The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Province of Rome (1870–2014)
The Province of Rome was one of the five provinces that formed part of the region of Lazio in Italy. It was established in 1870 and disestablished in 2014, it was coterminous with the Rome metropolitan area. The city of Rome was the provincial capital. During the 1920s, the boundary of the province shrank; the Province of Rome was the most populous province in Italy. On 1 January 2015, it was superseded by a new local government body - the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital. Prior to 1870, the area of the province was the Papal States. Following the capture of Rome by the forces of the Kingdom of Italy, the Province of Rome was established; the province was divided into five "districts": Rome, Frosinone and Viterbo. They corresponded to the old papal delegazioni. In 1923 the district of Rieti part of the province of Perugia, was annexed to that of Rome. In 1927 the provincial territory was reduced through the creation of new provinces: Frosinone and Viterbo. After a few months, the comuni of Amaseno, Castro dei Volsci and Vallecorsa were annexed to the province of Frosinone, while Monte Romano was annexed to that of Viterbo.
In 1934 the provincial territory lost its southern part. Administrative subdivisions of the Papal States from 1816 to 1871 Latium — the oldest regional division of the former province & present day Metropolitan City of Rome Capital. Metropolitan City of Rome Capital topics Official former website
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Cesano is a frazione of the comune of Rome, Italy. It is a small medieval burgh on the Via Cassia, located in the municipality's Municipio XV, 27 km from Rome proper, it occupies a 240 m hill surrounded by the Monti Sabatini, near the Lakes of Bracciano and Martignano. Cesano is home to the Infantry School of the Italian Army and of the Casaccia Research Center of ENEA, it is connected to Rome by the FR3 railway. Santa Maria di Galeria Cesanese Comune Administrative subdivision of Rome
Sutri is an Ancient town, modern comune and former bishopric in the province of Viterbo, about 50 kilometres from Rome and about 30 kilometres south of Viterbo. It is picturesquely situated on a narrow tuff hill, surrounded by ravines, a narrow neck on the west alone connecting it with the surrounding country; the modern comune of Sutri has a few more than 5,000 inhabitants. Its ancient remains are a major draw for tourism: a Roman amphitheatre excavated in the tuff rock, an Etruscan necropolis with dozens of rock-cut tombs, a Mithraeum incorporated in the crypt of its church of the Madonna del Parto, a Romanesque Duomo. Ancient Sutrium occupied an important position, commanding as it did the road into Etruria, the Via Cassia: Livy describes it as one of the keys of Etruria, nearby Nepi being the other, it came into the hands of Rome after the fall of Veii, a Latin colony was founded there. It was besieged by the Etruscans in 311–310 BC, but not taken. With Nepi and ten other Latin colonies it refused further help in the Second Punic War in 209 BC.
Its importance as a fortress explains, according to Festus, the proverb Sutrium ire, of one who goes on important business, as it occurs in Plautus. It is mentioned in; the war of 41 BC, received a colony of veterans under the triumviri. Inscriptions show that it was a place of some importance under the empire, it is mentioned as occupied by the Lombards. Sutri retained its strategic importance as a fortified place near the borders of the Duchy of Rome; the Donation of Sutri was an agreement reached at Sutri between the Lombard king Liutprand the Lombard and Pope Gregory II in 728. At Sutri the two reached an agreement, by which Sutri and some hill towns in Latium were given to the Papacy, "as a gift to the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul" according to the Liber Pontificalis; the pact formed the first extension of Papal territory beyond the confines of the Duchy of Rome. An important hoard of jewellery dating from this time, known as the Sutri Treasure, was found near the town in the 19th century.
It is now in the British Museum. Sutri, the seat of a bishopric, was retrieved for the Papacy after the defeat of the Lombards. Pope Gregory VI abdicated at Sutri on December 20, 1046, following the Synod of Sutri convened at the request of Emperor Henry III. In 1111 it was the seat of the treaty between Paschal II and Emperor Henry V. In 1244 it was conquered by Pietro di Vico, but was taken by Pandolfo, count of Anguillara, who gave it back to the Papal States; the city witnessed the struggles between Ghibellines. In 1433 the condottiero Niccolò Fortebraccio set fire to Sutri, from that point onward the city declined in favour of Ronciglione. Established circa 500 as Diocese of Sutri or Sutrium, without direct predecessor. In 900 it gained canonical territory from the suppressed Diocese of Monterano. Pope Gregory VI abdicated at Sutri on December 20, 1046, following the Synod of Sutri, a non-ecumenical council convened at the request of Emperor Henry III to resolve three rival claims to the papacy in favor of an imperial German protégé, Pope Clement II.
On 1435.12.12 it was suppressed itself, its territory and title being merged into the newly renamed Diocese of Nepi-Sutri. Recorded incumbent Bishops: Tommaso, Dominican Order The diocese was nominally restored in 1991 as Latin Titular bishopric of Sutri or Sutrium, it has had the following incumbents, of the fitting episcopal rank with two archiepiscopal exceptions: Titular Archbishop: Paolo Sardi, nbetween Roman Curia offices: Vice-Assessor for General Affairs of Papal Secretariat of State Vice-Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church of the Apostolic Camera, Pro-Patron of Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, created Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in Via Tuscolana, promoted Patron of above Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta Titular Bishop: Christoph Schönborn, Dominican order as Auxiliary Bishop of Wien; the cathedral, of Romanesque origin, is modern: of the medieval edifice the belltower and the crypt, from the Lombard period, with seven naves divided by twenty columns of different origin.
In the cliffs opposite the town on the south is the rock-cut church of the Madonna del Parto, developed out of one of the numerous Etruscan tombs of the area. The most striking edifice is the
Anguillara Sabazia is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, central Italy, around 30 kilometres northwest of Rome. It nestles on a small cape on the coast of Lake Bracciano. Anguillara is served by a local train. About 3 kilometres east of the town lies the small, volcanic Lake Martignano popular with tourists; the two lakes and the surrounding area have been declared a Regional Park and are under a strict naturalistic control. A two-part episode of the American sitcom Everybody Loves. Official website
Campagnano di Roma
Campagnano di Roma is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 30 kilometres northwest of Rome. It was first mentioned in 1076, having been carved out of the great estate assembled on the Roman pattern by Pope Adrian I, ca. 780, his Domusculta Capracorum. In medieval times, Campagnano di Roma was on the via Francigena. Here, Archbishop of Canterbury, sojourned on his return journey from Rome about 990. Campagnano di Roma borders the following municipalities: Anguillara Sabazia, Magliano Romano, Mazzano Romano, Rome, Trevignano Romano; the Archaeological Park of Veii is nearby. Official website