Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss, is a British former Formula One racing driver. An inductee into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he won 212 of the 529 races he entered across several categories of competition and has been described as "the greatest driver never to win the World Championship". In a seven-year span between 1955 and 1961 Moss finished as championship runner-up four times and third the other three. Moss was born in London, son of Alfred Moss, a dentist of Bray and Aileen, he was brought up at Long White Cloud house on the right bank of the River Thames. His father was an amateur racing driver who had placed 16th at the 1924 Indianapolis 500. Aileen Moss had been involved in motorsport, entering prewar hillclimbs at the wheel of a Singer Nine. Stirling was a gifted horse rider as was his younger sister, Pat Moss, who became a successful rally driver and married Erik Carlsson. Moss was educated at several independent schools: Shrewsbury House School in Surbiton, Clewer Manor Junior School, the linked senior school and Imperial Service College, located at Hertford Heath, near Hertford.
Moss raced from 1948 to 1962, winning 212 of the 529 races he entered, including 16 Formula One Grands Prix. He would compete in as many as 62 races in a single year and drove 84 different makes of car over the course of his racing career, including Cooper 500, ERA, Lister Cars, Maserati, Mercedes-Benz and Vanwall single-seaters, Aston Martin, Ferrari and Mercedes-Benz sports cars, Jaguar saloons. Like many drivers of the era, he competed in several formulae on the same day, he preferred to race British cars, stating, "Better to lose honourably in a British car than win in a foreign one". At Vanwall, he was instrumental in breaking the German/Italian stranglehold on F1 racing, he remained the English driver with the most Formula One victories until 1991 when Nigel Mansell overtook him after competing in more races. Moss began his career at the wheel of his father Alfred's 328 Frazer Nash, DPX 653. Moss was one of the Cooper Car Company's first customers, using winnings from competing in horse-riding events to pay the deposit on a Cooper 500 racing car in 1948.
He persuaded his father, who opposed his racing and wanted him to be a dentist, to let him buy it. He soon demonstrated his ability with numerous wins at national and international levels, continued to compete in Formula Three, with Coopers and Kiefts, after he had progressed to more senior categories, his first major international race victory came on the eve of his 21st birthday at the wheel of a borrowed Jaguar XK120 in the 1950 RAC Tourist Trophy on the Dundrod circuit in Northern Ireland. He went on to win the race six more times, in 1951, 1955, 1958 and 1959, 1960 and 1961. A competent rally driver, he is one of three people to have won a Coupe d'Or for three consecutive penalty-free runs on the Alpine Rally, he finished second in the 1952 Monte Carlo Rally driving a Sunbeam-Talbot 90 with Desmond Scannell and Autocar magazine editor John Cooper as co-drivers. In 1954, he became the first non-American to win the 12 Hours of Sebring, sharing the Cunningham team's 1.5-liter O. S. C. A. MT4 with American Bill Lloyd.
In 1953 Mercedes-Benz racing boss Alfred Neubauer had spoken to Moss's manager, Ken Gregory, about the possibility of Moss's joining the Mercedes Grand Prix team. Having seen him do well in a uncompetitive car, wanting to see how he would perform in a better one, Neubauer suggested Moss buy a Maserati for the 1954 season, he bought a Maserati 250F, although the car's unreliability prevented his scoring high points in the 1954 Drivers' Championship he qualified alongside the Mercedes front runners several times and performed well in the races. He achieved his first Formula 1 victory when he won the non-Championship International Gold Cup in the Maserati. In the Italian Grand Prix at Monza he passed both drivers who were regarded as the best in Formula One at the time—Juan Manuel Fangio in a Mercedes and Alberto Ascari in a Ferrari—and took the lead. Ascari retired with engine problems, Moss led until lap 68 when his engine failed. Fangio took the victory, Moss pushed his Maserati to the finish line.
