Becharof National Wildlife Refuge
Becharof National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge in the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula of southwestern Alaska. It lies primarily in the part of Lake and Peninsula Borough. The refuge is administered from offices in King Salmon, jimmy Carter created Becharof National Monument by presidential proclamation on December 1,1978. The refuge was established on December 2,1980 by the Alaska National Interest Land Conservation Act, in 1983, the Fish and Wildlife Service undertook the responsibility to manage the Becharof Refuge, along with the Ugashik and Chignik units of the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge. In 1989 the park areas was heavily affected by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill which devastated the Alaska Peninsula, puale Bay was the most heavily oiled bay outside of Prince William Sound. Biologists continued the work in the park 2001 through 2003 using the same methods, paying notable attention to seabird activity, along with caribou. The Becharof National Wildlife Refuge covers an area of 1,200,000 acres, the lake is fed by a number of rivers and streams, and contains some of the largest salmon populations in the world.
The lake has the second largest run of sockeye salmon and estimates reveal that Becharof Lake. Wildlife is abundant in the park and the levels of salmon are enough to feed the largest concentrations of brown bears in Alaska. Alaskan moose, wolf, wolverine, river otter and beaver are found as are seals, sea lions, sea otters and whales. The Naknek River basin is one of the important wildlife habitats of the park, Becharof NWR official website The short film Becharof National Wildlife Refuge is available for free download at the Internet Archive
Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve
Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve is a U. S. National Monument and National Preserve, consisting of the region around the Aniakchak volcano on the Aleutian Range of south-western Alaska. The 601, 294-acre monument is one of the least visited places in the National Park System due to its remote location, the area was proclaimed a National Monument on December 1,1978, and established as a National Monument and Preserve on December 2,1980. The National Monument encompasses 137,176 acres and the preserve 464,118 acres, visitation to Aniakchak is the lowest of all areas of the U. S. National Park System, according to the NPS, with only 134 documented recreational visits in 2014. Most visitors fly into Surprise Lake inside Aniakchak Crater, but the frequent fog and it is possible to fly into the nearby village of Port Heiden and proceed overland to the Aniakchak Crater. The core of the monument lands encompasses the 6-mile wide Aniakchak Crater. The high point on the rim is Aniakchak Peak. The lake within the caldera, Surprise Lake, is the source of the Aniakchak River, multiple streams and rivers within the caldera flow into Surprise Lake to form it.
In addition to Surprise Lake, the prominent feature inside the caldera is Vent Mountain. The preserve lands flank the monument on either side, subsistence hunting is allowed in both the monument and preserve, and sport hunting is allowed in the preserve. The region was virtually unexplored until the 1920s, when exploration for oil brought reports of an un-described volcano, a moderate eruption in 1931 forming Vent Mountain resulted in significant publicity, spurring studies to declare the region a national monument. It was not until 1978 that a monument was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter under the Antiquities Act, the monument and preserve were established within their final boundaries in 1980 with the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve is located about 450 miles southwest of Anchorage and it is not accessible by road, except from Port Heiden, a nearby village, and only to the outer flanks of the caldera. There are no permanent facilities in the monument and the NPS does not require visitor registration.
S, fish and Wildlife Service units and Alaska local and state agencies. The monument adjoins the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge on its northeast and southwest sides, Monument lands amount to 137,000 acres, and preserve lands 465,000 acres. The national monument is centered on the 6-mile diameter crater of ancient Mount Aniakchak, which was destroyed, the original mountain, about 7,000 feet tall, collapsed into its magma chamber, leaving an approximate 3, 300-foot deep summit crater. The monument and surrounding preserve include the feature, the wild Aniakchak River, the Bristol Bay coastal habitat. Prominent features within Aniakchak crater include Surprise Lake and the Gates, the monument and preserve include four major physiographic regions. The monument is centered on the mountains of the Aleutian Range, the volcanos caldera presents an active volcanic and geothermal landscape and Surprise Lake, the source of the Aniakchak River
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter is a document establishing a municipality such as a city or town. The concept developed in Europe during the Middle Ages and is considered to be a version of a constitution. Traditionally the granting of a charter gave a settlement and its inhabitants the right to town privileges under the feudal system, townspeople who lived in chartered towns were burghers, as opposed to serfs who lived in villages. Towns were often free, in the sense that they were protected by the king or emperor. Today the process for granting charters is determined by the type of government of the state in question, in monarchies, charters are still often a royal charter given by the Crown or the state authorities acting on behalf of the Crown.
In federations, the granting of charters may be within the jurisdiction of the level of government such as a state or province. In Brazil, municipal corporations are called municípios and are created by means of legislation at the state level. All municipal corporations must abide by a municipal law which is passed and amended at the municipal level. In Canada charters are granted by provincial authorities, in Germany, municipal corporations existed since antiquity and through medieval times, until they became out of favour during the absolutism. In order to strengthen the spirit, the city law of Prussia dated 19 November 1808 picked up this concept. It is the basis of municipal law. In India, a Municipal Corporation is a local government body. This standard varies from state to state, according to laws passed by state legislatures, the Corporation of Chennai was the first Municipal Corporation in India. It was established on 29 September 1688 by the British East India Company, the second was Hyderabad Municipal Corporation established in 1869 by the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad State.
The third was the Calcutta Municipal Corporation, established in 1876, the Bombay Municipal Corporation was established in 1888 by the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act. The Delhi Municipal Council was established in 1911 during the Delhi Durbar when New Delhi was proclaimed to be the new Capital of India and it was elevated to Municipal Corporation level on 7 April 1958 by an Act of Parliament which established the Municipal Corporation of Delhi
Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska
Kenai Peninsula Borough is a borough of the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,400, the borough includes the Kenai Peninsula and adjacent areas of the mainland of Alaska. The borough has an area of 24,752 square miles. Both sites are managed by the Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association Some of the fish hatched at these facilities are released into the famous Homer fishing hole. Cook Inlet Keeper and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council are groups that attempt to influence policy on the use of the areas resources. As of the census of 2000, there were 49,700 people,18,400 households, there were 24,900 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 86% white, 7% Native American, 2% Hispanic or Latino, black or African Americans and Pacific Islanders each were less than 1% of the population. Just under 1% were from other races combined,1. 92% reported speaking Russian at home, while 1. 74% speak Spanish. 25% of all households were made up of individuals and 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.6 and the average family size was 3.2.
In the borough the population was out with 30% under the age of 18, 7% from 18 to 24, 30% from 25 to 44, 26% from 45 to 64. The median age was 36 years, for every 100 females there were 109 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over there were 110 males. There is a Borough-wide government based in Soldotna, consisting of a strong mayor, incorporated towns have their own local governments and city councils. The Alaska Department of Corrections operates the Spring Creek Correctional Center near Seward and the Wildwood Correctional Complex near Kenai
Bethel Census Area, Alaska
Bethel Census Area is a census area in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population is 17,013 and it is part of the unorganized borough and therefore has no borough seat. Its largest community is the city of Bethel, which is the largest city in the unorganized borough. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the area has an area of 45,504 square miles. Its territory includes the large Nunivak Island in the Bering Sea, the population density was 0 people per square mile. There were 5,188 housing units at a density of 0/sq mi. 0. 87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,19. 90% of all households were made up of individuals and 2. 80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.73 and the family size was 4.41. In the census area the population was out with 39. 80% under the age of 18,9. 70% from 18 to 24,28. 90% from 25 to 44,16. 40% from 45 to 64. The median age was 25 years, for every 100 females there were 113.20 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.80 males, Bethel Census Area is one of only 38 county-level census divisions of the United States where the most spoken language is not English and one of only 3 where it is neither English nor Spanish. 63. 14% of the population speak a Yupik language at home, followed by English at 34. 71%
Nondalton is a city located on the west shore of Six Mile Lake in the Lake and Peninsula Borough, United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 164, Nondalton is located at 59°58′1″N 154°51′6″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has an area of 8.8 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 221 people,68 households, the population density was 26.4 people per square mile. There were 120 housing units at a density of 14.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 9. 50% White,89. 14% Native American,0. 45% Pacific Islander,0. 45% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.25 and the average family size was 3.78. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 39. 8% under the age of 18,7. 7% from 18 to 24,29. 9% from 25 to 44,14. 9% from 45 to 64, the median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 121.0 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 133.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $19,583, males had a median income of $27,500 versus $11,250 for females. The per capita income for the city was $8,411. About 37. 3% of families and 45. 4% of the population were below the poverty line, Nondalton is an Athabascan Indian village. The name means lake after lake in their language, and the village is situated one of a line of lakes. Nondalton was first recorded in 1909, the village was originally located on the north shore of Six Mile Lake, but was moved to the present location in 1940, due to the depletion of wood and the growth of mud flats. Subsistence hunting and fishing are the economic activities. Drinking water is piped to most houses, septic tanks are used for sewage, there are no highways or roads connecting Nondalton to other villages. The primary means of access and egress to the village is by airplane, among the issues affecting the village at the start of the 21st century is the proposed Pebble Mine site in the vicinity of nearby Lake Iliamna.
