Rock Hill, South Carolina
Rock Hill is the largest city in York County, South Carolina, United States and the fifth-largest city in the state. It is the largest South Carolina city in the Charlotte metropolitan area, it boasts the largest metro area in the state of South Carolina, well ahead of Charleston and Greenville. In 2016, the population had increased to 72,937; the total population of Rock Hill inside the city limits and outside the city limits as of 2017 was estimated at 117,375 people. The city is located 25 miles south of Charlotte and 70 miles north of Columbia. Rock Hill offers scenic riverfront views along the Catawba River and is home to numerous nature trails and thirty-one parks which are used for both national and local events, its historic downtown consist of twelve contiguous buildings built as early as 1840 offering dining and retail options. The city is home to three colleges, including Winthrop University, a public liberal arts university founded in 1886 which enrolls nearly 6,000 students annually.
Procceding cultures of indigenous peoples lived in the Piedmont for thousands of years. The historic Catawba Indian Nation, a traditionally Siouan-speaking tribe, was here at the time of European encounter; the only tribe in South Carolina, federally recognized, its members live near Rock Hill. Although some European settlers had arrived in the Rock Hill area in the 1830s and 1840s, Rock Hill did not become an actual town until the Charlotte and South Carolina Railroad Company made the decision to send a rail line through the area; the railroad had hoped to build a station in the nearby village of Ebenezerville, squarely between Charlotte, North Carolina and Columbia, South Carolina. When approached, the locals in Ebenezerville refused to have the railroad run through their village since they considered it dirty and noisy. Instead and surveyors decided to run the line two miles away by a local landmark. According to some, the engineers marked the spot on the map and named it "rocky hill."Some of Rock Hill's early founding families—the White family, the Black family, the Moores—believed that having a rail depot so close to them would be advantageous, so they decided to give the Columbia and Charlotte Railroad the right of way through their properties.
As the three largest landowners in the area, this settled the matter. George Pendleton White contracted with the railroad to build a section of the line. Construction began in 1848; the first passenger train arrived on March 23, 1852. A few weeks on April 17, 1852, the first Rock Hill Post Office opened. Now that Rock Hill had a name, a railroad station, a post office, it began to draw more settlers to the area. Captain J. H. McGinnis built a small general store near the station in 1849 or 1850 to provide supplies for the construction and railroad workers. Templeton Black, who had leased the land to McGinnis, decided to devote some of his other adjacent land to building a larger town, he hired Squire John Roddey, to organize a main street. Black sold his first plot of land along that street to Ira Ferguson for $125 a few weeks before the post office opened. Rock Hill Academy, the first school in Rock Hill, opened in September 1854. Despite its official name, most residents referred to it as the Pine Grove Academy after the pine grove it was located in.
Ann Hutchinson White, wife of George White, donated the land to the school after her husband's death. The school had 60 male pupils in 1856. Pre-December 1857: The Indian Land Chronicle, Rock Hill's first newspaper, begins publishing. After a change in ownership, it was renamed The Rock Hill Chronicle in 1860. Pre-1860: Rock Hill had at least two doctors: Robert Hervey Hope and William Barron Fewell Shortly before the American Civil War began a census had been taken of the population in York County, where Rock Hill is located. Half of the district's 21,800 residents were slaves; the 4,379 white males in the county formed fourteen infantry companies. By the end of the war, 805 of these men were dead, hundreds more were wounded. Men from Rock Hill and York County were involved in many of the major Civil War battles. Due to its position on the railroad, Rock Hill became a transfer point for Confederate soldiers and supplies moving to and from the front. Since there was no local hospital, townspeople nursed wounded soldiers in their homes.
