Zig zag (railway)
A railway zig zag called a switchback, is a method of climbing steep gradients with minimal need for tunnels and heavy earthworks. For a short distance, the direction of travel is reversed. Not all switchbacks come in pairs, in which case the train may need to travel backwards for a considerable distance. A location on railways constructed by using a zig-zag alignment at which trains have to reverse direction in order to continue is a reversing station. One of the best examples is the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a UNESCO World Heritage site railway in India, that has six full zig zags and 3 spirals. Zig zags tend to be cheaper to construct. Civil engineers can find a series of shorter segments going back and forth up the side of a hill more and with less grading than they can a continuous grade which has to contend with the larger scale geography of the hills to be surmounted. Zig zags suffer from a number of limitations: The length of a train is limited to what will fit on the shortest stub track in the zig zag.
The Lithgow Zig Zag stub was extended at great cost in 1908, only to be deviated in 1910. Reversing a locomotive-hauled train without running an engine around to the rear of the train is hazardous. Top and tail or push pull; the process is slow due to the need to reverse the switch. If wagons in a freight train are marshalled poorly, with a light vehicle located between heavy ones, the move on the middle road of a zig zag can cause derailment of the light wagon. Argentina Tren a las Nubes Australia Lithgow Zig Zag, New South Wales preserved - see Zig Zag Railway Out of use: Thornleigh Zig Zag, New South Wales Yarraglen Kalamunda Zig Zag, Western Australia – two reversals Lake Margaret Tram, Tasmania, 610 mm Lapstone Zig Zag, New South Wales – two reversals Mundaring Weir Branch Railway, Western Australia Yarloop, Western Australia Myanmar Passenger line between Thazi and Kalaw, with four switchbacks. In reality only half a'Z' as only one reversal is needed. Ecuador Sibambe on the Quito-Guayaquil line France Froissy Dompierre Light Railway Germany In use: Rauenstein Lauscha Ernstthal am Rennsteig: created by close of the Ernstthal–Probstzella railway Lüttmoorsiel-Nordstrandischmoor island railway Rennsteig Michaelstein Wurzbach Altenkirchen station, Limburg–Altenkirchen railway out of use Schillingsfürst Lenzkirch in the Black Forest Elm (replaced in 1914 by Distelrasen Tunnel, but the structure is conserved within the Frankfurt-Fulda and Fulda-Gemünden railways and the connecting curve between the stations at Elm and Schlüchtern Steinhelle-Medebach railway Mainspitze station in Frankfurt am Main, used from 1846–1848 to reach the provisional Frankfurt terminal of the Main-Neckar Railway Hungary The Szob-Nagybörzsöny forest railway has a simple zig zag at the middle of the railway line between Kisirtás and Tolmács-hegy stations, with a loop in the middle of the Z shape India Darjeeling Himalayan Railway has six full zig zags and 3 spirals, most are from the construction of the current railway but one was added in the 1940s and at least one other was used temporarily following storm damage Italy Saline-Volterra Ferrovia Genova-Casella has one zig zag in regular use at Casella Deposito.
Japan Hakone Tozan Line has three zig zags, namely at Deyama S. B. Ōhiradai Station, Kami-Ōhidradai S. B. Hōhi Main Line at Tateno Station Kisuki Line at Izumo-Sakane Station Hisatsu Line at Okoba and Masaki stations Tateyama Sabō Erosion Control Works Service Train, the work train for an erosion control construction, is not open to general public, but deserves a mention for its 38 zig zags, 18 of them in a row. Niyama Station on Hakodate Main Line Obasute Station on the Shinonoi Line in Chikuma, Nagano is on a switchback. North Korea Kanggye Line, between Hwangp'o and Simrip'yŏng stations Kŭmgangsan Electric Railway, between Tanballyŏng and Malhwiri stations. Entire line destroyed during the Korean War and not rebuilt. Paengmu Line, between Yugok and Rajŏk stations, at Samyu station in addition, there are numerous switchbacks on spurs into underground facilities located off main lines. South Korea Yeongdong Line, between Heungjeon station and Nahanjeong station; this section replaced by Solan tunnel.
Mexico Ferrocarril Noroeste de México, between Juan Mata Ortiz to Chico. New Zealand Driving Creek Railway, Coromandel Pakistan Khyber Pass Peru Seven full Zigzags and one single reverse on the Central Railway of Peru PeruRail between Cuzco to Machu Picchu – Five switchbacks Slovakia Historical Logging Switchback Railway in Vychylovka Sweden Lövsjöväxeln on Hällefors-Fredriksbergs Järnvägar Switzerland Chambrelien required the use of a turntable to allow large tender locomotives to be turned as they ran-roun
Howard's Plains, Tasmania
Howard's Plains is a plain just west and above the river valley location of Queenstown in Western Tasmania, Australia. It is located to the east of the Henty River catchment area, it is the location of the junction of the Zeehan Highway and the Queenstown to Strahan road, the Queenstown, Tasmania aerodrome. It was not until 1934 that the road out of Queenstown up onto the plain was constructed, utilising unemployed workers; the completion of the Penghana to Howard's Plains road led to the eventual construction of the Queenstown to Strahan road, the road to Zeehan in the late 1930s and early 1940s. In the southern area, it is the location of tailings dams created by the Mount Lyell remediation scheme that are situated above the Queen River
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i
Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
2 ft and 600 mm gauge railways
Two foot and 600 mm gauge railways are narrow gauge railways with track gauges of 2 ft and 600 mm, respectively. Railways with similar, less common track gauges, such as 1 ft 11 3⁄4 in and 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in, are grouped with 2 ft and 600 mm gauge railways. Most of these lines are tourist lines, which are heritage railways or industrial lines, such as the Festiniog Railway in Wales and the Cripple Creek and Victor Narrow Gauge Railroad in Colorado. World War I trench railways produced the greatest concentration of 600 mm gauge railways to date. In preparation for World War II, the French Maginot Line and Alpine Line used 600 mm gauge railways for supply routes to the fixed border defenses. Australia has over 4,000 kilometres of 2 ft gauge sugar cane railway networks in the coastal areas of Queensland, which carry more than 30 million tonnes of sugarcane a year. Many 2 ft gauge and 600 mm gauge railways are used in amusement parks and theme parks worldwide; the interchange of rolling stock between these similar track gauges occurred.
The Otavi Mining and Railway Company in South-West Africa were transferred to the 2 ft gauge railways in South Africa and some surviving locomotives reside in Wales on the 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in gauge Welsh Highland Railway and the 1 ft 11 3⁄4 in gauge Brecon Mountain Railway. Decauville Heritage railway List of track gauges
Zeehan is a town on the west coast of Tasmania, Australia 139 kilometres south-west of Burnie. It is located north of Strahan and Queenstown, Tasmania. In the early 1900s it had its own council, it is part of the Municipality of West Coast. The town was named after the nearby Mount Zeehan, named by George Bass and Matthew Flinders after Abel Tasman's Fluyt Zeehaen; the region has one of the oldest settler histories of any part of Tasmania, when Abel Tasman sighted this part of the state in 1642. An early port for Zeehan was Trial Harbour but it was precarious in its location on Ocean Beach and was overtaken by Strahan. Zeehan was established as a mining field as a town after the Zeehan-Dundas silver-lead deposits were found in 1882 by Frank Long. Mount Zeehan Post Office opened on 1 August 1888 and was renamed Zeehan in 1890; the peak period for mining was up to the First World War, though lead mining continued on up to 1963 at mines such as the Montana and Oceana. The population of Zeehan-Dundas peaked at 10,000 over ten times the current population.
It was in competition with the town further south and while the silver boom lasted it was known as the Silver City. In the first decade of the twentieth century it was on a par with Hobart for size. With a main street over two miles long. In the 1970s it saw increased activity due to operations at the nearby Renison Bell Tin mine, again in the 1990s. At the 2011 census, Zeehan had a population of 728. Zeehan is connected with the north coast of Tasmania by the Murchison Highway, to Strahan by the Zeehan-Strahan Road, Queenstown by the Zeehan Highway. Zeehan was an important railway location—the end of the Emu Bay Railway, the beginning of the government-owned Strahan-Zeehan Railway service that connected to Strahan and Regatta Point, where the Mount Lyell Railway connected to Queenstown. At early stages of the town's history, a series of timber trams spread out from Zeehan towards the Pieman River as well as a number of other locations; some of the smaller railway operations east of Zeehan were unique.
One had the honour of having the first Garratt steam engine built for its operations. After the government rail connection between Zeehan and Strahan closed, the Mount Lyell Company trucked its copper ore to the Emu Bay Railway terminus at Melba Flats, a few kilometres east of Zeehan. See the article: Zeehan and Dundas Herald MMG Limited Avebury nickel mine, Zeehan Zinc's Comstock Mine and the Bluestone Tin's Renison Bell tin mine are significant economic contributors to the community, but the majority of the town relies on tourism for its survival. Among these attractions is the West Coast Heritage Centre, known as the West Coast Pioneers Museum, in the old School of Mines building; the main streetscape of Zeehan is one significant feature of the town. The famed concert pianist Eileen Joyce was born in Zeehan, Eileen Joyce Memorial Park in Zeehan was named in her honour. Parts of a 1925 Australian silent film, Jewelled Nights were shot on Savage River, north of the town in the Tarkine rainforest.
Bushfires were reported near Zeehan in 1896, 1908, 1977, 1980 and 2006. In November 2012 the town was threatened by bushfires from two directions. However, the alert was removed. There were bushfires in February 1890. Railways on the West Coast of Tasmania West Coast Tasmania Mines Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Manny, L. B. Railways of the Zeehan District Australian Railway Historical October/November. Rae, Lou; the Abt Railway and Railways of the Lyell region. Sandy Bay: Lou Rae. ISBN 0-9592098-7-5. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania - A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown. Whitham, Lindsay. Railways, Mines and People and other historical research. Sandy Bay: Tasmanian Historical Research Association. ISBN 0-909479-21-6
Mount Sedgwick (Tasmania)
Mount Sedgwick is a mountain located within the West Coast Range, in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia. It lies in line behind Mount Lyell in views from high points in Queenstown and from the roads leading out to Strahan and Zeehan. Bands of the pink and grey coloured conglomerate show strikingly on its south west slopes, its western and south western slopes are more precipitous and rocky, compared to the once forested southern and south eastern slopes. The geology of Mount Sedgwick has remnant Jurassic and Palaeozoic features; the top of Mount Sedgwick is columnar jointed Jurassic Dolerite interpreted as a remnant of a dolerite sheet. The lack of a strong magnetic signature suggests it is not a plug that intrudes Permian tillite, exposed on the South East flank of the mountain. Mount Sedgwick and its surrounding area was identified in the 1890s by Thomas Bather Moore as being associated with evidence of glaciation in the West Coast Range. Lake Margaret lies at the northern side of the mountain, while Lake Beatrice and Lake Burbury at the eastern side.
Mount Geikie and the Tyndall Range are the main mountains in the West Coast Range to the north. Mount Sedgwick is the source of the Lake Margaret water - with smaller named lakes above Lake Margaret as feeders. List of highest mountains of Tasmania Blainey, Geoffrey; the Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania - A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown