Morena Dam is a rockfill dam across Cottonwood Creek, a tributary of the Tijuana River, in southern San Diego County, California in the United States. Completed in 1912 and raised several times afterward, the dam is one of the oldest components of the city of San Diego's municipal water system, providing between 1,600 to 15,000 acre feet of water per year, it is one of the few facilities in the San Diego water supply system that relies on local runoff. Morena Dam is located in the Cleveland National Forest at the headwaters of Cottonwood Creek, about 40 miles east of downtown San Diego; the dam is 167 feet high from the riverbed and 550 feet long, with a height of 177 feet from the foundations. Altogether the dam contains 335,300 cubic yards of rock fill. At its full height, the reservoir can hold 50,694 acre feet of water; the drainage area above the dam is 114 square miles and includes the tributary Morena Creek, for which the dam and reservoir are named. Water is released via a 387-foot long tunnel, fed by an intake tower that can draw up to 595 cubic feet per second water from different elevations of the reservoir.
The spillway is located on the north side of the dam and has a crest 310 feet long, topping out at 3,039 feet above sea level. Flood flows through the spillway are controlled by steel flash gates 7.5 feet high. The spillway has a capacity of 25,000 cubic feet per second; the Morena reservoir serves for long-term storage of winter flood flows in Cottonwood Creek, is the uppermost of a chain of three reservoirs – Lower Otay and Morena – that provide water to the city of San Diego. Water released from Morena Dam travels several miles down Cottonwood Creek to Barrett Lake, where it is diverted to Lower Otay via the 14-mile long Dulzura Conduit. From Lower Otay Reservoir the water enters the Otay Water Treatment Plant, before flowing into the municipal water network; the entire project is known as the Cottonwood-Otay Water System. Providing the city's main water supply, it was relegated to a secondary role after the city began importing water from the Colorado River in 1939; the reservoir now provides a backup water supply, drawn down during dry years, when stored local water provides a much cheaper alternative than imported water – costing $240 per acre-foot whereas Colorado River water costs about $800 per acre-foot.
On average, Morena provides only about 3 percent of the city's total supply. As Morena Reservoir has a larger surface area and thus greater evaporative losses than Barrett Lake, the city prioritizes storage in Barrett. Water is moved downstream from Morena as as possible, if storage space is available in the lower reservoir. In addition, the watershed above Morena does not produce enough runoff to fill the reservoir, except in wet years. Inflows average 10,218 acre feet per year, or a fifth of the storage capacity; as a result, Morena only reaches spillway level about once per decade. The dam was first proposed in the 1880s by the Southern California Mountain Water Company, which envisioned a system of reservoirs and connecting pipelines to transport water from the Tijuana and Otay river basins to San Diego. A bond issue was approved in 1896 for construction of the Morena Dam, which would form the highest and most remote of the reservoirs. Construction began in fall 1896, directed by San Diego city engineer Edwin Capps.
The initial construction was fraught with problems caused by leakage and poor engineering, work stopped in April 1898. It was not under engineer Michael O'Shaughnessy; the job was finished in 1912, at a cost of about $1.5 million. The city of San Diego purchased the dam from Mountain Water Company in 1914. Since it has been raised several times to increase its capacity – 5 feet in 1917, 10 feet in 1923, 4 feet in 1930 and 2 feet in 1946; the spillway was widened in 1946 to increase its safety margin in floods. Because the dam was built in a high mountain area with some of the highest annual rainfall in San Diego County, it was anticipated that its reservoir would fill every year. However, the early 1900s saw continuous drought conditions in Southern California, the reservoir did not fill to more than a third of its capacity in the first few years of operations, it was not until 1916. In 1916 the city of San Diego hired Charles Hatfield, a man known as the "Rainmaker", who had offered to fill Morena Reservoir at a cost of $10,000.
Although the city council doubted his ability, Hatfield was hired and set to work "rainmaking" on January 1. By January 10, flooding rains began to fall throughout San Diego County. Rising at a peak rate of two feet per hour, Morena Reservoir filled and spilled on January 26, a mere 5 inches from the top of the dam. In the rest of the county, flooding washed out bridges, inundated neighborhoods and killed over 50 people; the city subsequently deemed the rains an "act of God" and determined that if Hatfield were to collect the fee for filling Morena reservoir he would have to pay for the damages caused by the rains. Hatfield never took the money. Daily water levels table for Morena and other San Diego County lakes
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Olivenhain Dam is a gravity dam near Escondido, California. The dam was constructed between 1998 and 2003 as part of San Diego's Emergency Storage Project with the primary purpose of water supply for municipal use, it is supplied with water by a system of pumps and pipes. The dam is connected to the Second San Diego Aqueduct, it is the first of its type in California. Ladd Associates excavated the dam's foundation and removed 700,000 cu yd of material on an $8.4 million contract. Construction on the actual dam began in 2000 by Kiewit Pacific and in 2001, Morrison Knudsen Corp received a $23 million contract to install the pipeline. Concrete was poured into the dam in 12 ft lifts and it was "topped off" on October 31, 2002; the entire structure to include the inlet/outlet works, crest roadway and mechanical work was complete in August 2003. A 750 acres park was constructed around the dam and reservoir site; the dam was designed by JV Parsons Engineering Science Inc and Harza Engineering Co. while being owned by the San Diego County Water Authority and the Olivenhain Municipal Water District.
List of reservoirs and dams in California San Vicente Dam San Diego County Water Authority - Olivenhain Dam San Diego County Water Authority - Emergency Storage Project Consultant's project page for the dam, including gallery
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
"Colonel" Ed Fletcher was a real estate developer and U. S. Republican and Democratic politician from San Diego, California. Fletcher was born 1872 in Littleton, son of Charles Kimball Fletcher, his family moved to Boston, where he attended school. In 1888 Fletcher came to San Diego, he was a born salesman and soon had his own business with a partner. In 1901, he entered the real estate business as a land agent, started a partnership in 1908 with William Gross; that partnership developed Grossmont, Mt. Helix, Del Mar. Fletcher donated land on Mt. Helix. In 1907, Fletcher was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the California National Guard, which earned him the title "Colonel", which stuck for the remainder of his life. Fletcher became interested in road building and saw to it many road projects were completed. With Fred Jackson, Fletcher raised civic interest to building a road to Imperial Valley, thence a plank road across the desert to Yuma, Arizona. Fletcher was active in having state and U. S. highways built to San Diego.
Fletcher took an interest in developing projects delivering water to San Diego, including creating Lake Hodges. Fletcher and Montana businessman James A. Murray purchased the San Diego Flume Company on June 1, 1910, renaming it the Cuyamaca Water Company. Fletcher and Murray owned and operated the company for 15 years, making or planning improvements to the water system of San Diego County including the construction of the San Vicente Dam and Reservoir, among others. Fletcher was a director of the Panama-California Exposition and California Pacific International Exposition. After the 1915 Expo, he raised funds to save the well-received temporary buildings from destruction, he raised funds to buy land for the Naval Training Station in San Diego, for building the YMCA. In 1934 Fletcher was elected to the California State Senate, served until 1947. Sometime while in the Senate, he switched his party affiliation from Republican to Democratic, he authored laws creating the San Diego County Water Authority and transferring ownership of Mission Bay to the city.
While in the Senate he was able to acquire for San Diego a heroic statue of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, donated to the state in 1939 by the government of Portugal and claimed by both San Diego and Oakland. Fletcher "kidnapped" the statue from its storage in a garage at a private residence in Oakland. Fletcher married Mary C. Batchelder April 1896 at Ayer, Massachusetts, they had ten children: Edward Jr.. Congressman Charles K. Fletcher, Willis, Ferdinand, Mary Louise and Virginia. Fletcher died in 1955 in San Diego. Ed Fletcher's legacy includes a number of landmarks in the San Diego area; these include: Fletcher Parkway in La Mesa, Fletcher Hills in El Cajon Fletcher Chimes of Hardy Memorial Tower at San Diego State University Fletcher Cove in Solana Beach Fletcher Point on the southern shore of Lake Hodges The Fletcher Building, located at Sixth and Broadway in San Diego, was built by Fletcher in 1906 along with Frank Salmans, designed by Edward Quayle. As of 2005 it was being remodeled by Champion Development Group.
Fletcher, Ed. Memoirs of Ed Fletcher. Black, Samuel T.. San Diego County California; the S. J. Clark Publishing Company, Chicago. V. 2, pp. 128–132: "Ed Fletcher". History of San Diego County. San Diego Press Club. Biography. Has biography of his wife Biography. Based on Heilbron's biography Ed Fletcher Papers MSS 81. Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego Library