The roadrunner, known as a chaparral bird or chaparral cock, is a fast-running ground cuckoo that has a long tail and a crest. It is found in the southwestern United States and Mexico, usually in the desert, some have been clocked at 20 miles per hour. The subfamily Neomorphinae, the New World ground cuckoos, includes species of birds. The greater roadrunner, G. californianus, inhabits Mexico and the southwestern United States, the lesser roadrunner, G. velox, inhabits Mexico and Central America. The roadrunner generally ranges in size from 22 to 24 in from tail to beak, the average weight is about 8–15 oz. The roadrunner is a large, black-brown and white-streaked ground bird with a head crest. It has long legs, strong feet, and a dark bill. The tail is broad with white tips on the three outer tail feathers, the bird has a bare patch of skin behind each eye, this patch is shaded blue anterior to red posterior. The lesser roadrunner is slightly smaller, not as streaky, and has a smaller bill, both the lesser roadrunner and the greater roadrunner leave behind very distinct X track marks appearing as if they are travelling in both directions.
Roadrunners and other members of the family have zygodactyl feet. The roadrunner can run at speeds of up to 20 miles per hour and generally prefer sprinting to flying, during flight, the short, rounded wings reveal a white crescent in the primary feathers. The roadrunner has a slow and descending dove-like coo and it makes a rapid, vocalized clattering sound with its beak. Roadrunners inhabit the deserts of the southwestern United States and they live in arid lowland or mountainous shrubland, widely dispersed in dry open country with scattered brush. They are non-migratory, staying in their breeding area year-round, the greater roadrunner is not currently considered threatened in the US, but is habitat-limited. The roadrunner is an opportunistic omnivore, the lesser roadrunner eats mainly insects. The roadrunner forages on the ground and, when hunting, usually runs after prey from under cover and it may leap to catch insects, and commonly batters certain prey against the ground. Because of its quickness, the roadrunner is one of the few animals that preys upon rattlesnakes, the roadrunner usually lives alone or in pairs.
Breeding pairs are monogamous and mate for life, and pairs may hold a territory all year, during the courtship display, the male bows, alternately lifting and dropping his wings and spreading his tail
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives for more than two years. The term is used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs. Tomato vines, for example, live several years in their natural habitat but are grown as annuals in temperate regions because they dont survive the winter. There is a class of evergreen, or non-herbaceous, perennials, an intermediate class of plants is known as subshrubs, which retain a vestigial woody structure in winter, e. g. Penstemon. The local climate may dictate whether plants are treated as shrubs or perennials, for instance, many varieties of Fuchsia are shrubs in warm regions, but in colder temperate climates may be cut to the ground every year as a result of winter frosts. The symbol for a plant, based on Species Plantarum by Linnaeus, is. Perennial plants can be short-lived or they can be long-lived, as are some plants like trees.
They include an assortment of plant groups from ferns and liverworts to the highly diverse flowering plants like orchids. Plants that flower and fruit only once and die are termed monocarpic or semelparous, most perennials are polycarpic, flowering over many seasons in their lifetime. Perennials typically grow structures that allow them to adapt to living one year to the next through a form of vegetative reproduction rather than seeding. These structures include bulbs, woody crowns, rhizomes plus others and they might have specialized stems or crowns that allow them to survive periods of dormancy over cold or dry seasons during the year. Many perennials have developed specialized features that allow them to extreme climatic. Some have adapted to hot and dry conditions or cold temperatures. Those plants tend to invest a lot of resource into their adaptations and often do not flower, Many perennials produce relatively large seeds, which can have an advantage, with larger seedlings produced after germination that can better compete with other plants.
Some annuals produce many seeds per plant in one season, while some perennials are not under the same pressure to produce large numbers of seeds. In warmer and more favorable climates, perennials grow continuously, in seasonal climates, their growth is limited to the growing season. In some species, perennials retain their foliage all year round, other plants are deciduous perennials, for example, in temperate regions a perennial plant may grow and bloom during the warm part of the year, with the foliage dying back in the winter
The bobcat is a North American cat that appeared during the Irvingtonian stage of around 1.8 million years ago. Containing 12 recognized subspecies, it ranges from southern Canada to central Mexico, the bobcat is an adaptable predator that inhabits wooded areas, as well as semidesert, urban edge, forest edge, and swampland environments. It remains in some of its range, but populations are vulnerable to local extinction by coyotes. With a gray to brown coat, whiskered face, and black-tufted ears and it is smaller on average than the Canada lynx, with which it shares parts of its range, but is about twice as large as the domestic cat. It has distinctive black bars on its forelegs and a black-tipped, stubby tail, though the bobcat prefers rabbits and hares, it hunts insects, chickens and other birds, small rodents, and deer. Prey selection depends on location and habitat and abundance, like most cats, the bobcat is territorial and largely solitary, although with some overlap in home ranges. It uses several methods to mark its boundaries, including claw marks.
The bobcat breeds from winter into spring and has a period of about two months. Although bobcats have been hunted extensively by humans, both for sport and fur, their population has proven resilient though declining in some areas, the elusive predator features in Native American mythology and the folklore of European settlers. The Lynx genus is now accepted, and the bobcat is listed as Lynx rufus in modern taxonomic sources. Johnson et al. reported Lynx shared a clade with the puma, leopard cat, the first wave moved into the southern portion of North America, which was soon cut off from the north by glaciers. This population evolved into modern bobcats around 20,000 years ago, a second population arrived from Asia and settled in the north, developing into the modern Canada lynx. Hybridization between the bobcat and the Canada lynx may sometimes occur, the bobcat resembles other species of the Lynx genus, but is on average the smallest of the four. Its coat is variable, though generally tan to grayish-brown, with streaks on the body and dark bars on the forelegs.
Its spotted patterning acts as camouflage, the ears are black-tipped and pointed, with short, black tufts. Generally, a color is seen on the lips, chin. Bobcats in the regions of the southwest have the lightest-colored coats, while those in the northern. Kittens are born well-furred and already have their spots, a few melanistic bobcats have been sighted and captured in Florida
The Anatidae are the biological family of birds that includes ducks and swans. The family has a distribution, occurring on all the worlds continents. These birds are adapted for swimming, floating on the water surface, the family contains around 146 species in 40 genera. They are generally herbivorous, and are monogamous breeders, a number of species undertake annual migrations. A few species have been domesticated for agriculture, and many others are hunted for food, five species have become extinct since 1600, and many more are threatened with extinction. The ducks and swans are small- to large-sized birds with a broad, diving species vary from this in being rounder. Extant species range in size from the cotton pygmy goose, at as little as 26.5 cm and 164 g, to the trumpeter swan, the wings are short and pointed, and supported by strong wing muscles that generate rapid beats in flight. They typically have long necks, although varies in degree between species. The legs are short and set far to the back of the body, combined with their body shape, this can make some species awkward on land, but they are stronger walkers than other marine and water birds such as grebes or petrels.
They typically have webbed feet, though a few such as the Nene have secondarily lost their webbing. The bills are made of keratin with a thin and sensitive layer of skin on top. For most species, the shape of the bill tends to be flattened to a greater or lesser extent. These contain serrated lamellae which are well defined in the filter-feeding species. Their feathers are excellent at shedding water due to special oils, many of the ducks display sexual dimorphism, with the males being more brightly coloured than the females. The swans and whistling-ducks lack sexually dimorphic plumage, anatids are vocal birds, producing a range of quacks, honks and trumpeting sounds, depending on species, the female often has a deeper voice than the male. Anatids are generally herbivorous as adults, feeding on various water-plants, although some eat fish, molluscs. One group, the mergansers, are primarily piscivorous, and have serrated bills to help catch fish. In a number of species, the young include a proportion of invertebrates in their diets
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae. The 36 known species of rattlesnakes have between 65 and 70 subspecies, all native to the America, ranging from southern Alberta, Rattlesnakes are predators that live in a wide array of habitats, hunting small animals such as birds and rodents. The threat of envenomation, advertised by the shaking of the titular noisemaker at the end of their tails. However, rattlesnakes fall prey to hawks, king snakes, Rattlesnakes are heavily preyed upon as neonates, while they are still weak and mentally immature. Large numbers of rattlesnakes are killed by humans, Rattlesnake populations in many areas are severely threatened by habitat destruction and extermination campaigns. Rattlesnake are the leading contributor to snakebite injuries in North America, rattlesnakes rarely bite unless provoked or threatened, if treated promptly the bites are seldom fatal. Rattlesnakes receive their name from the rattle located at the end of their tails, the scientific name Crotalus is derived from the Greek κρόταλον, meaning castanet.
