South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, not all of which are related. Most of the 60 species of eagle are from Africa. Outside this area, just 14 species can be found—2 in North America, 9 in Central and South America, 3 in Australia. Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey, with heavy beaks; the smallest eagles, such as the booted eagle, comparable in size to a common buzzard or red-tailed hawk, have longer and more evenly broad wings, more direct, faster flight – despite the reduced size of aerodynamic feathers. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures; the smallest species of eagle is the South Nicobar serpent eagle, at 40 cm. The largest species are discussed below. Like all birds of prey, eagles have large, hooked beaks for ripping flesh from their prey, muscular legs, powerful talons; the beak is heavier than that of most other birds of prey. Eagles' eyes are powerful.
It is estimated that the martial eagle, whose eye is more than twice as long as a human eye, has a visual acuity 3.0 to 3.6 times that of humans. This acuity enables eagles to spot potential prey from a long distance; this keen eyesight is attributed to their large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction of the incoming light. The female of all known species of eagles is larger than the male. Eagles build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick kills its younger sibling once it has hatched; the dominant chick tends to be a female. The parents take no action to stop the killing. Due to the size and power of many eagle species, they are ranked at the top of the food chain as apex predators in the avian world; the type of prey varies by genus. The Haliaeetus and Ichthyophaga eagles prefer to capture fish, though the species in the former capture various animals other water birds, are powerful kleptoparasites of other birds.
The snake and serpent eagles of the genera Circaetus and Spilornis predominantly prey on the great diversity of snakes found in the tropics of Africa and Asia. The eagles of the genus Aquila are the top birds of prey in open habitats, taking any medium-sized vertebrate they can catch. Where Aquila eagles are absent, other eagles, such as the buteonine black-chested buzzard-eagle of South America, may assume the position of top raptorial predator in open areas. Many other eagles, including the species-rich genus Spizaetus, live predominantly in woodlands and forest; these eagles target various arboreal or ground-dwelling mammals and birds, which are unsuspectingly ambushed in such dense, knotty environments. Hunting techniques differ among the species and genera, with some individual eagles having engaged in quite varied techniques based their environment and prey at any given time. Most eagles grab prey without landing and take flight with it, so the prey can be carried to a perch and torn apart.
The bald eagle is noted for having flown with the heaviest load verified to be carried by any flying bird, since one eagle flew with a 6.8 kg mule deer fawn. However, a few eagles may target prey heavier than themselves. Golden and crowned eagles have killed ungulates weighing up to 30 kg and a martial eagle killed a 37 kg duiker, 7–8 times heavier than the preying eagle. Authors on birds David Allen Sibley, Pete Dunne, Clay Sutton described the behavioral difference between hunting eagles and other birds of prey thus: They have at least one singular characteristic, it has been observed. All hawks seem to have this habit, from the smallest kestrel to the largest Ferruginous – but not the Eagles. Among the eagles are some of the largest birds of prey: only the condors and some of the Old World vultures are markedly larger, it is debated which should be considered the largest species of eagle. They could be measured variously in body mass, or wingspan. Different lifestyle needs among various eagles result in variable measurements from species to species.
For example, many forest-dwelling eagles, including the large harpy eagle, have short wingspans, a feature necessary for being able to maneuver in quick, short bursts through densely forested habitats. Eagles in the genus Aquila, though found strictly in open country, are superlative soarers, have long wings for their size; these lists of the top five eagles are based on weight and wingspan, respectively. Unless otherwise noted by reference, the figures listed are the median reported for each measurement in the guide Raptors of the World in which only measurements that could be verified by the authors were listed. Australasian Australia: wedge-tailed eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, little eagle. New Guinea: Papuan eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, pygmy eagle. Nearctic: golden eagle, bald eagle. Neotropical: Spizaetus, solitary eagles, harpy eagle, crested eagle, black-chested buzzard-eagle
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression, longer than it is wide; the terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A valley in its broadest geographic sense is known as a dale. Other terms used for valleys are: Vale: A valley. Dell: A small and wooded valley. Glen: A long valley bounded by sloped concave sides. Strath: A wide, flat valley through which a river runs. Mountain cove: A small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. Hollow: A term used sometimes for a small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges. Cwm: A deep, narrow valley. A steephead valley is a deep, flat bottomed valley with an abrupt ending. Erosional valley: A valley formed by erosion.
