Clark County, Nevada
Clark County is located in the U. S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 1,951,269, with an estimated population of 2,204,079 in 2017, it is by far the most populous county in Nevada, accounting for nearly three-quarters of the state's residents–thus making Nevada one of the most centralized states in the nation. Las Vegas, the state's most populous city, has been the county seat since the county's establishment; the county was formed by the Nevada Legislature by splitting off a portion of Lincoln County on February 5, 1909, was organized on July 1, 1909. The Las Vegas Valley, a 600 sq mi basin, includes Las Vegas and other major cities and communities such as North Las Vegas and the unincorporated community of Paradise. Part of the Mexican Territory of Alta California, the Clark County lands were first traversed by American beaver trappers. Word of their journeys inspired the New Mexican merchant Antonio Armijo in 1829 to establish the first route for mule trains and herds of livestock from Nuevo Mexico to Alta California through the area, along the Virgin and Colorado Rivers.
Called the Armijo Route of the Old Spanish Trail, the route was modified into the Main Route by the passing merchants, drovers, Ute raiders and settlers over the years by moving to a more direct route. In Clark County it was northward away from the Colorado to a series of creeks and springs like those at Las Vegas, to which John C. Frémont added Frémont's_Cutoff on his return from California to Utah in 1844. What is now Clark County was acquired by the United States during the Mexican American War, becoming part of the northwestern corner of New Mexico Territory. In 1847, Jefferson Hunt and other Mormon Battalion members returning to Salt Lake City from Los Angeles pioneered a wagon route through the County that became the Mormon Road. In 1849, this road became known as the "Southern Route", the winter route of the California Trail from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles during the California Gold Rush. By the mid 1850s the route now known as the Salt Lake Road in California and the California Road in Utah Territory, was a wagon trade route between the two.
In the mid 1850s Mormons established a settlement at Las Vegas. In the 1860s Mormon colonies were established along the Muddy Rivers. All of the county was part of Mohave County, Arizona Territory, when that Territory was formed in 1863, before Nevada became a state. In 1865, it became part of Arizona Territory; the part of Pah-Ute County north and west of the Colorado River was assigned to the new State of Nevada in 1866, however Arizona territory fought the division until 1871. Pah-Ute County became part of Lincoln County and the westernmost part, the southernmost part of Nye County. Clark County was named for William Andrews Clark, a Montana copper magnate and U. S. Senator. Clark was responsible for construction of the Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad through the area, contributing to the region's early development. Clark County is a major tourist destination, with 150,000 hotel rooms; the Las Vegas Strip, home to most of the hotel-casinos known to many around the world, is not within the City of Las Vegas city limits, but in unincorporated Paradise.
It is, however, in the Las Vegas Valley. Clark County is coextensive with the Las Vegas–Paradise, NV Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan statistical area designated by the Office of Management and Budget and used by the United States Census Bureau and other agencies for statistical purposes; the Colorado River forms the county's southeastern boundary, with Hoover Dam forming Lake Mead along much of its length. The lowest point in the state of Nevada is on the Colorado River just south of Laughlin in Clark County, where it flows out of Nevada into California and Arizona. Greater Las Vegas is a tectonic valley, surrounded by four mountain ranges, with nearby Mount Charleston being the highest elevation at 11,918 ft, located to the northwest. Other than the forests on Mount Charleston, the geography in Clark County is a desert. Creosote bushes are the main native vegetation, the mountains are rocky with little vegetation; the terrain slopes to the east. The county has an area of 8,061 square miles, of which 7,891 square miles is land and 169 square miles is water.
20 official wilderness areas in Clark County are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Many of these are in, or in, one of the preceding protected areas, as shown below. Many are separate entities that are managed by the Bureau of Land Management: In 2000 there were 512,253 households out of which 31.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.70% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.70% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.70% had someone living alone, above age 64. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.17. The county population contained 25.60% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 32.20% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 10.70% who were over age 64. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 103.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $53,536, the median income for a family was $59,485.
Males had a median income of $35,243 versus $27,077 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,785. About 7.90% of families and 10.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.10% of those under age 18 and 7.30% of those over age 64. Large numbers of new residents in the state originate from California; as of the 201
Davis Dam is a dam on the Colorado River about 70 miles downstream from Hoover Dam. It stretches across the border between Nevada. Called Bullhead Dam, Davis Dam was renamed after Arthur Powell Davis, the director of the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation from 1914 to 1923; the United States Bureau of Reclamation owns and operates the dam, completed in 1951. Davis Dam forms Lake Mohave. Davis DamDavis Dam is a zoned earth-fill dam with a concrete spillway, 1,600 ft in length at the crest, 200 ft high; the earth fill dam begins on the Nevada side, but it does not extend to the Arizona side on the east. Instead, there is an inlet formed by concrete, that includes the spillway; the hydroelectric power plant is beside the inlet. The dam's purpose is to re-regulate releases from Hoover Dam upstream, facilitate the delivery of Colorado River water to Mexico. Bullhead City and Laughlin, are located just below the dam along the river. Davis Camp is nearby. Bullhead City was a construction town for workers building the dam.
A road is located on the crest of the earth fill portion of the dam and a Forebay Bridge spans the Forebay. It was part of Arizona State Route 68 to Nevada. In April 2004, the roadway was shut down to vehicle traffic. Pedestrian and bicycle traffic are permitted; the old roadway is now an extension of the Heritage Trail system. Barriers have been placed on the former road at each end of the earthen dam; the facility is patrolled by security forces who enforce parking regulations. Davis Dam Hydroelectric Power PlantThe Davis Dam Power Plant is a hydroelectric power plant located on the Arizona side of the dam, beside the inlet; the hydroelectric plant generates between 2 terawatt-hours of electricity annually. The plant has a capacity of 251 MW and the tops of its five Francis turbines are visible from outside the plant; the plant's head is 136 ft. Dams of the Lower Colorado River Valley Bullhead City, Arizona Laughlin, Nevada List of power stations in the United States USBR - Davis Dam USBR - Davis Power Plant USBR - Parker-Davis Project USGS - Real Time Water Data Historic American Engineering Record No.
AZ-77, "Davis Dam" HAER No. AZ-77-A, "Davis Dam, Switchyards"
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Cottonwood Valley (Arizona and Nevada)
Cottonwood Valley is a wide valley, on the Colorado River on the border between Mohave County and Clark County, Nevada. It extends east and west from the river into both states and is the first wide valley south of the Black Canyon of the Colorado, the last in a series of great canyons the Colorado River passes through after leaving the Rocky Mountains on its way west and where it makes its turn to the south toward the Gulf of California. All of the Colorado River in Cottonwood Valley and the lower reach of the Black Canyon of the Colorado is now under Lake Mohave. List of valleys of the Lower Colorado River Valley Media related to Cottonwood Valley at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Cottonwood Cove, Nevada) at Wikimedia Commons
Centrarchidae are a family of freshwater ray-finned fish belonging to the order Perciformes. The type genus is Centrarchus; the centrarchid family comprises 38 species of fish, 34 of which are extant and includes many fish familiar to North Americans, including the rock bass, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed, green sunfish, crappies. All species in the family are native to only North America. There are eight genera included within Centrarchidae: Lepomis, Pomoxis, Centrarchus, Archoplites and Acantharchus. Most sunfish are valued for sport fishing, have been introduced in many areas outside their original ranges, sometimes becoming invasive species. While edible, they are not commercially marketed as a food fish. Family members are distinguished by having a laterally compressed body shape, 3 to 8 anal spines, 2 dorsal fins which are fused; the number of dorsal spines varies from 6 to 13. All species in Micropterus and Lepomis have 3 anal spines, which distinguishes them from the other genera in the family.
The pseudobranch is concealed. Body size varies within the family with the black-banded sunfish at just 8 cm in length, while the largemouth bass is reported to reach 1 m in extreme cases. Many of the species within Centrarchidae can be separated into two main groups based on the two most common genera. Species in the genera Lepomis are defined by a deep or more round body shape, smaller mouths, obtaining food through suction feeding. Species in the genera Micropterus are defined by a more streamlined body shape, larger mouths, consuming prey by ram feeding methods. Centrarchids prefer clear and slower-moving water, are found in habitats such as lakes, medium to low flow streams and rivers, swamps, they prefer to live in and around aquatic vegetation so they can get adequate coverage from predators. While few species in the family diverge from the aforementioned habitat list, the Sacramento perch can survive in habitats with unusually high alkalinity and temperatures. Centrarchids can be found in various locations within the water column and their exact preference is species specific.
For instance, bluegill inhabit the deeper littoral zones, while green sunfish prefer habitats near the shoreline and shallower areas. Suction feeders within the family feed off the bottom of their habitat, while ram feeders feed in more open areas known as the limnetic zone. Centrarchids diet consists of other fish found in their habitat. In freshwater systems, water temperature is determined by many abiotic factors, with air temperature being one of the most significant contributors; as in other ectotherms, many physiological processes and behaviors in Centrarchidae, such as feeding and reproduction, are impacted by the temperature in their environment. All species in the family Centrarchidae are considered warmwater adapted species. In general, warmwater adapted species are characterized as being larger at higher temperatures and lower latitudes; the optimal temperature range of most species in the family is 28oC to 32oC, although they can survive and reproduce in temperatures that are outside of this optimum range.
Increases in temperature outside the optimal range for centrarchids can have negative effects, such as speeding up reproductive maturity or increasing mortality after the first reproductive event. The lethal temperature range varies in the family, but some species have been seen to survive water temperatures as low as 1.7oC or as high as 41oC. Centrarchids spawn in the spring, juveniles emerge in the late spring to early summer; the transition from winter to spring conditions is the main cue for centrarchids to begin preparing for reproduction. All species within Centrarchidae, except for those in the genus Micropterus, develop breeding coloration in both males and females during the breeding season; the process of courtship and reproduction is nearly identical for all species in the family, a major reason for the high levels of hybridization within Centrarchidae. With that said, there are some mechanisms in place to prevent hybridization, such as intricate morphology of the operculum in Lepomis, which assists in recognition of conspecific mates.