The name Sistrurus is the Latinized form of the Greek word for tail rattler and shares its root with the ancient Egyptian musical instrument the sistrum, Rattlesnakes are native to the Americas, living in diverse habitats from southwestern Canada to central Argentina. The large majority of live in the American Southwest and Mexico. Four species may be found east of the Mississippi River, in the United States, the states with the most types of rattlesnakes are Texas and Arizona. Most species live near open, rocky areas, rocks offer them cover from predators, plentiful prey, and open basking areas. However, rattlesnakes can be found in a variety of other habitats including prairies, deserts. The most probable ancestral area of rattlesnakes is the Sierra Madre Occidental region in Mexico, the most probable vegetation or habitat of the ancestral area appears to be pine-oak forests. Feeding habits play an important ecological role by limiting the size of rodent populations, Rattlesnakes consume mice, small birds, and other small animals.
They lie in wait for their prey, or hunt for it in holes, the prey is killed quickly with a venomous bite as opposed to constriction. If the bitten prey moves away before dying, the rattlesnake can follow it by its scent, when it locates the fallen prey, it checks for signs of life by prodding with its snout, flicking its tongue, and using its sense of smell. Once the prey has become incapacitated, the rattlesnake locates its head by odors emitted from the mouth, the prey is ingested head-first, which allows wings and limbs to fold at the joints in a manner which minimizes the girth of the meal. The gastric fluids of rattlesnakes are extremely powerful, allowing for the digestion of flesh, optimal digestion occurs when the snake maintains a body temperature between 80 and 85 °F
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems, humans have historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including the legal and moral sense. Some animals, have adapted to suburban environments and this includes such animals as domesticated cats, dogs and gerbils. The global wildlife population has decreased by 52 percent between 1970 and 2014, according to a report by the World Wildlife Fund, anthropologists believe that the Stone Age people and hunter-gatherers relied on wildlife, both plants and animals, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction by human hunters. Today, hunting and gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in parts of the world. In other areas and non-commercial fishing are seen as a sport or recreation. Meat sourced from wildlife that is not traditionally regarded as game is known as bush meat, in November 2008, almost 900 plucked and oven-ready owls and other protected wildlife species were confiscated by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Malaysia, according to TRAFFIC.
The animals were believed to be bound for China, to be sold in wild meat restaurants, most are listed in CITES which prohibits or restricts such trade.60. Many Amazon species, including peccaries, turtles, turtle eggs, armadillos, others in these informal markets, such as monkeys and parrots, are destined for the pet trade, often smuggled into the United States. Still other Amazon species are popular ingredients in traditional medicines sold in local markets, the medicinal value of animal parts is based largely on superstition. Many animal species have spiritual significance in different cultures around the world, for example, eagles and their feathers have great cultural and spiritual value to Native Americans as religious objects. In Hinduism the cow is regarded sacred, muslims conduct sacrifices on Eid-ul-Adha to commemorate the sacrificial spirit of Ibrahim in love of God. Camels, sheep and cows may be offered as sacrifice during the three days of Eid, many nations have established their tourism sector around their natural wildlife.