Structural valley: A valley formed by geologic events such as drop faults or the rise of highlands. Dry valley: A valley not created by sustained surface water flow. Longitudinal valley: An elongated valley found between two parallel mountain chains. Similar geological structures, such as canyons, gorges, gullies and kloofs, are not referred to as valleys. A valley formed by flowing water, called fluvial valley or river valley, is V-shaped; the exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it. Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce a bottom. Shallower slopes may produce gentler valleys. However, in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment and the valley bottom becomes a floodplain; some broad V examples are: North America: Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, others in Grand Canyon NP Europe: Austria: narrow passages of upper Inn valley, affluents of Enns Switzerland: Napf region, Zurich Oberland, Engadin Germany: affluents to the middle reaches of Rhine and MoselSome of the first human complex societies originated in river valleys, such as that of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Ganges, Yellow River and arguably Amazon.
In prehistory, the rivers were used as a source of fresh water and food, as well as a place to wash and a sewer. The proximity of water moderated temperature extremes and provided a source for irrigation, stimulating the development of agriculture. Most of the first civilizations developed from these river valley communities. In geography, a vale is a wide river valley with a wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. In Southern England, vales occur between the escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk formations, where the chalk dome has been eroded, exposing less resistant underlying rock claystone. Rift valleys, such as the Albertine Rift and Gregory Rift are formed by the expansion of the Earth's crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earth's surface. There are various forms of valley associated with glaciation that may be referred to as glacial valleys. A valley carved by glaciers is U-shaped and resembles a trough; this trough valley becomes visible upon the recession of the glacier. When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice.
Floor gradient does not affect the valley's shape, it is the glacier's size. Continuously flowing glaciers – in the ice age – and large-sized glaciers carve wide, deep incised valleys, sometimes with valley steps that reflect differing erosion rates. Examples of U-shaped valleys are found in every mountainous region that has experienced glaciation during the Pleistocene ice ages. Most present U-shaped valleys started as V-shaped before glaciation; the glaciers carved it out wider and deeper changing the shape. This proceeds through the glacial erosion processes of glaciation and abrasion, which results in large rocky material being carried in the glacier. A material called; as the ice melts and retreats, the valley is left with steep sides and a wide, flat floor. A river or stream may remain in the valley; this replaces the original stream or river and is known as a misfit stream because it is smaller than one would expect given the size of its valley. Other interesting glacially carved valleys include: Yosemite Valley Side valleys of the Austrian river Salzach for their parallel directions and hanging mouths.
Some Scottish glens full with flowers. That of the St. Mary River in Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. A tunnel valley is a large, long, U-shaped valley cut under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets such as that now covering Antarctica and covering portions of all continents during past glacial ages. A tunnel valley can be up to 100 km, 4 km wide, 400 m deep. Tunnel valleys were formed by subglacial erosion by water, they served as subglacial drainage pathways carrying large volumes of melt water. Their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, their flat bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion. In northern Central Europe, the Scandinavian ice sheet during the various ice ages advanced uphill against the lie of the land; as a result, its meltwaters flowed parallel to the ice margin to reach the North Sea basin, formin
Egrets are herons which have white or buff plumage, develop fine plumes during the breeding season. Egrets have the same build. Many egrets are members of the genera Egretta or Ardea which contain other species named as herons rather than egrets; the distinction between a heron and an egret is rather vague, depends more on appearance than biology. The word "egret" comes from the French word "aigrette" that means both "silver heron" and "brush", referring to the long filamentous feathers that seem to cascade down an egret's back during the breeding season. Several of the egrets have been reclassified from one genus to another in recent years: the great egret, for example, has been classified as a member of either Casmerodius, Egretta or Ardea. In the 19th and early part of the 20th century, some of the world's egret species were endangered by relentless plume hunting, since hat makers in Europe and the United States demanded large numbers of egret plumes, leading to breeding birds being killed in many places around the world.