Neubauer impressed when Moss had tested a Mercedes-Benz W196 at Hockenheim, promptly signed him for 1955. Moss's first World Championship victory was in the 1955 British Grand Prix at Aintree, a race he was the first British driver to win. Leading a 1–2–3–4 finish for Mercedes, it was the first time he beat Fangio, his teammate and arch rival, his friend and mentor, it has been suggested. Moss himself asked Fangio and Fangio always replied: "No. You were just better than me that day." The same year, Moss won the RAC Tourist Trophy, the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia. In 1955 Moss won Italy's thousand-mile Mille Miglia road race, an achievement Doug Nye described as the "most iconic single day's drive in motor racing history." Motor Trend headlined it as "The Most Epic Drive. Ever."Moss 25 years old, drove one of four factory-entered Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR sports-racing cars. Based on the W196 Grand Prix car, they had spaceframe chassis and magnesium-alloy bodies, their modified W196 engines ran on a mixture of petrol and alcohol.
The team's main race rivals were the factory-entered Ferraris of Piero Taruffi, Eugenio Castellotti, Umberto Maglioli, Paolo Marzotto. Journalist Denis Jenkinson was Moss's navigator, he had intended to go with John Fitch
Road racing is a form of motorsport racing held on a paved road surfaces. The races can be held either on a closed circuit or on a street circuit utilizing temporarily closed public roads. Road races were held entirely on public roads however, public safety concerns led to most races being held on purpose built racing circuits. Road racing's origins were centered in Western Europe and Great Britain as motor vehicles became more common in the early 20th century. After the Second World War, automobile road races were organized into a series called the Formula One world championship sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile while, motorcycle road races were organized into the Grand Prix motorcycle racing series now called MotoGP and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme; the success and popularity of road racing has seen the sport spread across the globe with Grand Prix road races having been held on six continents. Other variations of road racing include.
The first organized automobile race was held on July 1894 from Paris to Rouen, France. The first held in the United States was a 54-mile competition from Chicago to Evanston and return, held on November 27, 1895. By 1905, the Gordon Bennett Cup, organized by the Automobile Club de France, was considered the most important race in the world. In 1904, the Association Internationale des Automobiles Clubs Reconnus was formed by several European automobile clubs. In 1904 the FIM created the international cup for motorcycles; the first international motorcycle road race took place in 1905 at France. After disagreeing with Bennett Cup organizers over regulations limiting the number of entrants, the French automobile manufacturers responded in 1906 by organizing the first French Grand Prix race held at Le Mans; the first 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race was held in 1923. The great majority of road races were run over a lengthy circuit of closed public roads, not purpose-built racing circuits; this was true of the Le Mans circuit of the 1906 French Grand Prix, as well as the Targa Florio, the 75 miles German Kaiserpreis circuit in the Taunus mountains, the 48 miles French circuit at Dieppe, used for the 1907 Grand Prix and, the Isle of Man TT motorcycle road circuit first used in 1907.
The exceptions were the steeply banked egg-shaped near oval circuit of Brooklands in England, completed in 1906, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, the oval, banked speedways constructed in Europe at Monza in 1922 and at Montlhéray in 1924. Road racing on public roads was banned in Great Britain in 1925 when a spectator was injured at the Kop Hill Climb event; the Royal Automobile Club and the Auto-Cycle Union stopped issuing permits for races on public roads, a policy that has not changed to this day. Donington Park was the first permanent park circuit in the United Kingdom and held its first motorcycle race in 1931; as automobile and motorcycle technology improved, racers began to achieve higher speeds that caused an increasing number of accidents on roads not designed for motorized vehicles. Public safety concerns caused the number of road racing events on public roads in Europe to decrease over the years; the Mille Miglia was a notable exception, allowed to continue until 1957. After the First World War and motorcycle road racing competitions in Europe and in North America went in different directions.
Automobile racing in the United States was oval track racing on tracks such as the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and the Milwaukee Mile track while, pre-war American motorcycle racers raced on dirt tracks using available horse racing circuits. American racing branched out into stock car racing and drag racing. Road racing traditions in Europe, South America, Great Britain and the British Commonwealth nations grew around races held on paved, public roads such as the Circuit de la Sarthe circuit near the town of Le Mans, the Spa-Francorchamps Circuit in Belgium and the Mount Panorama Circuit in Australia. Certain European race circuits were situated in mountainous regions where the topography meant that the roads featured numerous curves and elevation changes, allowing the creation of sinuous and undulating race courses such as the Nurburgring in the Eifel mountains of Germany and the Circuit de Charade in the Chaîne des Puys in the Massif Central of France; these circuits presented such a challenge that they were both respected by racers.
