click links in text for more info

Lake Seliger

Seliger is a lake in Ostashkovsky District of Tver Oblast and, in the extreme northern part, in Demyansky District of Novgorod Oblast of Russia, in the northwest of the Valdai Hills, a part of the Volga basin. It has the absolute height of 205 metres, the area of 212 square kilometres, the average depth of 5.8 metres. Lake Seliger is a large system of lakes linked by effluents, has many small islands and is surrounded by forests, including pine woods with many berries and mushrooms, it is one of the biggest natural lakes of Central Russia. The only outflow of the lake, the Selizharovka River, has its source at the southern end of the lake and drains into the Volga; the drainage basin of the lake includes the major part of Ostashkovsky District, south of Demyansky District, as well as minor areas in Firovsky District of Tver Oblast. Seliger is situated within a picturesque landscape of hills; the lake is a protected nature reserve and is sometimes known as the "European Baikal" due to the diversity of its unique flora and fauna, similar to Lake Baikal.

Valdaysky National Park covers the northern part of the lake. Every Year, Seliger camp forums bring together young people to study and discuss issues in political science, art and culture. Ostashkov is one of the most popular resorts in central Russia. Nilo-Stolobensky Monastery is located on Stolobny Island; the closed urban-type settlement of Solnechny, a military base occupies Gorodomlya Island. Seliger lakes offers a number of accommodations for tourists. Many places are surrounded by untouched nature. Tourism in Seliger area Travel and Tourism to Seliger Lake Map of Lake Seliger

Thomas M. Reynolds

Thomas M. Reynolds is an American politician from the U. S. state of New York representing the state's 27th and 26th Congressional districts in the United States House of Representatives. Reynolds was chairman of the National Republican Congressional Committee, the official Republican House campaign organization, for the 2006 election cycle, he retired amid scandal at the end of the 110th Congress. Chris Lee was elected to succeed him. Reynolds was born in Bellefonte and graduated from the Springville-Griffith Institute, he served in the New York Air National Guard from 1970-76. He entered politics as a Republican, was elected to the Concord, New York, town board in 1974, to the Erie County legislature in 1982, he was a member of the New York State Assembly from 1989 to 1998, sitting in the 188th, 189th, 190th, 191st and 192nd New York State Legislatures. He was Minority Leader from June 1995 to March 1998. Reynolds ran for the House in 1998 after Bill Paxon was forced out of his leadership role in the House Republican leadership ranks because of his role in a coup attempt against Newt Gingrich.

Paxon endorsed Reynolds. There was controversy. Reynolds would not move into the district until eight months after the election when he purchased a home in Clarence, near Amherst, one of the larger towns in the seven-county district. Ways and Means Committee Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measures Subcommittee on Trade Reynolds had a conservative voting record in Congress, his 83 percent rating from the American Conservative Union tied him with Peter T. King of Long Island as the third-most conservative among the state's 29 Representatives as of the 110th Congress. Only Representatives Randy Kuhl and Vito Fossella received higher ratings. Reynolds is on record as a member of the American Legislative Exchange Council. In the 2000 round of redistricting, a special master proposed a plan that would have made his district more Democratic. Although Republicans would have still held a plurality, the plan would have left Reynolds vulnerable to a primary with a moderate Republican. According to one political strategist and his allies in Washington wanted a district that would let him vote "like a Southern conservative".

With the help of Vice President Dick Cheney, Reynolds pressured the state legislature to gerrymander his district so that it resembled his former territory. He was handily reelected from this reconfigured district in 2002. In 2004, his opponent was millionaire industrialist Jack Davis. Reynolds won by 12 points, an unusually close margin given that he had won with 72% of the vote two years earlier. In 2006 Reynolds again defeated Davis by 4% of the vote amid the Mark Foley page scandal. On March 20, 2008, Reynolds announced he would not run for a sixth term: "it was time to take up new challenges". Aside from fallout from the scandal regarding U. S. Representative Mark Foley, another factor was thought to be revelations that a former NRCC treasurer had embezzled hundreds of thousands of dollars from the committee treasury while Reynolds chaired it. According to the New York Daily News political reporter Elizabeth Benjamin, the NRCC was never independently audited during Reynolds' three-year tenure as its chairman.

Reynolds was the 29th Republican incumbent to announce he would not run again in 2008. Despite the perception that Reynolds had the district redrawn to protect him, it is a somewhat marginal district on paper. In 2017, Reynolds joined Washington, D. C. lobbying firm Holland and Knight as a senior policy advisor. Reynolds served as chairman of the National Republican Congressional Committee from 2003 to 2006. During the 2004 House elections the Republicans gained three seats to increase their majority to 232; the 2006 House election saw a Republican loss of 30 seats. Rodney Alexander, the sponsor of a House page who received e-mails from Representative Mark Foley, told reporters that he learned of the e-mails from the page's family in November 2005. Alexander said. Alexander said he passed information that Foley had appeared overly friendly first to Majority Leader John Boehner, to Reynolds, chairman of the National Republican Congressional Committee. Carl Forti, a spokesman for the GOP campaign organization, said Reynolds was told by Alexander that the parents did not want to pursue the matter and that they did not want a large-scale investigation.

Reynolds issued a statement that he had spoken with House Speaker Dennis Hastert about the matter early in 2006. According to the Washington Post, "Republican insiders said Reynolds spoke out because he was angry that Hastert appeared willing to let him take the blame for the party leadership's silence." Hastert said he did not dispute it. On October 2, Reynolds held a press conference on the matter, from Buffalo at Daemen College while surrounded by numerous children of his adult supporters, he said. Reynolds claimed that he had no knowledge of any sexual conversations or e-mails between Foley and the page until after it was disclosed in the media. Soon after, he made a televised campaign advertisement stating that he had had no knowledge of the depth of Foley's transgressions until afterwards. In December 2006, Reynolds was exonerated by the Republican-controlled H


In mathematics in order theory, a pseudocomplement is one generalization of the notion of complement. In a lattice L with bottom element 0, an element x ∈ L is said to have a pseudocomplement if there exists a greatest element x* ∈ L, disjoint from x, with the property that x ∧ x* = 0. More formally, x* = max; the lattice L itself is called a pseudocomplemented lattice if every element of L is pseudocomplemented. Every pseudocomplemented lattice is bounded, i.e. it has a 1 as well. Since the pseudocomplement is unique by definition, a pseudocomplemented lattice can be endowed with a unary operation * mapping every element to its pseudocomplement; however this latter term may have other meanings in other areas of mathematics. In a p-algebra L, for all x, y ∈ L: The map x ↦ x* is antitone. In particular, 0* = 1 and 1* = 0; the map x ↦ x** is a closure. X* = x***. * = x* ∧ y*. ** = x** ∧ y**. The set S ≝ is called the skeleton of L. S is a ∧-subsemilattice of L and together with x ∪ y = ** = * forms a Boolean algebra.

In general, S is not a sublattice of L. In a distributive p-algebra, S is the set of complemented elements of L; every element x with the property x* = 0 is called dense. Every element of the form x ∨ x* is dense. D, the set of all the dense elements in L is a filter of L. A distributive p-algebra is Boolean if and only if D =. Pseudocomplemented lattices form a variety; every finite distributive lattice is pseudocomplemented. Every Stone algebra is pseudocomplemented. In fact, a Stone algebra can be defined as a pseudocomplemented distributive lattice L in which any of the following equivalent statements hold for all x, y ∈ L:S is a sublattice of L; every Heyting algebra is pseudocomplemented. If X is a set, the open set topology on X is a pseudocomplemented lattice with the meet and join being the usual union and intersection of open sets; the pseudocomplement of an open set A is the interior of the set complement of A. Furthermore, the dense elements of this lattice are the dense open subsets in the topological sense.

A relative pseudocomplement of a with respect to b is a maximal element c such that a∧c≤b. This binary operation is denoted a→b. A lattice with the pseudocomplement for each two elements is called implicative lattice, or Brouwerian lattice. In general case, an implicative lattice may not have a minimal element, if such element exists pseudocomplement a* could be defined using relative pseudocomplement as a → 0

Andy Paley

Andrew Douglas Paley is an American songwriter, record producer and multi-instrumentalist who formed the Paley Brothers, a 1970s power pop duo, with his brother Jonathan Paley. Following their disbandment, Andy was a staff producer at Sire Records, producing albums for artists such as Brian Wilson, Jonathan Richman, NRBQ, John Wesley Harding, the Greenberry Woods, Jerry Lee Lewis. Since Paley has worked in film and television, composing scores and writing songs for cartoons such as SpongeBob SquarePants and Camp Lazlo. Andy is the son of Henry Paley, a college administrator and lobbyist, Cabot Barber Paley, a teacher and therapist, he grew up near Albany, New York. His younger sister Sarah is married to former U. S. senator Bob Kerrey. In 2010, he married Heather Crist in a ceremony officiated by Kerrey, he began performing in his early teens as a drummer and singer for local Albany-area bands before moving to Boston. He was a founding member and the drummer of the Boston, Massachusetts band, Catfish Black, which included future Modern Lovers members Jerry Harrison and Ernie Brooks.

The band was renamed the Sidewinders and was joined by Billy Squier. The band performed in NYC at venues like Max's Kansas City, they released an album, produced by Lenny Kaye, which featured songs sung by Paley. The Sidewinders broke up in the mid-1970s. Paley played on Elliott Murphy's album Night Lights, performed with Jonathan Richman after the break-up of the original Modern Lovers. Andy went on to form The Paley Brothers with his younger brother Jonathan, a guitar/bass player and singer, part of the early Boston punk scene and had played with Boston and NYC bands such as Mong, they disintegrated as an act in 1979. Although the Nervous Eaters collapsed after Ric Ocasek, who had produced their demo, was not permitted to produce their second album, the Paley Brothers did not reform. Said Jonathan, "It was more of an evolution. Andy got into production work. In 1979, Andy Paley played guitar on Jonathan Richman's album Back in Your Life, continued to perform on and off with Richman and incarnations of the Modern Lovers, produce many of their recordings, through the 1980s.

He produced Richman's 1985 album Romance. Andy focused on songwriting, session work and record production while working with Madonna, k.d. lang, Mandy Barnett, Jerry Lee Lewis, Elton John, Brenda Lee, Little Richard and many others. In 1988, Paley produced and co-wrote songs on Wilson's solo comeback album Brian Wilson, continued to work with him on unreleased material in the 1990s. Wilson described Paley as a multi-instrumentalist with "a lot of talent for anything you can think of.... He's the most frighteningly talented person that I've met, the most serious about music." He produced the soundtracks for Dick Tracy and A Walk on the Moon and wrote the original music for Traveller. In 2009 he contributed to the soundtrack of World's Greatest Dad, directed by Bobcat Goldthwait and starring Robin Williams, he wrote the musical score for Season One of Showtime's The L Word. Paley produced the music for Nickelodeon ` sSpongeBob SquarePants, he and Tom Kenny – the voice of SpongeBob – co-wrote the It's a SpongeBob Christmas!

Album. He leads the Andy Paley Orchestra, which provides the music for The Thrilling Adventure & Supernatural Suspense Hour, a theater group in Los Angeles that performs original stage productions in the style of old radio melodramas. Additionally he provides music for The Dana Gould Hour podcast. Albums produced Andy Paley at AllMusic Andy Paley discography at Discogs Andy Paley on IMDb

International Photography Hall of Fame

The International Photography Hall of Fame in St. Louis, Missouri honors those who have made great contributions to the field of photography. In 1977 the first Hall of Fame and Museum opened in Santa Barbara, California and a few years in 1983 moved to Oklahoma City. IPHF is the first organization worldwide that recognizes significant contributors to the artistic craft and science of photography. In addition to an extensive collection of photographs and cameras, IPHF offers lectures and other educational opportunities; the IPHF inductees artists and individuals that have changed the art industry with their photography or inventions. IPHF has over 70 archives over 30,000 images; each year a nominating committee selects inductees based on their contributions to the art or science of photography and their impact on the history of photography. William Henry Fox Talbot Alfred Stieglitz George W. Harris Edward Steichen Robert Capa Erich Salomon William Henry Jackson Paul Lindwood Gittings Dr. Edwin Herbert Land Berenice Abbott Roger Fenton Yousef Karsh The IPHF collection focuses on photographic works beginning from the 18th century to the present.

In addition to photographs, the museum has a large collection of cameras and studio tools dating back to the late 1800s. The entire collection consists of over 6,000 historical cameras and photography tools and 30,000 photographs; some of the 19th century photographic tools include Magic Lanterns, a Praxinoscope Theatre, an Edison Projecting Kinetoscope. Within the collection can be found a wide variety of photographic memorabilia from historic manuals on processes and techniques to monographs of notable photographers. Restrospective, Phil Borges, October 2 – December 1, 2004 Alaska Wild, December 1, 2004 – January 2, 2005 In Plain Sight, Beaumont Newhall, January 7 – April 3, 2005 Stopping Time, Harold Edgerton, January 7 – April 3, 2005 Mestizjae, Manuel Alvarez Bravo, January 7 – April 3, 2005 Photography of Hugh Scott, The Oklahoma City National Memorial, 10 Years Remembering, April 9 – July 3, 2005 An Itinerant Eye, James Walden, July 9 – December 31, 2005 A Life In Photography, Arnold Newman, July 9 – December 31, 2005 Nicholas Orzio's Occupied Japan, Nicholas Orzio, February 16 – May 8, 2017 Vivian Maier, Vivian Maier, February 18 – May 31, 2018 Cabbagetown, Oraien Catledge, January 23 – April 1, 2019 40th Year Anniversary: Nanjing-St.