Refugees fleeing the coastal blockade or General Sherman's troops came to Rock Hill. Beginning in the spring of 1862, local area farmers switched from cotton to corn in order to produce more food. Records show that prices in Rock Hill changed during the war, reflecting both shortages and the inflation of the Confederate paper money. Confederate General P. G. T. Beauregard set up a temporary headquarters in Rock Hill on February 21, 1865, he ordered the roads to Charlotte blocked to try to prevent General Sherman from reaching the city. When General Lee surrendered at the Appomattox Court House, it was a future Rock Hill resident, responsible for waving the white flag. Captain Robert Moorman Sims, a farmer from Lancaster County, was sent by General James Longstreet to inform Union troops that the Confederate troops wanted a truce; the Civil War changed the social and political situation in Rock Hill tremendously, as it did elsewhere in the South. Rock Hill grew as a town, taking in war refugees and their families, the return of the men who had left to fight the war.
The Catawba River originates in Western North Carolina and the name of the river changes to the Wateree River in South Carolina. The river is 220 miles long, it rises in the Appalachian Mountains and drains into the Piedmont, where it has been impounded through a series of reservoirs for flood control and generation of hydroelectricity. The river is named after the Catawba tribe of Native Americans. In their Siouan language, they identified as the Kawahcatawbas, "the people of the river", it rises in the Blue Ridge Mountains in western McDowell County, North Carolina 20 miles east of Asheville. It flows ENE, along with the Linville River, Lake James, it passes north of Morganton southeast through Lake Hickory just north of Hickory, NC, into the Lake Norman reservoir. From Lake Norman it flows south, passing west of Charlotte flowing through the Mountain Island Lake and Lake Wylie reservoirs, where it forms 10 miles of the border between North Carolina and South Carolina; the confluence of the South Fork Catawba River and Catawba River is submerged by Lake Wylie near the NC/SC state line.
It flows into northern South Carolina, passing Rock Hill, through Fishing Creek Reservoir near Great Falls, into the Lake Wateree reservoir 30 miles northeast of Columbia. At the now-submerged confluence with Wateree Creek, it becomes known as the Wateree River; the Catawba has been controlled by several dams, including the following: North Carolina Lake James Dam Rhodhiss Dam Oxford Dam Lookout Shoals Dam Cowans Ford Dam, creating Lake Norman Mountain Island Lake DamSouth Carolina Lake Wylie Dam in India Hook Fishing Creek Reservoir in Great Falls Dearborn-Great Falls Dam Cedar Creek Reservoir Dam Lake Wateree Dam In 2006 the river became the center of a water use controversy between the residents of the Catawba watershed and Cabarrus County, North Carolina. The cities of Concord and Kannapolis are expecting a daily shortfall of 22 million US gallons of water a day by 2035 and want to pump up to 36 million US gallons of water daily from the Catawba River; the Concord/Kannapolis Interbasin Transfer proposal calls for water to be permanently transferred from one river basin to another river basin.
Such a transfer is unlike the more common water usage, in which municipalities within the Catawba basin pump water from the river and treat it for residential use. Much of that treated water returns to the Catawba River. Though neither Concord nor Kannapolis is located in the Catawba River basin, the cities said the Catawba River is a regional resource. Opponents of the IBT argued that towns and cities along the Catawba River basin are growing as well, that the cities' request is too large. On January 10, 2007, the North Carolina state environmental panel authorized Concord and Kannapolis to pump up to 10 million US gallons a day from the Catawba River; this decision represented a compromise recommended by hearing officers for the Environmental Management Commission. The mayors of Morganton and Valdese said that they were adamantly against the transfer and that the panel's ruling was skewed and biased. Concord's city manager said the approval of the water transfer was "bittersweet", since the panel authorized an amount much lower than was requested and the action is to be delayed by lawsuits.
“Well, Hickory are going to file an appeal,” said Concord Mayor Scott Padgett, who spoke with Hickory Mayor Rudy Wright after the EMC meeting. “His major concern is changing the process. My appeal to him is. To file an appeal is just going to prolong something we deserve, is less than what we asked for and is going to further hard feelings this has created.” The controversy ended in early 2010. It further limits the amount of water available to Kannapolis under drought conditions. Starting in the early autumn months of 2007, residents and businesses of the Catawba basin, along with large swaths of the Southern United States, began to feel the effects of an extreme drought. On October 15, 2007, the Morganton News Herald reported that North Carolina Governor Mike Easley described the drought as "the worst in recorded history". On January 29, 2008, Duke Energy, the utility responsible for managing the Catawba River, extended its estimated time frame for Stage 4 water restrictions to August; the extension was possible because of conservation measures and the 6 inches of rain the basin received in December.
However, area leaders converged on Valdese to hear presentations from representatives of the N. C. Rural Center, N. C. Department of Commerce, N. C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the Appalachian Regional Commission about grants and loans available to help pay for solutions to the drought. In April 2008 the environmental group American Rivers named the Catawba-Wateree River "the most endangered river in America." Reasons cited for the river's condition are the drought, the presence of 11 hydroelectric dams, global warming, unchecked development along its banks, with the latter reported as the most serious threat. On June 11, 2008, South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford signed legislation denoting the Catawba as a state scenic river; the designation carries no land-use restrictions, but it allows the state to convene an advisory group to address river-related concerns. On June 29, 2009, the EPA announced that four of the top 44 "High Hazard Ash Ponds" in the United States are on the Catawba River.
Two ash ponds are adjacent to and discharge into Mount
Fort Mill, South Carolina
Fort Mill known as Fort Mill Township, is a town in York County in the U. S. state of South Carolina. It is located south of the city of North Carolina and north of Rock Hill; as of 2015 13,662 people live inside the town's corporate limits with a total of 36,119 people residing within the entire township. Some businesses and residents in the Indian Land community of neighboring Lancaster County share a Fort Mill mailing address, but the official town boundary extends only in York County; the Fort Mill area is home to notable businesses such as the headquarters of Carolina Crown Drum and Bugle Corps, DCI World Champions in 2013, LPL Financial, Continental Tire the Americas, LLC. Domtar, Mood Media, Springs Industries, AECOM, Red Ventures, Daimler Trucks North America; the town of Fort Mill was established in 1873, getting its name from its location between two points, the first, a fort constructed by British in colonial times to protect the Catawba Indians from marauding tribes to the north, the second point of Webb's Mill.
The Catawba Indians made their home in present-day Fort Mill for many years. Scotch-Irish settlers began arriving in a small settlement soon developed. Fort Mill grew in the late 19th century as textile mills were established. After many textile mill shut-downs the town continued to grow and became a major suburb of Charlotte. Highlights in Fort Mill's history include: In the mid-18th century, Thomas Spratt and his wife Elizabeth were traveling through upper South Carolina in their wagon, they spent a night among the friendly Catawba Indians and were invited to stay and live in the area on a large tract of land given to them. They became the first white settlers in the Fort Mill area and their descendants still reside there, their descendant, John Spratt, represented the area in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1983 to 2011; the town of Fort Mill was the site of the last Confederate Government Cabinet meeting. Jefferson Davis and the Confederate Cabinet passed through the area during their flight from Richmond in 1865.
The last meeting of the full Confederate Cabinet was held at the White Homestead in Fort Mill. Fort Mill's Confederate Park contains the nation's only monument to slaves fighting on the Confederate side of the American Civil War. In the 1970s and 1980s, Fort Mill was the home to TV evangelist Jim Bakker's now defunct Heritage USA; the Banks-Mack House, Fort Mill Downtown Historic District, Mack-Belk House, Mills House, Nation Ford Road, National Guard Armory, Spratt Cemetery, Springfield Plantation House, Thornwell-Elliott House, Unity Presbyterian Church Complex, John M. White House, William Elliott White House, Wilson House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.6 square miles, of which 4.6 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Interstate 77 passes through the western portions of the town, exit 85 is signed "South Carolina Highway 160/Fort Mill." SC 160 is the main east-west street in Fort Mill.
The town of Fort Mill held a final public hearing in October 2008 on a proposed annexation that doubled the town's physical size. Fort Mill has three golf courses; the city maintains six parks, Harris Street Park, Steele Street Park, Doby Bridge Park, Calhoun Street Park, Veterans Park and Walter Elisha Park. Three of the six parks have picnic shelters, children's playgrounds, restrooms. Doby Bridge and Harris Street Parks have lighted baseball fields, Steele Street and Harris Street Parks have basketball courts, Steele Street Park has a small water park; the town maintains a banquet hall rentable through the parks and recreation department. Fort Mill is located in Cfa in the Köppen climate classification; this means that the city experiences four distinct seasons, although the variation between the seasons is not as pronounced as in other parts of the United States. Daytime maximum temperatures in the summer are around 90 °F, with nighttime low temperatures of 70 °F. In winter, daytime maxima average around 50 °F while nighttime low temperatures are near 30 °F.
Occasional readings as high as 105 °F are seen, reaching a high of 108 °F in 2007 or as low as −5 °F in 1989. Summers are humid and prone to thunderstorms, while winters are rainy with sleet and occasional snow. Snow might fall during the winter, but does not accumulate or persist as ground cover. Fort Mill experiences rainfall related to tropical cyclones but is too far inland to experience damaging winds. Fort Mill has not had any direct hits from any tropical systems since 1989, when Hurricane Hugo devastated the area; the most common soil in Fort Mill is Cecil series. The government of Fort Mill takes place within the framework of a Council-Manager Form; the town council of Fort Mill consists of six board members, two of whom serve from at-large districts, while the remainder of the council represent each of four wards. Elections are held in accordance with United States election regulations every two years, council members serve staggered four year terms; the town council meets the second Monday of each month.
The town of Fort Mill has four boards and commissions. These are the Zoning Board of Appeals, the Planning Commission, the Historical Review Board, the Housing Authority Board. Members of boards and commissions are appointed on a volunteer basis. Fort Mill is the primary community within the Fort Mill School
The coastline paradox is the counterintuitive observation that the coastline of a landmass does not have a well-defined length. This results from the fractal-like properties of coastlines, i.e. the fact that a coastline has a fractal dimension. The first recorded observation of this phenomenon was by Lewis Fry Richardson and it was expanded upon by Benoit Mandelbrot; the measured length of the coastline depends on the method used to measure it and the degree of cartographic generalization. Since a landmass has features at all scales, from hundreds of kilometers in size to tiny fractions of a millimeter and below, there is no obvious size of the smallest feature that should be taken into consideration when measuring, hence no single well-defined perimeter to the landmass. Various approximations exist; the problem is fundamentally different from the measurement of simpler edges. It is possible, for example, to measure the length of a straight, idealized metal bar by using a measurement device to determine that the length is less than a certain amount and greater than another amount—that is, to measure it within a certain degree of uncertainty.
The more accurate the measurement device, the closer results will be to the true length of the edge. When measuring a coastline, the issue is that the result does not increase in accuracy for an increase in measurement —it only increases; the basic concept of length originates from Euclidean distance. In Euclidean geometry, a straight line represents the shortest distance between two points; this line has only one length. On the surface of a sphere, this is replaced by the geodesic length, measured along the surface curve that exists in the plane containing both endpoints and the center of the sphere; the length of basic curves is more complicated but can be calculated. Measuring with rulers, one can approximate the length of a curve by adding the sum of the straight lines which connect the points: Using a few straight lines to approximate the length of a curve will produce an estimate lower than the true length. A precise value for this length can be found using calculus, the branch of mathematics enabling the calculation of infinitesimally small distances.
The following animation illustrates how a smooth curve can be meaningfully assigned a precise length: However, not all curves can be measured in this way. A fractal is, by definition, a curve. Whereas approximations of a smooth curve tend to a single value as measurement precision increases, the measured value for a fractal does not converge; as the length of a fractal curve always diverges to infinity, if one were to measure a coastline with infinite or near-infinite resolution, the length of the infinitely short kinks in the coastline would add up to infinity. However, this figure relies on the assumption that space can be subdivided into infinitesimal sections; the truth value of this assumption—which underlies Euclidean geometry and serves as a useful model in everyday measurement—is a matter of philosophical speculation, may or may not reflect the changing realities of "space" and "distance" on the atomic level. For instance, the Planck length, many orders of magnitude smaller than an atom, is proposed as the smallest measurable unit possible in the universe.
Coastlines are less definite in their construction than idealized fractals such as the Mandelbrot set because they are formed by various natural events that create patterns in statistically random ways, whereas idealized fractals are formed through repeated iterations of simple, formulaic sequences. In actuality, the concept of an infinite fractal is not applicable to a coastline; the sea is in constant motion, meaning there is no fixed "coastline". If the sea's movement could be halted while measurement took place, there would be no way to define where the coastline lies in terms of river outflow. A measurement including the entire banks of every river that extends into a landmass would conflict with many interpretations of a coastline, yet no established technique exists for selecting an arbitrary line where river becomes sea. If the issue of rivers were overcome, it would still be impossible to decide which the boundary between land and water is, as land may be wet but not submerged. If such a definition could be agreed upon, as accurate measurement is performed, the problem of measuring the boundary of an atom—which does not have a defined boundary—arises.
In the classical model of an atom, which assumes atoms are composed of individual solid particles, most of an atom is made up of the space between these particles. This problem is further exacerbated. Coastline problem Fractal dimension Gabriel's Horn, a geometric figure with infinite surface area but finite volume How Long Is the Coast of Britain? Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension, a paper by Benoît Mandelbrot Paradox of the heap Zeno's paradoxes Alaska boundary dispute – Alaskan and Canadian claims to the Alaskan Panhandle differed based on competing interpretations of the ambiguous phrase setting the border at "a line parallel to the windings of the coast"
Gaston County, North Carolina
Gaston County is a county in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 206,086; the county seat is Gastonia. Dallas served as the original county seat from 1846 until 1911. Gaston County is included in the NC-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the third largest county in the metropolitan area, behind Mecklenburg County and York County, SC. It is located in the southern Piedmont region. Of North Carolina's one hundred counties, Gaston County ranks 74th in size, consisting of 364.5 square miles, is seventh in population. The county has fifteen incorporated towns; the earliest European settlers of Gaston County were principally Scots Irish, Pennsylvania Dutch, English. In the 1750s, Dutch settler James Kuykendall and others constructed the Fort at the Point at the junction of the Catawba and South Fork Rivers; the fort was built because of ongoing hostilities with the Cherokee, but it was never attacked. Tensions between the settlers and the Native American inhabitants were eased when the boundary dispute between North Carolina and South Carolina was settled in 1772, after which most of the Catawba settled on a reservation near Fort Mill, South Carolina.
Most early farms were small, cultivated by White yeoman farmers of English ancestry. North Carolina's colonial policy restricted the size of land grants, in Gaston County they tended to be about 400 acres each. One of the earliest grants in the area was given to Captain Samuel Cobrin, commander of a local militia company, on September 29, 1750. Gaston County was founded in 1846, it is named for member of the state supreme court. Between 1845 and 1848, Gaston County experienced an industrial boom. During this three-year period, the first three cotton mills in the County were established; some authorities say that the first one was established by Thomas R. Tate on Mountain Island, near the present site of Duke Energy's Mountain Island Dam and Hydroelectric Station. Other sources say that the first mill was established by the Linebergers and others on the South Fork River near McAdenville. Most sources agree that among the first three mills in operation in the County was the Stowesville Mill, founded by Jasper Stowe and Associates in the South Point Community south of Belmont.
Gaston County still leads all other counties in the country both in the number of spindles in operation and in the number of bales of cotton consumed. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 364 square miles, of which 356 square miles is land and 8.1 square miles is water. It belongs to the southern Piedmont physiographic province. Most of Gaston County is in the drainage basin of the Catawba River, except for small areas along the western edge of the county which are in the basin of the Broad River. Both the Catawba and Broad Rivers are in the greater Santee River basin; the Catawba forms the eastern border of the county and much of the central part of the county is in the drainage basin of its right tributary, the South Fork Catawba River. The county is located in the Piedmont region of central North Carolina, which consists of rolling terrain broken by hills and creek valleys, low, isolated mountain ridges; the highest point in Gaston County is King's Pinnacle, a rocky monadnock which rises over 800 feet above the city of Gastonia.
King's Pinnacle rises 1,690 feet above sea level, is part of Crowders Mountain State Park. As of the census of 2004, there were 194,459 people, 73,936 households, 53,307 families residing in the county; the population density was 534 people per square mile. There were 78,842 housing units at an average density of 221 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83% White, 13.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 1% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1% from two or more races. 3.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There are 98,271 females in Gaston County. Of these 39,492 are under 15, 23,082 are aged 16–24, 59,096 are aged 25–44, 44,710 are aged between 45-64 and 23,985 are 65 and over; the median age is 36.89 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,482, the median income for a family was $46,271. Males had a median income of $33,542 versus $23,876 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,225. About 8.30% of families and 10.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.50% of those under age 18 and 11.10% of those age 65 or over.
Gaston County is governed by a seven-member Board of Commissioners. Two members are elected from Gaston Township and one each from the other five townships of Gaston County, they are elected on a partisan basis to four-year staggered terms. Those that file for a particular seat must live in the township. However, the vote is countywide or "at-large."The offices of Sheriff, District Attorney, Clerk of Superior Court, Register of Deeds are elected offices, elected on a countywide, partisan basis. Gaston County is divided into forty-six voting precincts; the county is administered by a full-time professional County Manager. Gaston County is a member of the regional Centralina Council of Governments. North Carolina has a unified statewide and state-operated court system, called the General Court of Justice, it consists of three divisions: Appellate Courts, Superior Courts, District Courts. In Gaston County, there is a Small Claims Court. Small claims court handles civil cases where a plaintiff requests assignment to a magistrate and the amount in controversy is $5,000 or less.
There is no jury and usually
Lake Wylie, South Carolina
Lake Wylie is a census-designated place in York County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 8,841 at the 2010 census. Lake Wylie is located on a peninsula along the shore of Lake Wylie, a reservoir, named for Dr. W. Gil Wylie in 1960. Despite being in South Carolina, it is considered to be an affluent suburb of the city of Charlotte in North Carolina. Lake Wylie is located on a peninsula along the shore of Lake Wylie in the Piedmont of both North and South Carolina, at 35°6′22″N 81°3′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.7 square miles, of which 3.5 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. The average elevation of the town was 512 feet; as a result of the community's proximity to the state line between North and South Carolina, it has been affected by recent efforts to resurvey the state line using modern global positioning system technology. The process shifted the state line 150 feet southward in the Lake Wylie area, resulting in several properties in the community now being located in South Point Township in North Carolina — including one property where the new state line falls between the owner's house and his back deck, a gas station and convenience store whose owner has noted that differences in gas prices and retail regulations between the two states will force him out of business.
Lake Wylie has a humid subtropical climate, characterized by cool dry winters. Precipitation does not vary by amount between seasons with snow and sleet in the winter months and rain in the summer months with occasional hail from strong thunderstorms. July is the hottest month, with an average high temperature of below 90 °F and an average low temperature of around 70 °F; the coldest month of the year is January, when the average high temperature is below 50 °F and the average low temperature is below 30 °F. As of the census of 2010, there were 8,841 people, 1,458 households, 1,039 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 880.6 people per square mile. There were 1,610 housing units at an average density of 463.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.68% White, 1.05% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.75% Asian, 0.07% from other races, 0.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population. There were 1,458 households out of which 16.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.3% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families.
24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.47. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 13.5% under the age of 18, 4.4% from 18 to 24, 21.9% from 25 to 44, 36.9% from 45 to 64, 23.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $76,819, the median income for a family was $88,208. Males had a median income of $50,208 versus $32,679 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $43,567. None of the families and 0.8% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. Buster Boyd Bridge Tega Cay Lake Wylie, SC Lake Wylie Chamber of Commerce Lake Wylie Pilot Pontoon Rentals on Lake Wylie Lake Wylie Boat Rentals