It was proclaimed as a city on 24 May 1950. It is named after Mount Ararat 10 kilometres south west of the town which was named by Horatio Wills in 1841, prior to the European settlement of Australia, Ararat was inhabited by the Tjapwurong Indigenous Australian people. Europeans first settled in the Grampians region in the 1840s after surveyor Thomas Mitchell passed through the area in 1836. In 1841, Horatio Wills, on his way to selecting country further south, wrote in his diary and it is from this entry and the nearby Mount that the town takes its name. The Post Office opened 1 February 1856 although known as Cathcart until 31 August 1857, in 1857, a party of Chinese miners en route to the Central Victorian gold fields struck gold at the Canton Lead which marked the beginning of great growth in Ararat. The Chinese community was substantial in Ararat, and the Gum San Chinese Heritage Centre commemorates the history of the community, rapid growth brought about a municipality, which was incorporated as a borough on 24 September 1858.
Ararat became a city of asylums, with a large facility Aradale Mental Hospital was opened in 1865 and J Ward, both have been closed but remain as significant reminders of the citys role in the treatment of mentally ill patients. Vines were planted in 1863 by Swiss settlers, the Pola family, Ararats economy is driven by primary industries of the region including wool and the Grampians Wine Region. The region has a number of farms including the Challicum Hills Wind Farm produce large amounts of renewable energy to the National Electricity Market. It is home to AF Gason Pty Ltd one of Australias largest manufacturers of farm machinery, the city has a significant service economy with health, community services and is a regional commerce centre. HM Prison Ararat is located in the town, key tourist attractions include the Ararat Regional Art Gallery, Mount Langi Ghiran winery, tours through Aradale and the Gum San Chinese Heritage Centre. Ararat is nestled between mountain ranges, including the Grampians National Park, Mount Langi Ghiran, Mount Cole, Mount Buangor, Ararat Hills Regional Park.
Cemetery Creek, the main catchment runs through the north of the town while Green Hill lake is on the citys eastern fringe. 88% of people in Ararat were born in Australia, 62% of people in Ararat identify as Christian. Anglican and Catholic faiths are represented with 18% of people identifying with each. The city is the location of the offices and seat of government for the Rural City of Ararat local government area. Ararat is represented by the federal Division of Wannon, for law enforcement, Ararat has a single police station as well as a magistrates court and a childrens court all located on Barkly Street. Ararat has four primary schools - Ararat 800 Primary, Ararat West Primary, Ararat North Primary, in addition there are several kindergartens in the city
Lake Mungo is a dry lake located in south-eastern Australia, in the south-western portion of New South Wales. It is about 760 km due west of Sydney and 90 km north-east of Mildura, the lake is the central feature of Mungo National Park, and is one of seventeen lakes in the World Heritage listed Willandra Lakes Region. Sediments at Lake Mungo have been deposited over more than 120,000 years, on the eastern side of the Mungo lakebed are the Walls of China, a series of up to 40m high sand dunes that stretch for more than 33 km. There are three layers of sands and soil forming the Walls. The oldest is the reddish Gol Gol layer, formed between 100,000 and 120,000 years ago, the middle greyish layer is the Mungo layer, deposited between 50,000 and 25,000 years ago. The most recent is the Zanci layer, which is pale brown, the Mungo layer, which was deposited before the last ice age period, is the most archaeologically rich. Although the layer corresponded with a time of low rainfall and cooler weather, more rainwater ran off the side of the Great Dividing Range during that period.
It supported a significant human population, as well as varieties of Australian megafauna. During the last ice age period, the level in the lake dropped. This made the soil alkaline, which helped to preserve the remains left behind in the Walls, although the lake completely dried up several thousand years ago, ground vegetation remained on the Walls, which helped to stabilise them and protect them from erosion. With the arrival of European settlers in the area since the 1880s, introduced species, notably rabbits, herds of feral goats are present in the region. This has led to increased erosion of the dunes, this erosion has led to the uncovering of many human and animal remains. Wind has moved sand and soil eastwards from the Walls, forming a sand dune which moves further east every year. The most important findings at Lake Mungo have been Mungo Man, Mungo Lady, a partially cremated body, was discovered in 1969 by Dr Jim Bowler from the Australian National University. Mungo Lady was only partially cremated before the remainder of her bones were crushed, the time that was taken into her burial is demonstration of an advanced ritualistic process.
She was initially estimated to be 25,000 years old, Mungo Lady is thus the earliest known human to have been cremated. Mungo Man was discovered by Dr Bowler, on 26 February 1974, the remains were covered with red ochre, in what is the earliest known incidence of such a burial practice. Red ochre is used in burials for ritualistic purposes
After Dark Horrorfest
After Dark Horrorfest was an annual horror film festival featuring eight independent horror movies, sometimes with secret bonus films, all distributed by After Dark Films in the USA. The first HorrorFest was held in 2006, in 2011, Horrorfest was replaced with After Dark Originals, composed of original films from After Dark and not previously acquired ones. After Darks HorrorFest for 2006 was scheduled for November 17 through November 21,2006. The films shown during the course of the festival were, The Abandoned A film producer, who was adopted as a baby and sent to America, returns to her native Russia, once there, strange things begin to happen. After completion of the festival, this film was re-released to general theatres on February 23,2007, the Gravedancers A group of friends lives are invaded by a trio of hostile ghosts after they engage in a drunken bout of grave-dancing during a wake for an old chum. Except that they usually wind up killing them, penny Dreadful A young girl and her therapist take a road trip to help her overcome her phobia of riding in cars.
This trip turns deadly as a mental patient starts a new spree of killings. Reincarnation A Japanese film crew recreates a gruesome murder at a rural hotel only to find themselves suffer fates they are acting out in the film. Unrest A med student collapses upon sensing a presence about her cadaver and her fears are strengthened by the mysterious death of a friend. She must discover the connection before an angry spirit can wreak further vengeance, Wicked Little Things Recently widowed Karen Tunny and her two daughters and Emma, move to a remote mountain home in Pennsylvania which Karen has inherited from the family of her late husband. However, she is unaware that the home is situated near an old coal mine, and have now become zombies out to avenge their deaths. On Thursday, November 16,2006, Dark Delicacies, a bookstore in Burbank, CA hosted a signing event with about 30 filmmakers. A contest for the official spokeswoman of the series and for After Dark Films, was announced September 2006 on YouTube.
The four finalists were chieko13, msblackbetty and Ysabella Brave, internet voting ended on November 9,2006. Msblackbetty was named Miss HorrorFest 2006 on November 18,2006,7 of the original list of 8 films from the 2006 festival were released on DVD on March 27,2007. The Abandoned was released on June 19,2007, the delay having been caused by the theatrical re-release, of the bonus films, Snoop Doggs Hood of Horror was released on September 11,2007, and The Tripper was released by Fox Video on October 23,2007. After Darks HorrorFest for 2007 was scheduled for November 9 through November 18,2007, the eight films shown during the course of the festival were, Borderland Phil and his two college buddies road-trip down to a Mexican border town to celebrate their college graduation. While there, they run into a cult looking for human sacrifice, crazy Eights After a mutual childhood friend dies, six friends reunite for the funeral
A hoax is a deliberately fabricated falsehood made to masquerade as the truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, urban legends, although practical jokes have likely existed for thousands of years, one of the earliest recorded hoaxes in history was the drummer of Tedworth in 1661. The communication of hoaxes can be accomplished in almost any manner that a story can be communicated, in person, via word of mouth, via words printed on paper. However, hoaxes could be spread via chain letters, which became easier as the cost of mailing a letter dropped. The invention of the press in the 15th century brought down the cost of a mass-produced books and pamphlets. During the 20th century, the hoax found a market in the form of supermarket tabloids. Hocus is a shortening of the magic incantation hocus pocus, whose origin is disputed, robert Nares defined the word hoax as meaning to cheat, dating from Thomas Adys 1656 book A candle in the dark, or a treatise on the nature of witches and witchcraft. T.
Barnum, whose Fiji mermaid contributed to his wealth—often acquire monetary gain or fame through their fabrications, one of the earliest recorded media hoaxes is a fake almanac published by Jonathan Swift under the pseudonym of Isaac Bickerstaff in 1708. Swift predicted the death of John Partridge, one of the astrologers in England at that time, in the almanac. Partridges reputation was damaged as a result and his astrological almanac was not published for the six years. It is possible to perpetrate a hoax by making only true statements using unfamiliar wording or context, political hoaxes are sometimes motivated by the desire to ridicule or besmirch opposing politicians or political institutions, often before elections. A hoax differs from a trick or from fiction in that the audience is unaware of being deceived. A hoax is often intended as a joke or to cause embarrassment. It can emerge from a marketing or advertising purpose, a resulting video clip of Chloe and Keiths Wedding was uploaded to YouTube and was viewed by over 30 million people and the couple was interviewed by numerous talk shows.
Viewers were deluded into thinking that it was a clip of a real accident at a real wedding. A borderline case between fiction and hoax is a 1938 radio broadcast by Orson Welles describing a Martian invasion of Earth, many people who tuned in without hearing the introduction of the program as fiction were concerned that the invasion was real. Governments sometimes spread false information to facilitate their objectives, such as going to war, the Iraq dossier is an example of this, there is often a mixture of outright hoax and suppression and management of information to give the desired impression. In wartime and times of international tension rumors abound, some of which may be deliberate hoaxes, examples of politics-related hoaxes, Belgium is a country with a Flemish-speaking region and a French-speaking region
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, playback and display of moving visual media. Video systems vary greatly in the resolution of the display and refresh rate, video can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, tapes, DVDs, computer files etc. Video was originally exclusively a live technology, charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder. In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the electrical impulses. Video recorders were sold for $50,000 in 1956, prices gradually dropped over the years, in 1971, Sony began selling videocassette recorder decks and tapes into the consumer market. The use of techniques in video created digital video, which allowed higher quality and, eventually. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape, the advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. PAL standards and SECAM specify 25 frame/s, while NTSC standards specify 29.97 frames, film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which slightly complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video.
The minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of an image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be interlaced or progressive, analog display devices reproduce each frame in the same way, effectively doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats, abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence, when displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Deinterlacing cannot, produce video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material, aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements.
All popular video formats are rectilinear, and so can be described by a ratio between width and height, the screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4,3, or about 1.33,1. High definition televisions use a ratio of 16,9. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack is 1.375,1. Therefore, a 720 by 480 pixel NTSC DV image displayes with the 4,3 aspect ratio if the pixels are thin, the popularity of viewing video on mobile phones has led to the growth of vertical video
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
South by Southwest
South by Southwest is an annual conglomerate of film, interactive media, and music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March in Austin, United States. It began in 1987, and has continued to grow in scope and size every year. In 2011, the conference lasted for 10 days with SXSW Interactive lasting for 5 days, Music for 6 days, SXSW is run by the company SXSW, LLC which organizes conferences, trade shows and other events. SXSW Music is the largest music festival of its kind in the world, SXSW Music offers artist-provided music and video samples of featured artists at each festival via their official YouTube channel. The music event has grown from 700 registrants in 1987 to over 28,000 registrants, SXSW Film and SXSW Interactive events have grown every year, most recently bringing over 51,000 registrants to Austin every March. Bands must cover their own expenses for travel and lodging at the event, All performers are offered a cash payment or a wristband package that allows access to all music events.