Louis Sister City: Retrospective, April 27 – July 6, 2019 Moment By Moment, John Loengard, July 20 – September 9, 2019 2019 Hall of Fame Induction and Awards Exhibition, November 2, 2019 – March 7, 2020


Hypovolemia known as volume depletion or volume contraction, is a state of decreased intravascular volume. This may be due to either a loss of a decrease in blood volume. Hypovolemia should not be confused with dehydration. Dehydration refers to excessive total body water loss. Hypovolemia is caused by a variety of events, but these can be simplified into two categories: those that are associated with kidney function and those that are not; the signs and symptoms of hypovolemia worsen as the amount of fluid lost increases. Or shortly after mild fluid loss, one may experience headache, weakness, dizziness or thirst. Untreated hypovolemia or excessive and rapid losses of volume may lead hypovolemic shock. Signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock include increased heart rate, low blood pressure, pale or cold skin, altered mental status; when these signs are seen, immediate action should be taken to restore the lost volume. Signs and symptoms of hypovolemia progress with increased loss of fluid volume.

Early symptoms of hypovolemia include headache, weakness and dizziness. The more severe signs and symptoms are associated with hypovolemic shock; these include oliguria, cyanosis and chest pain, tachycardia, cold hands and feet, progressively altering mental status. The causes of hypovolemia can be characterized into two categories: Loss of body sodium and consequent intravascular water Osmotic diuresis: the increase in urine production due to an excess of osmotic load in the tubules of the kidneys Overuse of pharmacologic diuretics Impaired response to hormones controlling salt and water balance Impaired kidney function due to tubular injury or other diseases Loss of bodily fluids due to: Gastrointestinal losses. In order to properly perform their functions, tissues require. A decrease in circulating volume can lead to a decrease in blood perfusion to the brain, resulting in headache and dizziness. Altered mental status progresses. Baroreceptors in the body sense the reduction of circulating fluid and send signals to the brain to increase sympathetic response.

This sympathetic response is to release epinephrine and norepinephrine, which results in peripheral vasoconstriction in order to conserve the circulating fluids for organs vital to survival. Peripheral vasoconstriction accounts for the cold extremities, increased heart rate, increased cardiac output. There will be less perfusion to the kidneys, resulting in decreased urine output. Hypovolemia can be recognized by a fast heart rate, low blood pressure, the absence of perfusion as assessed by skin signs and/or capillary refill on forehead and nail beds; the patient may feel dizzy, nauseated, or thirsty. These signs are characteristic of most types of shock. In children, compensation can result in an artificially high blood pressure despite hypovolemia. Children are able to compensate for a longer period than adults, but deteriorate and once they are unable to compensate. Any possibility of internal bleeding in children should be treated aggressively. Signs of external bleeding should be assessed, noting that individuals can bleed internally without external blood loss or otherwise apparent signs.

There should be considered possible mechanisms of injury that may have caused internal bleeding, such as ruptured or bruised internal organs. If trained to do so and if the situation permits, there should be conducted a secondary survey and checked the chest and abdomen for pain, guarding, discoloration or swelling. Bleeding into the abdominal cavity can cause the classical bruising patterns of Grey Turner's sign or Cullen's sign. In a hospital, physicians respond to a case of hypovolemic shock by conducting these investigations: Blood tests: U+Es/Chem7, full blood count, blood type and screen Central venous catheter Arterial line Urine output measurements Blood pressure SpO2 oxygen saturation monitoring Untreated hypovolemia can lead to shock. Most sources state; the 4 stages are sometimes known as the "Tennis" staging of hypovolemic shock, as the stages of blood loss mimic the scores in a game of tennis: 15, 15–30, 30–40 and 40. It is the same as used in classifying bleeding by blood loss.

The signs and symptoms of the