Mesoamerican civilization corresponds to the height of the Maya civilization, is represented by countless sites throughout Guatemala, although the largest concentration is in Petén.
This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states, contact with other Mesoamerican cultures. This lasted until 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed; the Maya abandoned many of the cities of the central lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the drought theory is gaining currency, supported by evidence such as lakebeds, ancient pollen, others. A series of prolonged droughts, among other reasons such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya, who relied on regular rainfall; the Post-Classic period is represented by regional kingdoms, such as the Itza, Kowoj and Kejache in Petén, the Mam, Ki'che', Chajoma, Tz'utujil, Poqomchi', Q'eqchi' and Ch'orti' in the highlands. Their cities preserved many aspects of Maya culture; the Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region.
Advances such as writing and the calendar did not originate with the Maya. Maya influence can be detected from Honduras, Northern El Salvador to as far north as central Mexico, more than 1,000 km from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to be the result of trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest. After they arrived in the New World, the Spanish started several expeditions to Guatemala, beginning in 1519. Before long, Spanish contact resulted in an epidemic. Hernán Cortés, who had led the Spanish conquest of Mexico, granted a permit to Captains Gonzalo de Alvarado and his brother, Pedro de Alvarado, to conquer this land. Alvarado at first allied himself with the Kaqchikel nation to fight against their traditional rivals the K'iche' nation
Howler monkeys are among the largest of the New World monkeys. They are famous for their loud howls; these monkeys are native to Central American forests. Threats to howler monkeys include human predation, habitat destruction and being captured for pets or zoo animals. Fifteen species are recognized. Classified in the family Cebidae, they are now placed in the family Atelidae. A. palliata group Coiba Island howler, Alouatta coibensis Alouatta coibensis coibensis Azuero howler, Alouatta coibensis trabeata Mantled howler, Alouatta palliata Ecuadorian mantled howler, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis Golden-mantled howler, Alouatta palliata palliata Mexican howler monkey, Alouatta palliata mexicana Guatemalan black howler, Alouatta pigra A. seniculus group Ursine howler, Alouatta arctoidea Red-handed howler, Alouatta belzebul Spix's red-handed howler, Alouatta discolor Brown howler, Alouatta guariba Northern brown howler, Alouatta guariba guariba Southern brown howler, Alouatta guariba clamitans Juruá red howler, Alouatta juara Guyanan red howler, Alouatta macconnelli Amazon black howler, Alouatta nigerrima Purus red howler, Alouatta puruensis Bolivian red howler, Alouatta sara Venezuelan red howler, Alouatta seniculus Maranhão red-handed howler, Alouatta ululata A. caraya group Black howler, Alouatta caraya Howler monkeys have short snouts and wide-set, round nostrils.
Their noses are keen, they can smell out food up to 2 km away. Their noses are roundish snout-type, the nostrils have many sensory hairs growing from the interior, they range in size from 56 to 92 cm, excluding their tails, which can be as long, in fact in some cases the tail has been found to be five times the body length. This is a prime characteristic. Like many New World monkeys, they have prehensile tails, which they use for picking fruit and nuts from trees. Unlike other New World monkeys, both male and female howler monkeys have trichromatic color vision; this has evolved independently from other New World monkeys due to gene duplication. They have lifespans of 15 to 20 years. Howler species are dimorphic and can be dichromatic. Males are, 1.5 to 2.0 kg heavier than females. The hyoid of Alouatta is pneumatized, one of the few cases of postcranial pneumaticity outside the Saurischia; the volume of the hyoid of male howler monkeys is negatively correlated with the dimensions of their testes.
Howler monkeys move quadrupedally on the tops of branches grasping a branch with at least two hands or one hand and the tail at all times. Their strong prehensile tails are able to support their entire body weight. Grown adult howler monkeys do not rely on their tails for full body support, whereas juveniles do so more frequently. Most howler species live in groups of six to 15 animals, with one to three adult males and multiple females. Mantled howler monkeys are an exception living in groups of 15 to 20 individuals with more than three adult males; the number of males in a given group is inversely correlated with the size of their hyoid, is positively correlated with testes size. This results in two distinct groups, wherein one male with a larger hyoid and smaller testes copulates with a group of females; the other group has more males, which have smaller hyoids, larger testes, free copulation occurs among the group. The larger the number of males, the smaller the hyoid, the larger the testes.
Unlike most New World monkeys, in which one sex remains in natal groups, juveniles of both sexes emigrate from their natal groups, such that howler monkeys could spend the majority of their adult lives in association with unrelated monkeys. Physical fighting among group members is infrequent and of short duration. However, serious injuries can result. Both males and females fight with each other, but physical aggression is more rare between sexes. Group size varies with an approximate ratio of one male to four females; as their name suggests, vocal communication forms an important part of their social behavior. They each have an enlarged hyoid bone, which helps them make their loud vocalizations. Group males call at dawn and dusk, as well as interspersed times throughout the day; the main vocals consist of loud, deep guttural growls or "howls". Howler monkeys are considered to be the loudest land animal. According to Guinness Book of World Records, their vocalizations can be heard for 3 mi; the function of howling is thought to relate to intergroup spacing and territory protection, as well as to mate-guarding.
These large and slow-moving monkeys are the only folivores of the New World monkeys. Howlers eat top canopy leaves, together with fruit, buds and nuts, they need to be careful not to eat too many leaves of certain species in one sitting, as some contain toxins that can poison them. Howler monkeys are known to raid birds' nests and chicken coops and consume the eggs. While aggressive, howler monkeys do not take well to captivity and are of surly disposition. However, the black howler is a common pet monkey in contemporary Argentina due to its gentle nature, in comparison to the capuchin monkey's aggressive tendencies, in spite of its lesser intelligence, as well as the liabilities meant by the size of its droppings and the males' loud vocalisations. John Lloyd Stephens described the howler monkeys at the Maya ruins of Copán as "grave and solemn emotionally wounded, as if officiating as the guardians of consecrated ground". To the May