Several Egretta species, including the eastern reef egret, the reddish egret, the western reef egret have two distinct colours, one of, white. The little blue heron has all-white juvenile plumage. Great egret or great white egret, Ardea alba Intermediate egret, Mesophoyx intermedia Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis Little egret Egretta garzetta Eastern reef egret or Pacific reef heron, Egretta sacra Western reef egret or western reef heron, Egretta gularis Snowy egret, Egretta thula Reddish egret, Egretta rufescens Slaty egret, Egretta vinaceigula Black egret, Egretta ardesiaca Chinese egret, Egretta eulophotes Egrets hunt and live in both saltwater and freshwater marshes. Media related to Ardeidae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Ardeidae at Wikispecies Well written and illustrated Egret article Encyclopaedia Britannica Great egret Ardea alba—USGS
The Santee River is a river in South Carolina in the United States, is 143 miles long. The Santee and its tributaries provide the principal drainage for the coastal areas of southeastern South Carolina and navigation for the central coastal plain of South Carolina, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean 440 miles from its farthest headwater on the Catawba River in North Carolina; the Santee River is the second largest river on the eastern coast of the United States, second only to the Susquehanna River in drainage area and flow. Much of the upper river is impounded by the expansive, horn-shaped Lake Marion reservoir, formed by the 8-mile -long Santee Dam; the dam was built during the Great Depression of the 1930s as a Works Progress Administration project to provide a major source of hydroelectric power for the state of South Carolina. The Santee is formed in central South Carolina 25 miles southeast of Columbia by the confluence of the Wateree and Congaree rivers, it flows southeast for 5 miles before entering the northwest corner of Lake Marion, which stretches in a long wide arc to the southeast for 30 miles to Santee Dam.
A navigable diversion canal first built in the 1970s at the southern tip of the lake connects to Lake Moultrie, a reservoir on the nearby Cooper River. The modern canal is operated by Santee Cooper as part of the larger hydroelectric project on both rivers; the dam was finished in 1941. Downstream from the reservoir it flows east southeast, forming the northeast boundary of Francis Marion National Forest. 10 miles from its mouth it bifurcates into two channels, called the North Santee and South Santee, that flow parallel and separated by 2 miles, creating Cedar Island. The two channels reach the ocean at Santee Point 15 miles south of Georgetown, not far from the mouth of the Pee Dee River; the river was named by early English settlers after the Santee tribe, which inhabited areas on the middle part of the river. The first European contact was by a Spanish party led by Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526; the Spaniards called the river the Jordan in honor of the Jordan River. After suffering a defeat by the English and their allies during the Yamasee War in 1715–1716, the Santee were relocated.
Many were shipped as slaves to the West Indies, opening up the river for British settlement as part of the Carolina Colony. Most of the Siouan peoples had migrated into the upper Midwest before European encounter. In the late 18th century, the upper river was the site of the homestead of Francis Marion, a patriot of the American Revolutionary War; the original site of his homestead has been flooded by Lake Marion, named in his honor. Construction of the 22-mile -long Santee Canal, linking the river to the Cooper, was begun in 1793 and finished in 1800, it allowed direct water transportation between the Upcountry of central South Carolina and Charleston, at the mouth of the Cooper and the harbor. The canal operated for 50 years before being made obsolete by the introduction of railroads. During the Great Depression, the state of South Carolina created the Santee Cooper power utility; the main source of electric power for the utility came through federal construction during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt of a hydroelectric project inland from Charleston.
Starting in 1939, the Santee River was dammed, forming lakes Marion and Moultrie, diverting the river's flow into the Cooper River through a hydroelectric plant at Pinopolis. The WPA project was completed in 1941. Though the project succeeded in providing cheap electricity to modernize rural South Carolina, unintended consequences were changes to the character of both the Cooper and Santee rivers below the project. Deprived of most its water flow, the Santee River became more saline and its ecosystem changed below the dam; the Cooper River received more of the freshwater and sediment loads that used to flow into the Santee and carried them downstream. This has resulted in increasing the dredging costs to keep Charleston Harbor operating as a port. In the 1980s, the Army Corps of Engineers built a "rediversion" canal to send most of the water back into the Santee mitigating this problem; this is a partial list of crossings of the Santee River Lake Marion Railroad bridge between Lone Star and Rimini.