South Africa has, for example, many opportunities for tourists to see the wildlife in its national parks. In South India the Periar Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park and Mudamalai Wildlife Sanctuary are situated around, India is home to many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries showing the diversity of its wildlife, much of its unique fauna, and excels in the range. This subsection focuses on forms of wildlife destruction. Exploitation of wild populations has been a characteristic of man since our exodus from Africa 130,000 –70,000 years ago
Bird of prey
Bird of prey or predatory bird, known as raptors, refers to several species of birds that hunt and feed on rodents and other small animals. The term raptor is derived from the Latin word rapere, meaning to seize or take by force and these birds are characterized by keen vision that allows them to detect their prey during flight and powerful talons and beaks. Taken literally, the bird of prey has a wide meaning that includes many birds that hunt and feed on animals. In ornithology, the definition for bird of prey has a meaning, birds that have very good eyesight for finding food, strong feet for holding food. Most birds of prey have strong curved talons for catching or killing prey, Birds of prey generally prey on vertebrates, which are usually quite large relative to the size of the bird. Most eat carrion, at least occasionally, and vultures, the order Accipitriformes is believed to have originated 44 million years ago when it split from the common ancestor of the secretarybird and the accipitrid species.
The phylogeny of Accipitriformes is complex and difficult to unravel, widespread paraphylies were observed in many phylogenetic studies. More recent and detailed studies show similar results, according to the findings of a 2014 study, the sister relationship between larger clades of Accipitriformes was well supported. The diurnal birds of prey are formally classified into five families of two orders, the Cathartidae are sometimes placed separately in an enlarged stork family and may be raised to an order of their own, Cathartiiformes. The secretary bird and/or osprey are sometimes listed as subfamilies of Acciptridae and Pandioninae, australias letter-winged kite is a member of the family Accipitridae, although it is a nocturnal bird. He placed all birds of prey into an order, subdividing this into four genera, Falco, Strix. This approach was followed by subsequent authors such as Gmelin, louis Pierre Veillot used additional ranks, tribe, genus, species. Birds of prey were divided into diurnal and nocturnal tribes, the owls remained monogeneric, thus Veillots families were similar to the Linnaean genera, with the difference that shrikes were no longer included amongst the birds of prey.
In addition to the original Vultur and Falco, Veillot adopted four genera from Savigny, Haliæetus, Pandion and he introduced five new genera of vultures and eleven new genera of accipitrines. The common names for birds of prey are based on structure. Eagles tend to be large birds with long, broad wings, booted eagles have legs and feet feathered to the toes and build very large stick nests. Ospreys, a species found worldwide that specializes in catching fish. Kites have long wings and relatively weak legs and they spend much of their time soaring
Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called osier, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as sallow. Some willows are low-growing or creeping shrubs, for example, the dwarf willow rarely exceeds 6 cm in height, though it spreads widely across the ground. Willows all have abundant watery bark sap, which is charged with salicylic acid, usually pliant, tough wood, slender branches. The roots are remarkable for their toughness and tenacity to life, the leaves are typically elongated, but may be round to oval, frequently with serrated edges. Most species are deciduous, semievergreen willows with coriaceous leaves are rare, e. g. Salix micans, all the buds are lateral, no absolutely terminal bud is ever formed. The buds are covered by a single scale, the bud scale is fused into a cap-like shape, but in some species it wraps around and the edges overlap. The leaves are simple, feather-veined, and typically linear-lanceolate, usually they are serrate, rounded at base, acute or acuminate.
The leaf petioles are short, the often very conspicuous, resembling tiny, round leaves. On some species, they are small, inconspicuous, in color, the leaves show a great variety of greens, ranging from yellowish to bluish. Willows are dioecious, with male and female flowers appearing as catkins on separate plants and this scale is square and very hairy. The anthers are rose-colored in the bud, but orange or purple after the flower opens, they are two-celled, the filaments are threadlike, usually pale brown, and often bald. The ovary is one-celled, the style two-lobed, and the ovules numerous, almost all willows take root very readily from cuttings or where broken branches lie on the ground. The few exceptions include the willow and peachleaf willow. One famous example of such growth from cuttings involves the poet Alexander Pope and this twig was planted and thrived, and legend has it that all of Englands weeping willows are descended from this first one. Willows are often planted on the borders of streams so their interlacing roots may protect the bank against the action of the water, the roots are much larger than the stem which grows from them.
Willows are very cross-compatible, and numerous hybrids occur, both naturally and in cultivation, a well-known ornamental example is the weeping willow, which is a hybrid of Peking willow from China and white willow from Europe. The hybrid cultivar Boydii has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit, Willows are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, such as the mourning cloak butterfly. Ants, such as ants, are common on willows inhabited by aphids, coming to collect aphid honeydew
California State Water Project
However, as it is the largest single consumer of power in the state itself, it has a net usage of 5100 GWh. The SWP collects water from rivers in Northern California and redistributes it to the water-scarce but populous south through a network of aqueducts, pumping stations and power plants. About 70% of the water provided by the project is used for areas and industry in Southern California and the San Francisco Bay Area. To reach Southern California, the water must be pumped 2,882 feet over the Tehachapi Mountains, with 1,926 feet at the Edmonston Pumping Plant alone, the SWP shares many facilities with the federal Central Valley Project, which primarily serves agricultural users. Water can be interchanged between SWP and CVP canals as needed to meet requirements for project constituents. The SWP provides estimated annual benefits of $400 billion to Californias economy, as a result, the project has only delivered an average of 2.4 million acre feet annually, as compared to total entitlements of 4.23 million acre feet.
Environmental concerns caused by the removal of water from the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. Work continues today to expand the SWPs water delivery capacity while finding solutions for the impacts of water diversion. The original purpose of the project was to provide water for arid Southern California, whose local water resources, the SWP was rooted in two proposals. The United Western Investigation of 1951, a study by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, assessed the feasibility of interbasin water transfers in the Western United States. In the same year, State Engineer A. D. Edmonston proposed the Feather River Project, which proposed the damming of the Feather River, the Feather River was much more accessible than the North Coast rivers, but did not have nearly as much water. Calls for a statewide water management system led to the creation of the California Department of Water Resources in 1956. The following year, the studies were compiled into the extensive California Water Plan. California governor Pat Brown would say it was to correct an accident of people, the diversion of the North Coast rivers was abandoned in the plans early stages after strong opposition from locals and concerns about the potential impact on the salmon in North Coast rivers.
The California Water Plan would have to go ahead with the development of the Feather River alone, the Burns-Porter Act of 1959 provided $1.75 billion of initial funding through a bond measure. Construction on Stage I of the project, which would deliver the first 2.23 million acre feet of water, Northern Californians opposed the measure as a boondoggle and an attempt to steal their water resources. Historians largely attribute the success of the Burns-Porter Act and the State Water Project to major agribusiness lobbying, the bond was passed on an extremely narrow margin of 174,000 out of 5.8 million ballots cast. In 1961, ground was broken on Oroville Dam, and in 1963, work began on the California Aqueduct, the first deliveries to the Bay Area were made in 1962, and water reached the San Joaquin Valley by 1968
Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds, Passeridae. They are known as sparrows, or Old World sparrows, names used for a particular genus of the family. They are distinct from both the American sparrows, in the family Emberizidae, and from a few other birds sharing their name, such as the Java sparrow of the family Estrildidae. Many species nest on buildings, and the house and Eurasian tree sparrows in particular cities in large numbers. They are primarily seed-eaters, though they consume small insects, some species scavenge for food around cities and, like gulls or rock doves, will happily eat virtually anything in small quantities. Generally, sparrows are small, brown-grey birds with tails and stubby. The differences between species can be subtle. Members of this range in size from the chestnut sparrow, at 11.4 centimetres and 13.4 grams, to the parrot-billed sparrow. Sparrows are physically similar to other seed-eating birds, such as finches, but have a vestigial dorsal outer primary feather and this bone, the preglossale, helps stiffen the tongue when holding seeds.
Other adaptations towards eating seeds are specialised bills and elongated and specialised alimentary canals, the family Passeridae was introduced by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. Under the classification used in the Handbook of the Birds of the World main groupings of the sparrows are the true sparrows, the snowfinches, and these groups are similar to each other, and are each fairly homogeneous, especially Passer. Some classifications include the sparrow-weavers and several other African genera which are similar to Passer. They therefore classify it as its own subfamily within Passeridae, starting with P. P. Suskin in the 1920s, placed the sparrows in the weaver family as the subfamily Passerinae, and tied them to Plocepasser. Another family sparrows were classed with was the finches, some authorities previously classified the related estrildid finches of the Old World tropics and Australasia as members of the Passeridae. Like sparrows, the finches are small and often colonial seed-eaters with short, thick.
