The Alapaha River is a 202-mile-long river in southern Georgia and northern Florida in the United States. It is a tributary of the Suwannee River; the Hernando de Soto expedition narrative records mention a "Yupaha" village they encountered after they left Apalachee, "the sound of, suggestive of the Alapaha, a tributary of the Suwanee." Another reference to a village of "Atapaha" "so resembles Alapaha that it is reasonable to suppose they are the same, that the town was on the river of that name." John Reed Swanton's landmark Indian Tribes of North America places the Indian village of Alapaha near where the Alapaha River met the Suwanee, noted that an Indian village of "Arapaja" was 70 leagues from St. Augustine, Florida on the Alapaha River. In the 1840s a German travel writer, Friedrich Gerstäcker wrote a dime novel called Alapaha, or the Renegades of the Border, giving the name to a noble Cherokee "squaw." A translation of this novel was published in the 1870s as #67 in a series of American narratives published by Beadle.
During the American Civil War, the swamps along the Alapaha River in Berrien and Echols counties became a refuge for a number of gangs of Confederate deserters. The Alapaha River rises in southeastern Dooly County and flows southeastwardly through or along the boundaries of Crisp, Turner, Ben Hill, Tift, Atkinson, Lanier and Echols Counties in Georgia, Hamilton County in Florida, where it flows into the Suwannee River 10 miles southwest of Jasper. Along its course it passes the Georgia towns of Rebecca, Willacoochee and Statenville. Near Willacoochee, the Alapaha collects the Willacoochee River. In Florida, it collects the Alapahoochee River and the short Little Alapaha River, which rises in Echols County and flows southwestward; the Alapaha River is an intermittent river for part of its course. During periods of low volume, the river becomes a subterranean river. At 2.3 miles downstream from Jennings, Florida the Dead River enters the Alapaha River. It is a dry river bed with a number of sinkholes, including the Dead River Sink.
During periods of low water flow, the Alapaha River downstream from the confluence of the Dead River and the Alapaha River flows upstream into the Dead River. A few more miles downstream is a second sinkhole variously known as the Alapaha River Sink, Suck Hole, or the Devil's Den on the western bank of the river. At the latter point during the periods of low water flow, the Alapaha River disappears underground leaving a dry bank for much of the remainder of its course; the Alapaha River reappears at the Alapaha River Rise, about a half mile upstream from the confluence of the Alapaha River and the Suwanee River. During a period of low rainfall over 11 miles of the riverbed can be dry as the river goes underground; the United States Board on Geographic Names settled on "Alapaha River" as the stream's name in 1891. According to the Geographic Names Information System, it has been known as: Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry DeLorme. Georgia Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-253-6.
U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Alapaha River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Little Alapaha River Underground: The Alapaha River as an Intermittent River
The Coosa River is a tributary of the Alabama River in the U. S. states of Georgia. The river is about 280 miles long; the Coosa River begins at the confluence of the Oostanaula and Etowah rivers in Rome and ends just northeast of the Alabama state capital, where it joins the Tallapoosa River to form the Alabama River just south of Wetumpka. Around 90% of the Coosa River's length is located in Alabama. Coosa County, Alabama, is located on the Coosa River; the Coosa is one of Alabama's most developed rivers. Most of the river has been impounded, with Alabama Power, a unit of the Southern Company, owning seven dams and powerhouses on the Coosa River; the dams produce hydroelectric power, but they are costly to some species endemic to the Coosa River. Native Americans had been living on the Coosa Valley for millennia before Hernando de Soto and his men became the first Europeans to visit it in 1540; the Coosa chiefdom was one of the most powerful chiefdoms in the southeast at the time. Over a century after the Spanish left the Coosa Valley, the British established strong trading ties with the Creek bands of the area around the late 17th century, much to the dismay of France.
With a base in Mobile, the French believed that the Coosa River was a key gateway to the entire South and they wanted to control the valley. The main transportation of the day was by boat; the convergence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers near present-day Montgomery forms the Alabama River, which has its mouth at Mobile Bay, the port used by the French for travel around the Caribbean and to France. They wanted to retain control of both the the Alabama rivers. In the early 18th century all European and Indian trade in the southeast ceased during the tribal uprisings brought on by the Yamasee War against the Carolinas. After a few years, the Indian trade system was resumed under somewhat reformed policies; the conflict between the French and English over the Coosa Valley, much of the southeast in general, continued. It was not after Britain had defeated France in the Seven Years' War that France relinquished its holdings east of the Mississippi River to Britain; this was stated in the Treaty of Paris signed by both nations in 1763.