Former US 15 and US 301 bridge at Santee Interstate 95, US 15 and US 301 bridge at Santee Lower Santee Highway 52 bridge Railroad bridge near St. Stephen ALT US 17 bridge and adjacent railroad bridge US 17 bridge over North Santee River and South Santee River List of South Carolina rivers South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region South Carolina Dept. of Health and Environmental Control: Santee Basin Santee Nation History Santee Cooper Lake System Old Santee Canal Park Carolina Living: History of the Carolina Lakes Santee Canal U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Santee River
The largemouth bass is a carnivorous freshwater gamefish in the Centrarchidae family, a species of black bass native to much of the United States And Northern Mexico. It is known by a variety of regional names, such as the widemouth bass, bigmouth bass, black bass, largies, Potter's fish, Florida bass, Florida largemouth, green bass, Green trout, gilsdorf bass, Oswego bass, southern largemouth and northern largemouth, LMB; the largemouth bass is the state fish of Georgia and Indiana, the state freshwater fish of Florida and Alabama, the state sport fish of Tennessee. The largemouth bass is an olive-green to greenish gray fish, marked by a series of dark, sometimes black, blotches forming a jagged horizontal stripe along each flank; the upper jaw of a largemouth bass extends beyond the rear margin of the orbit. In comparison to age, a female bass is larger than a male; the largemouth is the largest of the black basses, reaching a maximum recorded overall length of 29.5 in and a maximum unofficial weight of 25 pounds 1 ounce.
The fish lives 10 to 16 years on average. The juvenile largemouth bass consumes small bait fish, small shrimp, insects. Adults consume smaller fish, snails, frogs, salamanders and small water birds and baby alligators. In larger lakes and reservoirs, adult bass occupy deeper water than younger fish, shift to a diet consisting entirely of smaller fish like shad, yellow perch, ciscoes and sunfish, it consumes younger members of larger fish species, such as catfish, walleye, white bass, striped bass, smaller black bass. Prey items can be larger. Studies of prey utilization by largemouths show that in weedy waters, bass grow more due to difficulty in acquiring prey. Less weed cover allows bass to more find and catch prey, but this consists of more open-water baitfish. With little or no cover, bass can starve or be stunted. Fisheries managers must consider these factors when designing regulations for specific bodies of water. Under overhead cover, such as overhanging banks, brush, or submerged structure, such as weedbeds, humps and drop-offs, the largemouth bass uses its senses of hearing, sight and smell to attack and seize its prey.
Adult largemouth are apex predators within their habitat, but they are preyed upon by many animals while young. Notably in the Great Lakes Region, Micropterus salmoides along with many other species of native fish have been known to prey upon the invasive round goby. Remains of said fish have been found inside the stomachs of largemouth bass consistently; this feeding habit may impact the ecosystem positively, but more research must be conducted to verify this. Note that it is illegal to use Neogobius melanostomus as bait in the Great Lakes Region. Largemouth bass reach sexual maturity and begin spawning when they are about a year old. Spawning takes place in the spring season when the water temperature first holds steady above 60˚F. In the northern region of the United States, this occurs anywhere from late April until early July. In the southern states, where the largest and healthiest specimens inhabit, this process can begin in March and is over by June. Males create nests by moving debris from the bottom of the body of water using their tails.
These nests are about twice the length of the males, although this can vary. Bass prefer sand, muck, or gravel bottoms, but will use rocky and weedy bottoms where there is cover for their nest, such as roots or twigs. After finishing the nest, the males swim near the nest looking for a female to mate with. After one is found, the two bass swim around the nest together, turning their bodies so that the eggs and sperm that are being released will come in contact on the way down to the nest. Bass will spawn twice per spring, with some spawning three or four times, although this is not as common; the male will guard the nest until the eggs hatch, which can take about 2 to 4 days in the southern U. S and Northern Mexico, longer in the northern part of its Native Range. Depending on the water temperature, the male will stay with the nest until the infant bass are ready to swim out on their own, which can be about two more weeks after they hatch. After this, the male and newborns will switch to more of a summer mode, in which they focus more on feeding.
Largemouth bass are keenly sought after by anglers and are noted for the excitement of their'fight,' meaning how vigorously the fish resists being hauled into the boat or onto shore after being hooked. The fish will become airborne in their effort to throw the hook, but many say that their cousin species, the smallmouth bass, is more aggressive. Anglers most fish for largemouth bass with lures such as plastic worms, jigs and live bait, such as worms and minnows. A recent trend is the use of large swimbaits to target trophy bass that forage on juvenile rainbow trout in California. Fly fishing for largemouth bass may be done using both topwater and worm imitations tied with natural or synthetic materials. Other Live baits, such as frogs or crawfish, can be productive. In fact, large golden shiners are a popular live bait used to catch trophy bass when they are sluggish in the heat of summer or in the cold of winter. Largemouth bass hang around big patches of weeds and other shallow water cover.
These fish are capable of surviving in a wide variety of climates and waters
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa