Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuge
The Tallahatchie National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1990 and consists of 4,083 acres in Grenada and Tallahatchie counties. Topography is flat and land has been subject to extensive clearing and drainage for commodity crops, including cotton before and after the Civil War. Upon acquisition the refuge lands consisted of agricultural fields. Since nearly 1,300 acres have been reforested; the unit's largest continuous tract is a patchwork of cultivated farmlands, old fields, small scattered hardwood bottomland forests bisected by the meandering Tippo Bayou, its centerpiece. The old oxbows and low-lying fields along Tippo Bayou flood each winter and attract large concentrations of waterfowl. Wood ducks abound here; the unit has a healthy deer herd. Peregrine falcon, bald eagles, least tern, black tern and wood stork pass through the refuge in migration. Eastern screech owls, barred owls, great horned owls, loggerhead shrikes, red-tailed hawks are common year-round residents. Blue grosbeaks and painted buntings can be seen during the summer months.
Most of the agriculture land of the area is devoted to raising soybeans and rice, for the benefit of waterfowl. The refuge is complemented on the south by the 9,483-acre Malmaison Wildlife Management Area managed by the State of Mississippi. Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge
Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge encompasses 2,418 acres in west-central Mississippi. Established in 1980, the refuge is one of seven national wildlife refuges in the Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge Complex; the primary habitat feature is the largest brake in Leflore County. Each winter the brake provides habitat for over 30,000 ducks. Neotropical migratory birds use the refuge during migration seasons throughout the year; the refuge supports about 200 species of migratory birds, including priority species such as the prothonotary warbler. This little cavity nester is a species of concern in other areas, but has plenty of habitat around the wooded waters of Mathews Brake. Refuge staff manage the water level in the brake to promote moist-soil plants and to sustain oak trees around the edges for migratory birds. Other habitat types include 422 acres of bottomland hardwoods and 186 acres of young hardwood plantations. Hunting and fishing are the most popular programs on the refuge.
Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Natchez Trace Trail
The Natchez Trace Trail is a designated National Scenic Trail in the United States, whose route follows sections of the 444-mile Natchez Trace Parkway through the states of Tennessee and Mississippi. The Natchez Trace Trail is not envisioned as a long, continuous footpath, as is the case with other national scenic trails. Moreover, the Natchez Trace Trail, unlike many others that rely on volunteers for trail construction and maintenance, is managed and maintained by the National Park Service. Sections of the trail follow along the Natchez Trace Parkway road shoulder, cross county and state roads; the Natchez Trace Parkway and National Scenic Trail commemorate the historic Natchez Trace, an ancient path that began as a wildlife and Native American trail, has a rich history of use by explorers, "Kaintuck" boatmen, post riders, military men. This trail comprises five sections; the table below is ordered from South, Milepost 0 to North, Milepost 444, but can be sorted differently. National Park Service website Natchez Trace Compact
Tombigbee National Forest
Tombigbee National Forest is a U. S. National Forest in eastern and northeastern Mississippi, it is named for the nearby Tombigbee River. It is divided geographically into two non-contiguous sections; the larger southern section, about 60% of the total acreage, is located north of Louisville, in parts of Winston and Oktibbeha counties in eastern Mississippi. The smaller northern section, about 40% of the total acreage, is located northeast of Houston, in parts of Chickasaw and Pontotoc counties in northeastern Mississippi; as a whole the forest lies, in descending order of land area, in Winston, Choctaw and Oktibbeha counties. The forest has a total area of 67,005 acres. Headquarters of forest administration is in Jackson, as are those for all six National Forests in Mississippi, but local ranger district offices are located in Ackerman; the forest contains the Owl Creek Mounds, which include five platform mounds built between 1100 and 1200 CE. Media related to Tombigbee National Forest at Wikimedia Commons National Forests in Mississippi - US Forest Service
Mississippi Highway 69
Mississippi Highway 69 is a state highway in eastern Mississippi. The route starts at the Alabama state line, travels northwestward to Columbus. MS 69 goes through downtown Columbus, ends at U. S. Route 45 and US 82 in the west side of the town. Before the road was designated as MS 69 in 1941, it was a gravel road from Columbus to the state line; the road was paved in asphalt in 1953. In 1992, US 82 was realigned, MS 69 was extended through Columbus to its current northern terminus. MS 69 starts at the Alabama state line; the route turns northwest at Spurlock Road. It travels through the forest, intersecting Halbert Road. MS 69 moves westward for a short period between East Minnie Vaughn Road; the road curves towards Columbus, as small streets begin to appear. At Pickensville Road, MS 69 travels north into Columbus, intersects Fabritek Drive, the entrance to Columbus-Lowndes County Airport. At Yorkville Road, the road meets MS 795's eastern terminus, it soon crosses over the Alabama Southern Railroad.
At MS 182, MS 69 travels westward. The road soon enters downtown Columbus. MS 69 and MS 182 changes into a divided highway at Thirteenth Street; the street intersects Fifth Street, which becomes US 45 past US 82. MS 182 continues westward on Island Road; the route ends at US 82 at a diamond interchange. The road continues to East Plymouth Road. All of the route is located in Lowndes County, is not included as a part of the National Highway System; the route is defined in Mississippi Code § 65-3-3, all of it is maintained by the Mississippi Department of Transportation. A gravel road from Columbus to the Mississippi–Alabama state line has existed since 1928, it was designated as MS 69 by 1941. A $296,187.71 contract awarded by the Mississippi State Highway Commission in 1951 was used to grade the road, add drainage and bridges to the route. The road was paved with asphalt by 1953, after being proposed four years earlier by the city of Columbus' Chamber of Commerce; the highway caught on fire in 1957, after a wagon carrying coal tar spilled its contents, destroying multiple telephone lines.
In 1958, the northern terminus was rerouted out of downtown Columbus, to east of US 82 and MS 50's intersection. In 1992, US 82 was realigned to the bypass around Columbus, MS 69 was extended through Columbus to a diamond interchange in the western part of the town; the entire route is in Lowndes County
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior.
They are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management operate areas called National Monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies.
There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties. Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks.
State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park. About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U.
S. state and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are little more than picnic playgrounds. South Mountain Park in Phoenix, for example, is called the largest city park in the United States. Protected areas of American Samoa Protected areas of California Protected areas of Colorado Protected areas of Georgia Protected areas of Illinois Protected areas of Kentucky Protected areas of Michigan Protected areas of Ohio National Landscape Conservation System National Park Service National Wild and S
Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge
The Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge is a 12,941 acre National Wildlife Refuge located in Washington County, Mississippi. Named after the Yazoo tribe, it was established to provide waterfowl and other migratory birds in the Mississippi Flyway with nesting, feeding and resting habitat; the refuge serves as the headquarters for the Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge Complex, is maintained with an eleven person staff with a fiscal year 2005 budget of $2,097,000. The refuge office administers 12,800 acres of Farmers Home Administration transfer properties: 42 fee title tracts and 12 easements. A Cooperative farming program provides 3,942 acres for local farmers to use. In the early 1900s, natural habitat supplemented by agricultural crops provided excellent waterfowl hunting in and around the refuge area. Records indicate that ducks and swans were abundant throughout the wintering season. Hunters came from as far away. Land acquisition began under authority of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act in 1936 with the initial purchase of 2,166 acres.
In March, 1937, an additional 639 acres were purchased with plans to acquire 20,000 acres. The refuge remained unstaffed from 1936 until 1956. In 1959 the refuge office was built; the Service was given permission to purchase additional land in 1960 under the provision of Section 5928 of the Mississippi Code of 1942, re-compiled by Governor Ross R. Barnett. Various tracts were purchased from individuals and hunting clubs until a total of 12,471 acres was reached on July 30, 1969; as land acquisition progressed, habitat management was diversified for mourning doves, wood ducks, Canada geese and colonial wading birds, along with endangered and resident species. A nucleus flock of wild turkey was introduced in 1970. In 1992, the Service purchased the 470 acre Cox property bringing total refuge area to 12,941 acres. Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge's 12,941 acres of undulating Delta soils range from heavy clay to silt loam and limited sand ridges. Most farm area is classed as prime agricultural land. Elevations range from 90 feet in the main drainage to 113 feet in agricultural areas.
Yazoo NWR's primary feature is a 4,000+ acre oxbow lake named Swan Lake which formed thousands of years ago when the Mississippi River abandoned a segment of riverbed. In years past, Silver Lake Bayou flowed into the oxbow lake, accelerating the deposit of silt and sediment on the lake bottom, making the lake more shallow; the Corps of Engineers constructed a new channel to divert silt-laden waters around Swan Lake. Weirs and water control structures maintain water levels in the oxbow lake while the new channel diverts silt-laden flows around the north side of Swan Lake and into Steele Bayou; the Corps project prevents the accelerated build-up of sediment that has reduced water depths in Swan Lake. The past meanderings of the Mississippi River have created a "ridge-and-swale" topography on the refuge that varies by 23 feet in elevation. From 90 feet above sea level in the swamp to 113 feet on sandy ridges, this mixture of elevations translates into a diversity of habitats for wildlife. Refuge staff have utilized this rolling landscape and through the years have installed 96 water control structures creating over 70 impoundments which have provided a myriad of habitats for migratory waterfowl, colonial wading birds and other wildlife.
Since 1968 2,000 acres of marginal agricultural lands have been reforested on Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge. Reforestation has been accomplished with seedling plantings. At least 20 tree species have been planted on refuge lands; these plantations, some of which are among the oldest on record, now provide unique opportunities for researchers to study the development process for the restoration of bottomland hardwoods over time. Reforestation on Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge catalyzed similar habitat restoration on other refuges and private lands throughout the southeast region. Habitats vary from bottomland hardwoods to agricultural fields. Emphasis is placed on providing food for wintering waterfowl, which utilize the refuge in large numbers, at times exceeding 250,000 birds; these foods consist of corn, rice, etc. and moist-soil plants. The refuge has over 70 water management units and has restored over 2,000 acres of marginal agricultural land to bottomland hardwoods. A unique opportunity for intensive moist-soil management occurred when the refuge purchased 240 acres of abandoned catfish ponds known today as the Cox Ponds.
The ponds were reshaped to provide optimal bottom and side slopes, each pond has its own water control structure and drain. Irrigation wells provide a permanent water source for each pond, giving the refuge broad management options. A rotating cycle of management treatments in these 14 ponds provides habitat for waterfowl, long-legged waders, other water birds; some ponds are managed as moist-soil areas. Frequent visitors to the Cox Ponds include white ibis, glossy ibis, little blue and great blue herons, great egrets, snowy egrets and a wide variety of wintering dabbling and diving ducks. Habitat is provided for southward-bound shorebirds from July 15 to November. In 2003, the first documented brood of black-bellied whistling ducks in Mississippi was photographed here. In August 2004, as many as thirteen grown ducks plus a brood of eight were observed, indicating an increasing population of this tropical species; the well-e