They are broadly similar in structure and habits, but tend to be very colourful, the 2008 Christidis and Boles taxonomic scheme lists the estrildid finches as the separate family Estrildidae, leaving just the true sparrows in Passeridae. The hedge sparrow or dunnock is similarly unrelated and it is a sparrow in name only, a relict of the old practice of calling more types of small birds sparrows. A few further bird species are called sparrows, such as the Java sparrow
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planets surface. The term most often refers to oceans and lakes, a body of water does not have to be still or contained, streams and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are considered bodies of water. Most are naturally occurring geographical features, but some are artificial, there are types that can be either. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, most harbors are naturally occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways, some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, and others primarily hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids. Arm of the sea - sea arm, used to describe a sea loch, arroyo - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally.
Artificial lake or artificial pond - see reservoir or impoundment, barachois - a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay - an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf, bayou - a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Bight - a large and often only slightly receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature, billabong - see Oxbow lake, a pond or still body of water created when a river changes course and some water becomes trapped. Boil - see Seep Brook - a small stream, canal - an artificial waterway, usually connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel - the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean consisting of a bed. See stream bed and strait, earth scientists generally use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay. Basin - a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, creek - an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove.
Delta - the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, distributary or distributary channel - a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Draw - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, fjord - a submergent landform which has occurred due to glacial activity. Glacier - a large collection of ice or a river that moves slowly down a mountain. Glacial Pothole - see Kettle Gulf - a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay, headland - an area of water bordered by land on three sides
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae which are widely distributed and varying greatly in size. The subfamily Accipitrinae includes goshawks, the sharp-shinned hawk and these are mainly woodland birds with long tails and high visual acuity, hunting by sudden dashes from a concealed perch. In the Americas, members of the Buteo group are called hawks, generally buteos have broad wings and sturdy builds. They are relatively larger winged, shorter-tailed and soar more extensively in areas than accipiters. The terms accipitrine hawk and buteonine hawk may be used to distinguish the two types, in regions where hawk applies to both, the term true hawk is sometimes used for the accipitrine hawks, in regions where buzzard is preferred for the buteonine hawks. All these groups are members of the Accipitridae family, which includes the hawks and buzzards as well as kites, some authors use hawk generally for any small to medium Accipitrid that is not an eagle.
The common names of birds include the term hawk, reflecting traditional usage rather than taxonomy. Falconry was called hawking, and any bird used for falconry could be referred to as a hawk, aristotle listed eleven types of ἱέρακες, aisalōn, hypotriorchēs, leios, phassophonos, pternis and triorchēs. Pliny numbered sixteen kinds of hawks, but named only aigithos, kenchrēïs, the accipitrine hawks generally take birds as their primary prey. They have been called hen-hawks, or wood-hawks because of their woodland habitat, the subfamily Accipitrinae contains Accipiter, it contains genera Micronisus and Megatriorchis. Melierax may be included in the subfamily, or given a subfamily of its own, erythrotriorchis is traditionally included in Accipitrinae, but is possibly a convergent genus from an unrelated group. The Buteo group includes genera Buteo, Geranoetus, members of this group have been called hawk-buzzards. Proposed new genera Morphnarchus and Pseudastur are formed from members of Buteo, the Buteogallus group are called hawks, with the exception of the solitary eagles.
Buteo is the genus of the subfamily Buteoninae. Traditionally this subfamily includes eagles and sea-eagles and Mindell proposed placing those into separate subfamilies, leaving just the buteonine hawks/buzzards in Buteoninae. In February 2005, the Canadian ornithologist Louis Lefebvre announced a method of measuring avian IQ in terms of their innovation in feeding habits, Hawks were named among the most intelligent birds based on his scale. Hawks have four types of receptors in the eye. These give birds the ability to not only the visible range but the ultraviolet part of the spectrum