To initiate reproduction, males dig a deep circular depression in the substrate with their caudal fins to create a nest, which they will aggressively defend from intruding males. Males and females undergo a courtship dancing ritual before the female deposits her eggs into the male's nest. Multiple females may deposit eggs in a single nest. Larger males attract more mates and take better care of their offspring. Male parental care includes nest building, nest guarding, guarding of eggs and fry, nest fanning. Males unsuccessful at courtship may exhibit a cheater strategy where they sneak fertilizations of female's eggs by various behavioral methods; this is seen with smaller males in the genus Lepomis. The native range of Centrarchidae is confined within North America, covering most of the United States and stopping in southern Canada; the northern edge of the native range is bound by temperature due to reduced foraging abili
Hoover Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U. S. states of Nevada and Arizona. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30, 1935, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, its construction was the result of a massive effort involving thousands of workers, cost over one hundred lives. Known as Boulder Dam from 1933, it was renamed Hoover Dam, for President Herbert Hoover, by a joint resolution of Congress in 1947. Since about 1900, the Black Canyon and nearby Boulder Canyon had been investigated for their potential to support a dam that would control floods, provide irrigation water and produce hydroelectric power. In 1928, Congress authorized the project; the winning bid to build the dam was submitted by a consortium called Six Companies, Inc. which began construction on the dam in early 1931. Such a large concrete structure had never been built before, some of the techniques were unproven.
The torrid summer weather and lack of facilities near the site presented difficulties. Six Companies turned the dam over to the federal government on March 1, 1936, more than two years ahead of schedule. Hoover Dam impounds the largest reservoir in the United States by volume; the dam is located near Boulder City, Nevada, a municipality constructed for workers on the construction project, about 30 mi southeast of Las Vegas, Nevada. The dam's generators provide power for public and private utilities in Nevada and California. Hoover Dam is a major tourist attraction; the traveled U. S. Route 93 ran along the dam's crest until October 2010; as the United States developed the Southwest, the Colorado River was seen as a potential source of irrigation water. An initial attempt at diverting the river for irrigation purposes occurred in the late 1890s, when land speculator William Beatty built the Alamo Canal just north of the Mexican border. Though water from the Imperial Canal allowed for the widespread settlement of the valley, the canal proved expensive to maintain.
After a catastrophic breach that caused the Colorado River to fill the Salton Sea, the Southern Pacific Railroad spent $3 million in 1906–07 to stabilize the waterway, an amount it hoped in vain would be reimbursed by the Federal Government. After the waterway was stabilized, it proved unsatisfactory because of constant disputes with landowners on the Mexican side of the border; as the technology of electric power transmission improved, the Lower Colorado was considered for its hydroelectric-power potential. In 1902, the Edison Electric Company of Los Angeles surveyed the river in the hope of building a 40-foot rock dam which could generate 10,000 horsepower. However, at the time, the limit of transmission of electric power was 80 miles, there were few customers within that limit. Edison allowed land options it held on the river to lapse—including an option for what became the site of Hoover Dam. In the following years, the Bureau of Reclamation, known as the Reclamation Service at the time considered the Lower Colorado as the site for a dam.
Service chief Arthur Powell Davis proposed using dynamite to collapse the walls of Boulder Canyon, 20 miles north of the eventual dam site, into the river. The river would carry off the smaller pieces of debris, a dam would be built incorporating the remaining rubble. In 1922, after considering it for several years, the Reclamation Service rejected the proposal, citing doubts about the unproven technique and questions as to whether it would in fact save money. In 1922, the Reclamation Service presented a report calling for the development of a dam on the Colorado River for flood control and electric power generation; the report was principally authored by Davis, was called the Fall-Davis report after Interior Secretary Albert Fall. The Fall-Davis report cited use of the Colorado River as a federal concern because the river's basin covered several states, the river entered Mexico. Though the Fall-Davis report called for a dam "at or near Boulder Canyon", the Reclamation Service found that canyon unsuitable.
One potential site at Boulder Canyon was bisected by a geologic fault. The Service found it ideal. Despite the site change, the dam project was referred to as the "Boulder Canyon Project". With little guidance on water allocation from the Supreme Court, proponents of the dam feared endless litigation. A Colorado attorney proposed that the seven states which fell within the river's basin form an interstate compact, with the approval of Congress; such compacts were authorized by Article I of the United States Constitution but had never been concluded among more than two states. In 1922, representatives of seven states met with then-Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover. Initial talks produced no result, but when the Supreme Court handed down the Wyoming v. Colorado decision undermining the claims of the upstream states, they became anxious to reach an agreement; the resulting Colorado River Compact was signed on November 24, 1922. Legislation to authorize the dam was introduced by two California Republicans, Representative Phi