International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.
Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation. Protected areas will encompass several other zones that have been deemed important for particular conservation uses, such as Important Bird Areas and Endemic Bird Areas, Centres of Plant Diversity and Community Conserved Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites and Key Biodiversity Areas among others. A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example.
As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success. Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, 15.2% is contained within protected areas. Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the world's carbon stock, the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests: 18.8% of the world's forest is covered by protected areas and sixteen of the twenty forest types have 10% or more protected area coverage. Of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI.
Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover 14.3% of the world's mountain areas, these mountainous protected areas made up 32.5% of the world's total terrestrial protected area coverage in 2009. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990 and out of the 198 countries with mountain areas, 43.9% still have less than 10% of their mountain areas protected. Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning. Through its World Commission on Protected Areas, the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.
The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category Ia — Strict Nature Reserve Category Ib — Wilderness Area Category II — National Park Category III — Natural Monument or Feature Category IV — Habitat/Species Management Area Category V — Protected Landscape/Seascape Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources Protected areas are cultural artifacts, their story is entwined with that of human civilization. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
The oldest le
Acraman Creek Conservation Park
Acraman Creek Conservation Park is a protected area located in South Australia on the northern side of Streaky Bay on the western side of the Eyre Peninsula, about halfway between the towns of Ceduna and Streaky Bay. The conservation park occupies land in Allotments 10 and 11 of Deposited Plan No. 30252 in the cadastral units of the Hundreds of Wallanippie and Haslam. It was proclaimed on 12 September 1991 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 with its name being derived from Acraman Creek, a stream located within its boundaries; as of 2018, it covered an area of 39.53 square kilometres. It contains the Acraman Creek estuary, ocean beaches, sand dunes, mangrove and mallee habitats, it is an important feeding location for many coastal birds, including migratory waders such as sandpipers and stilts that journey from the Arctic Circle. A bush camping ground and the ocean beach is accessible by conventional vehicles, but access to boat launching facilities at Port Lindsey on Acraman Creek requires a four-wheel drive.
Offshore is the remains of a shipwreck when whaling was performed in the area. Activities in the conservation park include bush camping, boating and birdwatching; the conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area. During the 1990s, the conservation park were listed on the former Register of the National Estate. Protected areas of South Australia John Acraman Acraman Creek Conservation Park official webpage Acraman Creek Conservation Park webpage on protected planet
Kanku-Breakaways Conservation Park
The Kanku-Breakaways Conservation Park is a protected area in northern South Australia, just off the Stuart Highway 33 km north of Coober Pedy. The Breakaways CP is managed under a co-management agreement by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in conjunction with the Antakirinja Matu-Yankunytjatjara Aboriginal Corporation and the District Council of Coober Pedy; the park got the name "The Breakaways" because the mesas and low hills appear from a distance as if "broken away" from the higher ground of the escarpment. The site is significant for the Antakirinja Matuntjara Yankunytjatjara People, whose name for the area is Umoona, meaning "long life", referring to a particular species of tree found in the area; the conservation park was renamed as the Kanku-Breakaways Conservation Park on 19 November 2015. The semi-arid desert climatic conditions of the park are similar to those of Coober Pedy, with cool nights and hot days, summer temperatures can sometimes exceed 45 °C. Access to the main lookout over the site is provided by a 5 km dirt road from the sealed Stuart Highway, or alternatively, via the Dog Fence Scenic Tourist Drive Road.
A 65.8 km circuit can be made by mountain bike from Coober Pedy along the Stuart Highway to the Breakaways, along the dog fence track and returning to Coober Pedy by the Oodnadatta Track. Tours from Coober Pedy are conducted by several tour operators. Permits for self-guided visits to the area cost A$10 Per Vehicle and are available from the Tourist Information Centre in the District Council Office on Hutchinson Street, Coober Pedy
Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park
Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park is a protected area located in the suburbs of Aldinga Beach and Sellicks Beach about 46 kilometres south by west of Adelaide in South Australia. The park was proclaimed in November 1975 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 for the purpose of protecting a parcel of undeveloped land considered to be'a significant remnant of the natural habitat that once occurred all along the southern Adelaide coastline'; the conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area. List of protected areas in Adelaide Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park official site Friends of Aldinga Scrub Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park webpage on protected planet
Innes National Park
Innes National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the southwest tip of Yorke Peninsula about 300 kilometres west of the state capital of Adelaide. Known as Innes by many, the national park is a popular destination for camping, fishing and scuba diving. Innes National Park is located on the southern western extremity of Yorke Peninsula in South Australia about 300 kilometres by road from the Adelaide city centre, it is located within the locality known as Inneston. The national park occupies most of the land on the south-western tip of Yorke Peninsula south west of a line running from Willyama Bay on the south coast of the peninsula near Marion Bay to Gym Beach on the west coast of the peninsula and the following four islands adjoining the coastline: Chinamans Hat Island, Middle Island and South Island west of Pondalowie Bay, Royston Island west of Royston Head. Within the above area, land excluded from the national park includes the following saline lakes which were associated with gypsum mining at the time of proclamation of the national park - Marion Lake, Snow Lake and Spider Lake.
As of 2014, the national park included the following "no access" areas - a section of coastline between Cape Spencer and Ethel Beach and Middle Islands at the entrance to Pondalowie Bay, Royston Island, the coastline between Royston Head and Dolphin Beach, the coastline between Browns Beach and Gym Beach. The coastline extending from Willyama Bay to Cape Spencer consists of a number of bays such as Cable Bay and Stenhouse Bay with some prominent headlands such as Rhino Head and a line of cliffs between Cable Bay and Stenhouse Bay. From Cape Spencer to West Cape, an unbroken line of cliffs ranging in height between 37 metres and 79 metres with some sandy beaches at their feet make up the south west coast of Yorke Peninsula. From West Cape to Pondalowie Bay, the cliff line is of a lower height. From the south end of Pondalowie Bay to Gym Beach, areas of sand dunes dominate the shoreline and the land adjoining it with the exception of Royston Head and the cliff line extending eastward to Dolphin Beach.
The land between the national park's boundary and the road system is dominated in part by a network of saline lakes. The national park is serviced by a road connected to the western end of the Yorke Highway which passes through Marion Bay; the road which starts at Stenhouse Bay follows the coastline as a sealed road passing Chinamans Hat Island, Cable Bay and the turn-offs to Cape Spencer, Ethel Beach, West Cape and two camping grounds at Pondalowie Bay. The road concludes as a sealed road at the turn-off to the Pondalowie Surf Break Carpark, it continues as an unsealed road, passing turn-offs to Dolphin Beach and Shell Beach, to terminate at Browns Beach in the north west of the national park. Gym Beach in the extreme north west, while being accessible via the national park's walking trail system can only reached via vehicle from the Marion Bay Road, located to the east of the national park's boundary; the national park is classified as an IUCN category II protected area. As of 2003, 333 species of native plants had been recorded in Innes National Park of which 115 species were of conservation significance including 24 scheduled in the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 and the following four species listed in the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999: annual candles, winter spider-orchid, bead samphire and splendid bush-pea.
Native mammals found within the national park as of 2003 included New Zealand fur seal, western pygmy possum, Gould's wattle bat, chocolate wattled bat, common dolphin, southern right whale, western grey kangaroo, Australian sea lion, short-beaked echidna and bottlenose dolphin. Birds found within the national park as of 2003 included 111 species of native bird of which 13 species were scheduled in Australian and state legislation; the following 13 species were listed in the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 either as being vulnerable or rare species - chestnut quail-thrush, eastern reef egret, fairy tern, hooded plover, little tern, osprey, painted button-quail, peregrine falcon, rock parrot, shy heathwren, western whipbird and white-bellied sea-eagle while the malleefowl was recognised nationally as a vulnerable species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Reptiles found within the national park as of 2003 included marbled gecko, mallee snake-eye, painted dragon, barking gecko, yellow-faced whipsnake, black tiger snake, eastern stone gecko, eastern bearded dragon, bull skink, eastern brown snake, four-toed earless skink, peninsula brown snake, southern four-toed slider, common scaly-foot, dwarf skink, western bluetongue, Adelaide snake-eye, sleepy lizard and prickly dragon.
Introduced animals found within the national park as of 2003 included rock dove, rabbit, house mouse, house sparrow, black rat, common starling and fox. Innes National Park was declared on 5 March 1970 under the National Parks Act 1966 to "conserve important habitat for the western whipbird, the mallee fowl and to protect a number of heritage buildings at Inneston." Land was added to the national park in 1977, 1984 and 1993 in order to deal with increased recreational use. The Narungga people occupied the Yorke Peninsula for thousands of years, they consisted of four clans, the Kurnara of the north, the Windera of the east, the Wari of the West and the Dilpa of the south. European colonisation of the area began in 1846 with sheep grazing near Cape Spencer. Crops were grown on a small scale in the early 20th century. Innes National Park was named after William Innes, who disc
Lake Gairdner National Park
Lake Gairdner National Park is a protected area associated with Lake Gairdner in South Australia, 436 km northwest of Adelaide. It is located just south of the Trans-Australian Railway, Stuart Highway, the Woomera Prohibited area; the national park consists of the following salt lakes - Lake Gairdner, Lake Harris and Lake Everard. Ordinarily, the country is arid, devoid of free water, surface or underground. In the summer it can be hot: in the springtime, this country has great attraction for birdwatchers and botanists. There is limited public access to this park, surrounded by pastoral leases; the easiest public access is from the main road running from Yardea to Kingoonya, at The Brothers Well, a concrete catchment at the side of the road at the southern end of Moonaree Station. The road is dirt, but quite good enough for two-wheel drive vehicles unless it is wet, when it is that it will be closed by the Highways Dept.. This region is the home country of the Kokatha people, traces of their occupation may still be found: sacred sites are still visited for ceremonies.
The national park contains the historic Glenloth Gold Battery Site, located at its western end on the shore of Lake Harris, listed on the South Australian Heritage Register as a designated place of archaeological significance. Protected areas of South Australia Lake Gairdner National Park webpage on protected planet