By the end of the American Revolutionary War, the Coosa Valley was occupied in its lower portion by the Creek and in the upper portion by the Cherokee peoples, who had a settlement near its start in northwest Georgia. After the Fort Mims massacre near Mobile, General Andrew Jackson led American troops, along with Cherokee allies, against the Lower Creek in the Creek War; this culminated in the Creek defeat at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Afterward, the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814 forced the Creek to cede a large amount of land to the United States, but left them a reserve between the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers in northern Alabama. There the Creeks were encroached on by European-American settlers who had begun moving into their territory from the United States. During the 1820s and 1830s the Creek and all the southeastern Indians were removed to Indian Territory; the Cherokee removal is remembered as the Trail of Tears. The Cherokee capital city of New Echota was located on the headwater tributaries of the Coosa River, in Georgia, until the tribe's removal.
The Creek and Choctaw removals were similar to the Cherokee Trail of Tears. After the removals, the Coosa River valley and the southeast in general was wide open for American settlers; the cotton gin made short-staple cotton profitable to process, it was a new cotton hybrid that could be grown in the upland regions. The first river town to form in the Coosa Basin was at the foot of the last waterfall on the Coosa River, the "Devil's Staircase." Settlers soon adopted the native name Wetumpka for this new community. The Coosa River was an important transportation route into the early 20th century as a commercial waterway for riverboats along the upper section of the river for 200 miles south of Rome; however and waterfalls such the Devil's Staircase along the river's lowest 65 miles blocked the upper Coosa's riverboats from access to the Alabama River and the Gulf of Mexico. The building of the dams on the Coosa - Lay and Jordan — allowed Alabama Power to pioneer new methods of controlling and eliminating malaria, a major health issue in rural Alabama in the early 1900s.
So successful were their pioneering efforts in this area, that the Medical Division of the League of Nations visited Alabama to study the new methods during the construction of Mitchell Dam. For a time, the Popeye the Sailorman cartoons were inspired by Tom Sims, a Coosa River resident in Rome, Georgia, familiar with riverboat life and characters of the early 1900s; the following table describes the seven impoundments on the Coosa River from the south to north built by the Alabama Power Company as well as the tailwater section below Jordan Dam. Harvey H. Jackson III in a book Putting Loafing Streams To Work characterized the importance of the first Coosa River dams as follows: In the Middle Coosa River Watershed, 281 occurrences of rare plant and animal species and natural communities have been documented, including 73 occurrences of 23 species that are federal or state protected. Ten conservation targets were chosen: the riverine system, matrix forest communities, gray bat, riparian vegetation, mountain longleaf pine forest communities, red-cockaded woodpecker, critically imperiled aquatic species, southern hognose snake
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
The Ochlockonee River is a fast running river, except where it has been dammed to form Lake Talquin in Florida, originating in Georgia and flowing for 206 miles before terminating in Florida. The name is from the Hitchiti language words for yellow river; the Ochlockonee originates south of the town of Sylvester in Worth County in southwest Georgia and empties into Ochlockonee Bay and Apalachee Bay in Florida. The river forms the western boundaries of Leon County and Wakulla County and eastern boundaries of Gadsden County, Liberty County, Franklin County in Florida, it flows through the Red Hills, the Jackson Bluff Dam, Talquin State Forest, Lake Talquin State Park and the Apalachicola National Forest, past Ochlockonee River State Park, where it is tidally influenced and a mixture of fresh and salt water, on the way to its terminus in Ochlockonee Bay, which empties into Apalachee Bay, with tidal influences extending upstream over 15 miles from the river's mouth. When the Spanish arrived in northern Florida, the Ochlockonee River formed the western boundary of the Apalachee Province.
Late 17th century Spanish documents refer to the river as Amarillo. A 1716 Spanish document called it Rio de Lagna. An English map from 1720 shows it as the Yellow River. A 1778 map spells the river's name Okalockney; the modern name derieves from the Hitchiti/Mikasuki Oki and Lagana. About 1840, Fort Stansbury was established on the river by placing a two story home, abandoned by its owner due to Seminole raids during the Second Seminole War; this fort was important in the forced removal of Indians from the area. Boats traveled upriver to collect and move Native Americans down to Gulf of Mexico ports for removal to "Indian Territories." By 1844, Fort Stansbury had been abandoned. From 1839 to 1842, Fort Virginia Braden was established on the river located at Fort Braden in Florida; the fort was named after the commander's wife. The Ochlockonee River saw action during the Civil War. On 15 July 1863, the screw steamer gunboat USS Stars and Stripes and wooden side-wheel steam ferryboat USS Somerset attacked the salt works at Mashes Sands.
On 29 December 1863, Stars and Stripes sank the blockade-running schooner Caroline Gertrude, aground on the sandbar at the mouth of the Ochlockonee. Stars and Stripes captured the blockade-running steamer Laura off the Ochlockonee on 18 January 1864. On 19 and 20 October 1864, Stars and Stripes destroyed an extensive Confederate fishery at Mashes Island and captured the troops stationed there as guards. In 1927 the Jackson Bluff Dam was constructed on the Ochlockonee River to produce hydroelectric power; the waters held back by the dam formed Lake Talquin. The Ochlockonee River corridor is home to many threatened fish and plant species, it has been designated under the State of Florida's Outstanding Florida Waters program and has been identified by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission as a Strategic Habitat Conservation Area. Rare animals that can be found along the Ochlockonee include red-cockaded woodpecker, least tern, the Apalachicola dusky salamander; the river is rich in rare freshwater mussels, including three federally listed endangered species: the Ochlockonee moccasinshell, the Shinyrayed pocketbook, the Oval pigtoe.
"The Florida maybell tree can be found only along the Chipola Rivers. The Ochlockonee is connected to and a source of water for Lake Iamonia during flooding. Fishing for bass, perch and catfish can be excellent on the Ochlockonee River, a state-designated canoe trail can be found both upstream and downstream of Lake Talquin. Telogia Creek and the Little River near State Road 12 are popular for canoeing; the Florida National Scenic Trail follows the river for two miles. The Ochlockonee is a vital link in the production of seafood to the southwest in Apalachicola Bay. During floods, the river transports organic matter downstream into the estuary of Ochlockonee Bay where the shallows of the bay were created by the great volume of sand and clay brought down by the river; this estuary serves as a nursery for numerous species of fish and shellfish which are the basis for recreational and commercial fishing as well as the Apalachicola seafood that this area is known for. A number of major highways cross the Ochlockonee River along its course, including Interstate 10 and U.
S. highways 19, 27, U. S. Route 84 and 98. South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Ochlockonee River and Bay profile and documents from the Northwest Florida Water Management District U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Ochlockonee River
The Tallapoosa River runs 265 miles from the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains in Georgia, United States and westward into Alabama. It is formed by the confluence of McClendon Creek and Mud Creek in Georgia. Lake Martin at Alexander City, Alabama is a large and popular water recreation area formed by a dam on the river; the Tallapoosa joins the Coosa River about 10 miles northeast of Montgomery near Wetumpka to form the Alabama River. There are four hydroelectric dams on the Tallapoosa: Yates, Thurlow and Harris dams, they are important sources of electricity generation for Alabama Power and recreation for the public. The Tallapoosa River its lower course, was a major population center of the Creek Indians before the early 19th century; the contemporary name of the river is from the Creek words Talwa posa, which mean "Grandmother Town". The Creek consider the Tallapoosa branch of their tribe to be one of the oldest. Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, a U. S. National Military Park managed by the National Park Service, is located along the banks of the Tallapoosa River just upstream from Lake Martin.
It preserves a battle site associated with the Creek War. The river below Thurlow Dam provides a short run of outstanding Class II, III and IV whitewater kayaking. Tallapoosa, Georgia is named for the river; the first hydroelectric dam in Alabama was built on the Tallapoosa River in 1902, by Henry C. Jones, an Auburn University electrical engineer, at the site of the current Yates Dam, it was rebuilt. The dam belonged to the Montgomery Light & Water Power Company. In 1928 it was replaced by the Yates Dam. There are four hydroelectric dams on the Tallapoosa River: Yates Dam, Thurlow Dam, Martin Dam, R. L. Harris Dam; the table below outlines the four impoundments on the Tallapoosa River from south to north. The Tallapoosa River's drainage has many significant tributaries which reflected below based on their location within the watershed; the Coosa-Alabama River Improvement Association, founded in 1890 in Gadsden, Alabama to promote navigation on the Coosa River is a leading advocate of the economic and environmental benefits of the Coosa and Tallapoosa River systems.
The Alabama Rivers Alliance works to unite the citizens of Alabama to protect peoples right to clean, waters. Alabama Water Watch is dedicated to volunteer citizen monitoring of water quality in Alabama Rivers; the Alabama Power Foundation is a non-profit foundation providing grants for watershed and community projects along the Tallapoosa River and within the state of AlabamaThe Coosa River Basin Initiative is a grassroots environmental organization with the mission of informing and empowering citizens so that they may become involved in the process of creating a clean and economically viable Coosa River Basin. A number of significant cities lie on the banks of the Tallapoosa River, they include: Heflin, Alabama - headwaters Buchanan, Georgia - headwaters Tallapoosa, Georgia - headwaters Wedowee, Alabama - near R. L Harris Lake Lineville, Alabama - near R. L harris Lake (Lake Wedowee Alexander City, Alabama - north flank of Lake Martin Dadeville, Alabama - south flank of Lake Martin Tallassee, Alabama - site of Lower Tallassee Dam Wetumpka, Alabama - near confluence with Coosa River forming the Alabama River Montgomery, Alabama - Tallapoosa River is major source of drinking water for city.
Atkins, Leah Rawls. "Developed for the Service of Alabama" - The Centennial History of the Alabama Power Company 1906-2006. Birmingham, Alabama: Alabama Power Company. ISBN 978-0-9786753-0-1. Jackson, Harvey H. III. Putting Loafing Streams To Work-The Building of Lay, Mitchell and Jordan Dams, 1910-1929. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0879-2. Jackson, Harvey H. III. Rivers of History-Life on the Coosa, Tallapoosa and Alabama. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0771-0. "Tallapoosa, a river of Georgia and Alabama". The American Cyclopædia. 1879