SXSW Film Conference spans five days of conference panels and sessions, programming consists of keynote speakers, workshops, mentor sessions and more, with expert filmmakers and industry leaders. In 2015, the SXSW Film Conference programmed over 250 sessions with 735 speakers, the SXSW Film Festival runs nine days, simultaneously with the SXSW Film Conference, and celebrates raw innovation and emerging talent both behind and in front of the camera. The SXSW Film Awards, which occur on the last day of the Film Conference, honor films selected by the Feature, in 2015, the SXSW Film Festival programmed 150 feature films and 106 short films, selected from 7,361 submissions. Past notable world premieres include Furious 7, Chef,21 Jump Street, The Cabin in the Woods and Insidious, and the TV series Girls, Silicon Valley and Penny Dreadful. SXSW Interactive is focused on emerging technology, a focus which has earned the festival a reputation as a ground for new ideas. The festival includes a show, parties.
According to a festival organizer Louis Black, SXSW Interactive has probably been the biggest of its kind in the world since 2007, Louis Meyers, a booking agent and musician, was brought on board. Black came up with the name, as a play on the name of the Alfred Hitchcock film North by Northwest, the event was first held in March 1987. The organizers considered it an event and expected around 150 attendees to show up, but over 700 came. Meyers left Austin and the festival in the early 1990s, but Black, singer-songwriter Michelle Shocked was the keynote speaker at the 1992 South by Southwest. In 1993, SXSW moved into the Austin Convention Center, where it is still held, in 1994, SXSW added a component for film and other media, named the SXSW Film and Multimedia Conference. Johnny Cash was the keynote speaker and that year, the three brothers of the band Hanson were brought to SXSW by their father in order to perform impromptu auditions for music executives, in the hopes of getting industry attention
Special Broadcasting Service
The Special Broadcasting Service is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television network. SBS operates four TV channels and five radio networks, SBS Online is home to SBS On Demand video streaming service. SBS is one of five main networks in Australia. These started broadcasting in June 1975, with pre-recorded messages in seven and eight foreign languages, the following year, the Federal Government formed the Consultative Committee on Ethnic Broadcasting. Following the recommendation of this and subsequent committees, the Broadcasting and this legislation came into force on 1 January 1978, with the new broadcaster taking responsibility for 2EA and 3EA. SBS TV began test transmissions in April 1979 when it showed various foreign language programs on ABV-2 Melbourne, full-time transmission began at 6,30 p. m. on 24 October 1980, as Channel 0/28. The first program shown was a documentary entitled Who Are We. which was hosted by veteran news man Peter Luck, at the time, SBS was broadcasting on UHF Channel 28 and VHF Channel 0, with a planned discontinuation of the latter at some time in the future.
Bruce Gyngell, who introduced television to Australia back in 1956, was given the task of introducing the first batch of programs on the new station. On 14 October 1983, the service expanded into Canberra and its new slogan was the long-running Bringing the World Back Home. The network changed its name to SBS on 18 February 1985, SBS expanded to Brisbane, Newcastle and the Gold Coast in June of that year. On 5 January 1986, SBS ceased broadcasting on the VHF channel 0 frequency, in August 1986, the government proposed legislation that would merge SBS into the ABC. This was highly unpopular with ethnic-minority communities, leading Prime Minister Bob Hawke to announce in 1987 that the amalgamation would not proceed. The SBS Radio and Television Youth Orchestra was launched in 1988 with founding conductor Matthew Krel, plans to introduce limited commercial-program sponsorship, and the establishment of SBS as an independent corporation with its own Charter, were put in place in July 1989. Eat Carpet, showcasing local and international films, was launched in 1989.
The proclamation of the Special Broadcasting Service Act 1991 officially made SBS a corporation in 1991, throughout the early 1990s, SBS TV coverage was expanded further to include new areas such as the Latrobe Valley, Spencer Gulf, northeast Tasmania and Townsville. In 1992, SBSs radio and television facilities were moved to new headquarters in Artarmon, New South Wales, from their original studios at Bondi Junction. The new building was opened on the 10 November 1993 by Prime Minister Paul Keating. A national radio network was launched in January 1994, the new service initially covered Brisbane, Adelaide and Darwin, while original stations 2EA and 3EA were renamed Radio Sydney and Radio Melbourne, respectively
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. It is the 11th-most populous city in the U. S. and it is the fastest growing large city in the United States and the second most populous capital city after Phoenix, Arizona. As of the U. S. Census Bureaus July 1,2015 estimate and it is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 2,056,405 as of July 1,2016. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River, in 1839, the site was officially chosen to replace Houston as the new capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name Waterloo. Shortly thereafter, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the Father of Texas and the republics first secretary of state. The city subsequently grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin.
After a lull in growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its development into a city and, by the 1980s, it emerged as a center for technology. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin, including Amazon. com, cisco, eBay, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, Texas Instruments, 3M, and Whole Foods Market. Dells worldwide headquarters is located in nearby Round Rock, a suburb of Austin, residents of Austin are known as Austinites. They include a mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers. The city adopted Silicon Hills as a nickname in the 1990s due to an influx of technology. In the late 1800s, Austin was known as the City of the Violet Crown because of the glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Even today, many Austin businesses use the term Violet Crown in their name, Austin is known as a clean-air city for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars.
The FBI ranked Austin as the second-safest major city in the U. S. for the year 2012, U. S. News & World Report named Austin the best place to live in the U. S. in 2017. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of habitation since at least 9200 BC. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area, the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, in 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin. The mission was in area for only about seven months
Cinema of Australia
The Australian film industry has its beginnings with the 1906 production of The Story of the Kelly Gang, the earliest feature film ever made. Since then, many films have produced in Australia, a number of which have received international recognition. Cinema in Australia began with the first public screenings of films in Australia in October 1896, the first Australian exhibition took place at the Athenaeum Hall in Collins Street, Melbourne, to provide alternative entertainment for the dance hall patrons. The venue would continue screenings, but these were all short films, commercially successful Australian films have included Paul Hogans Crocodile Dundee, Baz Luhrmanns Moulin Rouge. Other award winning productions include Picnic at Hanging Rock, The Tracker, the Athanaeum Hall in Collins Street, was a dance hall from the 1880s, which from time to time would provide alternative entertainment to patrons. In October 1896, it exhibited the first movie shown in Australia, the Athanaeum would continue screenings, but these early screenings were all short films.
The earliest feature length film in the world was the Australian produced The Story of the Kelly Gang. The film was written and directed by Charles Tait and included several of his family, the film was exhibited in the United Kingdom, and was commercially very successful. Melbourne was home of one of the worlds first film studios, the Limelight Department produced evangelical material for use by the Salvation Army, as well as private and government contracts. In its 19 years of operation, the Limelight Department produced about 300 films of various lengths, soldiers of the Cross fortified the Limelight Department as a major player in the early film industry. The Limelight Department was commissioned to film the Federation of Australia, the 1910s was a boom period in Australian cinema. While these numbers may seem small, Australia was one of the most prolific film-producing countries at the time, in all, between 1906 and 1928,150 narrative feature films were made, of which almost 90 were made between 1910 and 1912.
There are various explanations for the decline of the industry in the 1920s. Some historians point to falling numbers, a lack of interest in Australian product and narratives. Also, there was a ban on bushranger films in 1912. To redress this imbalance, the government imposed a tax on imported film in 1914. Whatever the explanation, by 1923, American films dominated the Australian market with 94% of all exhibited films coming from that country, in 1930, F. W. Thring established the Efftee Studios based in Melbourne to make talking films using optical sound equipment imported from the USA. The first sound films produced were in 1931, when the company produced Diggers, A Co-respondents Course, The Haunted Barn, during the five years of its existence, Efftee produced nine features, over 80 shorts and several stage productions