The 20.8 km long Nurburgring with more than 300 metres of elevation change from its lowest to highest points, was nicknamed "The Green Hell" by Jackie Stewart, due to its challenging nature. The sinuous track layout of the Charade circuit caused some drivers like Jochen Rindt in the 1969 French Grand Prix to complain of motion sickness, wore open face helmets just in case. In 1949 the FIM introduced the Grand Prix motorcycle racing world championship with the 1949 Isle of Man TT being the inaugural event. With the exception of the Monza circuit, all the Grand Prix races were held on street circuits; the Association Internationale des Automobiles Clubs Reconnus was renamed the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile in 1946 and, plans were developed for a road racing world championship. In 1950, the FIA created the Formula One world championship, a competition of seven rounds that included the Indianapolis 500. A Formula I manufacturers' championship was begun in 1955. Auto racing was temporarily banned in several countries after the 1955 Le Mans disaster.
The tragedy highlighted the need for improved safety standards for both drivers and
Watkins Glen International
Watkins Glen International, nicknamed "The Glen", is an automobile race track located in Watkins Glen, New York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake. It was long known around the world as the home of the Formula One United States Grand Prix, which it hosted for twenty consecutive years, but the site has been home to road racing of nearly every class, including the World Sportscar Championship, Trans-Am, Can-Am, Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the International Motor Sports Association and the IndyCar Series. Public roads in the village were used for the race course. In 1956 a permanent circuit for the race was built. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit's current layout has more or less been the same since 1971. A chicane was installed at the uphill Esses in 1975 to slow cars through these corners, where a driver died during practice at the 1973 United States Grand Prix, removed in 1985. Another chicane called the "Inner Loop" was installed in 1992 after a fatal accident during the previous year's NASCAR Winston Cup event.
The circuit is known as the Mecca of North American road racing and is a popular venue among fans and drivers. The facility is owned by International Speedway Corporation; the circuit has been the site of music concerts: the 1973 Summer Jam, featuring The Allman Brothers Band, the Grateful Dead and The Band and attended by 600,000 fans, two Phish festivals: Super Ball IX in 2011 and Magnaball in 2015. The Watkins Glen International race course has undergone several changes over the years, with five general layouts recognized over its history. Two distinct layouts are used—the "Boot" layout and the "NASCAR" layout; the first races in Watkins Glen were organized by Cameron Argetsinger, whose family had a summer home in the area. With local Chamber of Commerce approval and SCCA sanction, the first Watkins Glen Grand Prix took place in 1948 on a 6.6-mile course over local public roads. For the first few years, the races passed through the heart of the town with spectators lining the sidewalks, but after a car driven by Fred Wacker left the road in the 1952 race, killing seven-year-old Frank Fazzari and injuring several others, the race was moved to a new location on a wooded hilltop southwest of town.
The original 6.6-mile course is listed in the New York State register and National Register of Historic Places as the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Course, 1948-1952. The second layout 4.6-mile began use in 1953 and used existing roads. The Watkins Glen Grand Prix Corporation was formed to manage spectators and concessions; this arrangement lasted three years. The first permanent course was constructed on 550 acres, overlapping part of the previous street course, it was designed by engineering professors from Cornell University. The layout measured 2.35-mile. This course was used from 1956–1970. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit underwent a major overhaul for the 1971 season. The "Big Bend" and the turns leading up to it were eliminated, replaced with a new pit straight; the pits and start/finish line were moved to this new straightaway. "The 90" now became Turn 1 instead of Turn 8. When the 1971 Six Hours of Watkins Glen arrived in July 1971, the overall circuit renovations were still unfinished.
The short course had been finished, but the Boot segments were not complete, nor was the new pit area. The 1971 Six Hours race was run on the short course layout, that layout colloquially became known as the 1971 Six Hours Course. In addition, for 1971 only, the cars used the old pits; when NASCAR returned to the track in 1986, they chose to use the short course layout. IMSA used the "Boot", but that series began using the shorter 1971 layout; the short course was lengthened in 1992. The most significant change to the track, a new segment known as "The Boot", was finished in time for the Formula One race; the start-finish line was moved to the new pit straight as planned. At the end of the backstretch, after the Loop-Chute, cars swept left into a new four-turn complex that departed from the old layout, curling left-hand downhill through the woods; the track followed the edge of the hillside to two uphill right-hand turns, over an exciting blind crest into a right-hand turn, down and up into a left-hand turn rejoining the old track.
The new layout measured 3.377 miles. With its intrinsic link to the Formula One race, it became known colloquially as the Grand Prix Circuit. For 1972, the Six Hours sports car race began using the full "Boot" layout. By that time, nearly all facility improvements were completed, the pits and start/finish line were permanently moved to the new pit straight. In 1975, a fast right-left chicane was added in the turn 3-4 Esses section to slow speeds through the series of corners; this chicane was eliminated in the 1980s. In the early 1990s, the IMSA sports cars began bypassing the "Boot" in favor of the short course. To date, NASCAR events have never used the Boot layout; the "Long/Boot" course was lengthened in 1992. In the mid-2000s, the Boot segment, which had seen little use in many years, was repaved and upgraded; when the IndyCar Series returned to Watkins Glen starting in 2005, they elected to use the Boot segment. A full repaving of the course took place in 2015, in recent years, there has been a renewed interest and appreciation of the full Grand Prix Course layout.
Consideration had been made for NASCAR to start using the Boot. After a succession of serious crashes took place at the "Loop" at the end of the backs
Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilizes sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be related to road-going models. A type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence. Other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, over pure speed. Longer races involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes; as a result, sports car racing is seen more as a team endeavor than an individual sport, with team managers such as John Wyer, Tom Walkinshaw, driver-turned-constructor Henri Pescarolo, Peter Sauber and Reinhold Joest becoming as famous as some of their drivers. The prestige of storied marques such as Porsche, Corvette, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, BMW is built in part upon success in sports car racing and the World Sportscar Championship.
These makers' top road cars have been similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the'exotic' nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars; the 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Daytona, 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing. Driver Ken Miles would have been the only to win all three in the same year but for an error in the Ford GT40's team orders at Le Mans in 1966 that cost him the win in spite of finishing first. According to historian Richard Hough, "It is impossible to distinguish between the designers of sports cars and Grand Prix machines during the pre-1914 period; the late Georges Faroux always contended that sports-car racing was not born until the first 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1923, while as a joint-creator of that race he may have been prejudiced in his opinion, it is true that sports-car racing as it was known after 1919 did not exist before the First World War."
In the 1920s, the cars used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still identical, with fenders and two seats, to carry a mechanic if necessary or permitted. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car; the legendary Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto started the evolution of the true single-seater in the early 1930s. During the 1930s, French constructors, unable to keep up with the progress of the Mercedes-Benz and Auto-Union cars in GP racing, withdrew into domestic competition with large-capacity sports cars – marques such as Delahaye and the Bugattis were locally prominent. Through the 1920s and 1930s the roadgoing sports/GT car started to emerge as distinct from fast tourers and sports cars, whether descended from roadgoing vehicles or developed from pure-bred racing cars came to dominate races such as Le Mans and the Mille Miglia. In open-road endurance races across Europe such as the Mille Miglia, Tour de France and Targa Florio, which were run on dusty roads, the need for fenders and a mechanic or navigator was still there.
As Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category came to be known as Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled, rather than running around on short circuits only. Reliability and some basic comfort were necessary. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a distinct form of racing with its own classic races, from 1953, its own FIA sanctioned World Sportscar Championship. In the 1950s, sports car racing was regarded as as important as Grand Prix competition, with major marques like Ferrari, Maserati and Aston Martin investing much effort in their works programmes and supplying cars to customers. Top Grand Prix drivers competed in sports car racing. After major accidents at the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 1957 Mille Miglia the power of sports cars was curbed with a 3-litre engine capacity limit applied to them in the World Championship from 1958. From 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers.
In national rather than international racing, sports car competition in the 1950s and early 1960s tended to reflect what was locally popular, with the cars that were successful locally influencing each nation's approach to competing on the international stage. In the US, imported Italian and British cars battled local hybrids, with very distinct East and West Coast scenes; the US scene tended to featu
In sport, racing is a competition of speed, against an objective criterion a clock or to a specific point. The competitors in a race try to complete a given task in the shortest amount of time; this involves traversing some distance, but it can be any other task involving speed to reach a specific goal. A race may be run continuously to finish or may be made of several segments called heats, stages or legs. A heat is run over the same course at different times. A stage is a shorter section of a time trial. Early records of races are evident on pottery from ancient Greece, which depicted running men vying for first place. A chariot race is described in Homer's Iliad; the word race comes from a Norse word. This Norse word arrived in France during the invading of Normandy and gave the word raz which means "swift water" in Brittany, as in a mill race; the word race to mean a "contest of speed" was first recorded in the 1510s. A race and its name are associated with the place of origin, the means of transport and the distance of the race.
As a couple of examples, see the Dakar Rally or the Athens Marathon. Running a distance is the most basic form of racing, but races may be conducted in vehicles, such as boats, cars and aircraft. Races may be conducted with other modes of transport such as skis, skates or wheelchair. In a relay race members of a team take turns in racing parts of a circuit or performing a certain racing form. Orienteering races add an additional task of using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and unfamiliar terrain. A race can involve any other type of goal like eating. A common race involving eating is a hot dog eating race, where contestants try to eat more hot dogs than the other racers. Racing can be done in more humoristic and entertaining ways such as the Sausage Race, the Red Bull Trolley Grand Prix and wok racing. Racing can be entertained from around the world. One form of racing is through swimming. There are numerous ways to perform a good swim stroke: breaststroke, freestyle and backstroke.
In the racing form of swimming there are many rules that one must follow to perform in a competition. Freestyle- In freestyle the racers start off on a block start and can perform either an open turn or a flip turn (when a swimmer flips over underwater and pushes off the wall with their feet. While they do a flip turn they can only touch the wall with their feet, at the finish with only one hand. Breaststroke- For breaststroke, all limbs must move in a similar motion at the same time, remaining underwater most of the race with the racers heads bobbing up and down for air. For every arm stroke they are only allowed one leg kick. Butterfly- Butterfly racing begins with a forward dive and after each lap, the racer must touch the wall with both hands at the same time. After the turn they must do dolphin kicks and allow their head to break the surface of the water within the first 15 meters. Backstroke- Backstroking in a race is thought of an upside-down freestyle; these races start with the swimmers in the water and they must maintain being on their back throughout the duration of the race.
If they move their shoulders more than 90 degrees they will become disqualified from the race. There are many different types of racing in the automotive field such as NASCAR, endurance racing, drag racing, Formula One. While these all are races, the specific rules and themes are unique to each series.--NASCAR is the most recognizable form of racing in the United States. The cars used are analogue and have little downforce; the race tracks take the general form of an oval such as the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and are raced counter-clockwise such that every turn is leftwards.--Formula One is a series of open-wheel formula cars. Formula 1 cars are the fastest regulated cars to drive race tracks due to the high amount of downforce and mechanical grip. --Drag racing is a variable form of racing in which two cars or motorcycles attempt to cross a set finish line before the other. The most common form is the quarter-mile race, it can be done in anything from an everyday commuter to a Top Fuel dragster capable of accelerating to 300 mph in as little as 4.5 seconds.
Speed skating is performed on an ice rink and is done through the Olympics or other large organizations that perform in winter sports such as this. There are a lot of factors that go into having a fair and safe ice race.--The Draw happens before any race and take place there needs to be a qualifying round, or the draw, to determine the place in which the racers will start in for their desired heat.--Before the Start of the race, the racers’ names are called and they must appear to the starting line within the given time or they will not be allowed to race. Once at the starting line, they must approach the line saying “ready” but at no point touch the line with their skate or with any other body part until the gun is shot.--False Starting for the race happens If the racer takes the starting line before saying ready or if they leave the starting line before the gun has been fired, they will receive a false start. They are given a warning at first and if they false start again the racer whose fault it was will be disqualified from the race.
Crossovers- During the race, each racer must switch lanes one time during each lap. This is due to the inner lop being shorter than the outer loop so it is only fair to have the
Lehigh University is a private research university in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. It was established in 1865 by businessman Asa Packer, its undergraduate programs have been coeducational since the 1971–72 academic year. As of 2019, the university had 1,942 graduate students. Lehigh has four colleges: the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Education; the College of Arts and Sciences is the largest, which consists of 35% of the university's students. The university offers a variety of degrees, including Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Business Administration, Master of Engineering, Master of Education, Doctor of Philosophy. Lehigh has produced Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Fellows, members of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of the National Academy of Sciences, National Medal of Science winners. On April 5, 1986, a 19-year-old Lehigh freshman was murdered in her dorm room.
The backlash against unreported crimes on numerous campuses across the country led to the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. The Clery Act requires that colleges reveal information regarding crime on their campuses.20 years after the federal Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act took effect, thought leaders on campus safety came to Lehigh to discuss critical safety issues for colleges and universities. The event, "Proceeding in Partnership: The Future of Campus Safety," was held on the Lehigh campus in September 2011, was co-sponsored by Security on Campus, founded by Connie and Howard Clery following the death of their daughter, Jeanne Clery; the conference represented the first cooperative effort between Lehigh and the organization since Jeanne Clery's death. Located in the Lehigh Valley, the university is a 70-mile drive from Philadelphia, an 85-mile drive from New York City. Lehigh encompasses 2,350 acres, including 180 acres of recreational and playing fields and 150 buildings comprising four million square feet of floor space.
It is organized into three contiguous campuses on and around South Mountain, including: the Asa Packer Campus, built into the northern slope of the mountain, is Lehigh's original and predominant campus. In May 2012, Lehigh became the recipient of a gift of 755 acres of property in nearby Upper Saucon Township from the Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation; the gift from the estate of the long-time benefactor allowed the university to expand its footprint to now comprise 2,350 acres across all its campuses, to consider its long-term potential uses. U. S. News & World Report ranked Lehigh tied for 53rd among national universities in its 2019 edition of "Best Colleges"; the Economist ranked Lehigh 7th among national universities in its 2015 ranking of non-vocational U. S. colleges ranked by alumni earnings above expectation. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012; the Wall Street Journal in June 2010 ranked Lehigh as number 12 in the nation for return on investment when comparing the average career earnings of a graduate to the cost of an education.
Lehigh has appeared in several international university rankings. The university ranked 301–350 overall in the 2013–2014 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 401–500 overall in the 2012 edition of the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 551-600 overall in the 2013 QS World University Rankings. U. S. News & World Report classifies Lehigh's selectivity as "Most Selective." For the Class of 2022, Lehigh received 15,623 applications and accepted 3,418. Per Lehigh's school newspaper, 2022 marked the most selective year with a 19% acceptance rate for regular decision applicants. Lehigh's average class size is 27 students; the undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is 10:1. Lehigh University offers undergraduate enrollment in all colleges but the College of Education: the P. C. Rossin School of Engineering and Applied Science, the College of Business and Economics, the College of Arts and Sciences. Students are able to take courses or major/minor in a subject outside of their respective college.
The university operates on a semester system. Graduates of Lehigh's engineering programs invented the escalator and founded Packard Motor Car Company and the companies that built the locks and lockgates of the Panama Canal. Other notable alumni include Lee Iacocca. Tau Beta Pi, the renowned engineering honor society, was founded at Lehigh. In 2012, BusinessWeek ranked Lehigh's College of Business and Economics 31st in the nation among undergraduate business programs. Lehigh's finance program is strong, ranked as 7th overall undergraduate finance program in the nation by BusinessWeek; the accounting program is strong, ranked as the 21st best undergraduate program in the nation by BusinessWeek. Additionally, US News & World Report ranked Lehigh's part-time MBA 20th in the nation in 2018 rankings. Entrepreneur Magazine and The Princeton Review named Lehigh the 24th best undergraduate college for entrepreneurship in 2012. Based in Maginnes Hall, Lehigh offers a variety of visual arts programs. In particular, it has many music programs, including a marching ba
Carroll Hall Shelby was an American automotive designer, racing driver, entrepreneur. Shelby is best known for his involvement with the AC Cobra and Mustang for Ford Motor Company, which he modified during the late 1960s and early 2000s, he established Shelby American Inc. in 1962 to manufacture and market performance vehicles, as well as Carroll Shelby Licensing in 1988 which grew into Carroll Shelby International. Carroll Shelby was born on January 11, 1923 to Warren Hall Shelby, a rural mail carrier, his wife, Eloise Shelby in Leesburg, Texas. Shelby suffered from heart valve leakage problems by age 7 and experienced health complications from this throughout his life. Shelby's education as a pilot began in the military at the San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center known as Lackland Air Force Base, in November 1941. Shelby was married a total of seven times. Shelby's first wife was Jeanne Fields, their daughter Sharon Anne Shelby was born a year on September 27, 1944. Shelby and Fields had two more children -- Patrick Bert.
They divorced in February 1960. Although the marriage was happy, it began to break down due to his extramarital affairs, which he admitted. Late in his first marriage, Shelby embarked on a long-running passionate affair with Jan Harrison, an actress, although he still loved his first wife, the marriage had ended following years of infidelity. In 1962, Shelby married actress Harrison before the marriage was annulled the same year, his third marriage, which he entered into as part of a deal with a New Zealand woman to get her into the United States, lasted only a few weeks before ending in divorce. His fourth marriage, to a woman named Sandy, lasted less than a year before ending in divorce. After 28 years single, Carroll married Cynthia Psaros, formally a Beauty queen, her father, a retired Marine colonel and fighter pilot, was quite enjoyable to Carroll. During this marriage, Carroll received his long-awaited heart transplant, their marriage lasted only a few years before ending in divorce. He married Lena Dahl, a Swedish woman whom he met in 1968.
She died in a car accident in 1997. It was his only marriage which did not end in annulment, or separation. Shelby married his final wife, Cleo, a British former model who drove rally cars, in 1997, just four months after the death of his sixth wife, she was 25 years his junior. They were in the process of getting a divorce when he died in 2012. Shelby honed his driving skills with his Willys automobile while attending Woodrow Wilson High School in Dallas, Texas, he graduated from Wilson in 1940. He was enrolled at The Georgia School of Technology in the Aeronautical Engineering program. However, because of the war Shelby did not go to school and enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps, serving in World War II as a flight instructor and test pilot, he graduated with the rank of staff sergeant pilot. Subsequently, he had short stints as an oil-well roughneck and as a poultry farmer prior to his racing career. Starting out as an amateur, Shelby raced a friend's MG TC and borrowed Cad-Allards, he recalled that the combination of the small English Allard and American V-8 power inspired his creation of the AC Cobra.
His great success racing the Allards led to invitations to drive for the Aston Martin and Maserati factory teams in the mid-to-late 1950s. Driving for Donald Healey in a modified and supercharged Austin-Healey 100S, he set 16 U. S. and international speed records at the Bonneville salt flats. He drove in the Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race in a specially prepared Ferrari 375 GP roadster, to a record run of 10:21.8 seconds on his way to victory in 1956. He was Sports Illustrated's driver of the year in 1956 and 1957, he competed in Formula One from 1958 to 1959, participating in a total of eight World Championship races and several non-championship races. The highlight of his race driving career came in 1959, when he co-drove an Aston Martin DBR1 to victory in the 1959 24 Hours of Le Mans. During this race he noted the performance of an English GT car built by AC Cars, known as the Ace. Three years the AC Ace would become the basis for the AC Cobra. After retiring from driving in October 1959 for health reasons, he opened a high-performance driving school and the Shelby-American company.
He obtained a license to import the AC Cobra, a successful British Sports racing car manufactured by AC Motors of England, which AC had designed at Shelby's request by fitting a Ford V8 to their popular AC Ace sports car in place of its standard AC six, Ford Zephyr or 2-liter Bristol engine. Shelby remained influential with Ford manufactured cars, including the Daytona Coupe, GT40, the Mustang-based Shelby GT350 and Shelby GT500. After parting with Ford, Shelby moved on to help develop performance cars with divisions of the two other Big 3 American companies and Oldsmobile. Ford provided financial support for AC's Cobras from 1962 through 1965 and provided financial support for the Ford GTs, first with John Wyer's Ford Advanced Vehicles in 1963 and with Shelby American from 1964 through 1967. In the intervening years, Shelby had a series of ventures start and stop relating to production of "completion" Cobras — cars that were built using "left over" parts and frames. In the 1960s, the FIA required entrants to produce at least 100 cars for homologated classes of racing.
Shelby ordered an insufficient number of cars and skipped a large block of Vehicle Identification Numbers, to create the illusion th