Subsistence harvests and uses of wild resources in Iliamna, Nondalton, Pedro Bay, hosted by Alaska State Publications Program
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume, it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans and it is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by land area or water volume. Low densities may cause a vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it, commonly this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory, or the entire world. The worlds population is around 7,000,000,000, the worldwide human population density is around 7,000,000,000 ÷510,000,000 =13.7 per km2. If only the Earths land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account and this includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded, population density rises to over 50 people per km2, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources.
Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo, for instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. Arithmetic density, The total number of people / area of land, physiological density, The total population / area of arable land. Agricultural density, The total rural population / area of arable land, residential density, The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. Urban density, The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land, ecological optimum, The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources. S. States by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve is a United States National Park in Port Alsworth, Alaska. It was first proclaimed a monument in 1978, established as a national park. The park includes many streams and lakes vital to the Bristol Bay salmon fishery, a wide variety of recreational activities may be pursued in the park and preserve year-round. Redoubt is active, erupting in 1989 and 2009, the wide variety of ecosystems in the park mean that virtually all major Alaskan animals and marine, may be seen in and around the park. Salmon, particularity sockeye salmon, play a role in the ecosystem. The Kvichak River is the worlds most productive watershed for sockeye salmon, no roads lead to the park and it can only be reached by boat or small aircraft, typically floatplanes. The major settled area in the park and preserve is Port Alsworth on Lake Clark, five other settlements are within the park, populated mainly by Denaina natives. Lake Clark was proclaimed a National Monument by President Jimmy Carter using the Antiquities Act on December 1,1978, Lake Clarks status was changed to National Park and Preserve in 1980 by Congress, and about two-thirds was designated wilderness.
While both sport and subsistence hunting are permitted in the preserve lands, only subsistence hunting by local residents is permitted within the national park. Lake Clark National Park and Preserve covers 4,030,015 acres at the base of the Alaska Peninsula in southcentral Alaska, of the total area, about 2,637,000 acres lie in the park and 1,400,000 acres in the preserve. Lake Clark is the largest lake in the park, on the southwest corner of the park, the national preserve lands adjoin park lands on the west, offering both subsistence and sport hunting, in contrast to parklands, where only subsistence hunting by local residents is allowed. The extreme southwest section of the preserve includes Alaskan Native corporation lands, most of the park section is designated as wilderness. The eastern part of the park near the Cook Inlet includes two volcanoes, Mount Redoubt and Mount Iliamna. A third, Mount Spurr, is just outside the park to the east, the chief river in the park is the Kvichak River.
Another large river, the Tlikakita, runs across the park from its source at Summit Lake to Lake Clark, emerging from the lake, the park is not accessible by roads. Access is solely by air taxi or by boat along the Cook Inlet coast, since much of the movement in the area is by air, the mountains present a significant barrier to air traffic. Lake Clark Pass, at 1,050 feet provides a way through the mountains by air at low elevation, the main inhabited place in the park is Port Alsworth on Lake Clark, with a Park Service visitor center and a number of privately operated lodges. Air taxis make regular trips between Port Alsworth and outside communities, other private lodges are scattered around the park
Katmai National Park and Preserve
Katmai National Park and Preserve is a United States National Park and Preserve in southern Alaska, notable for the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and for its Alaskan brown bears. The park and preserve covers 4,093,077 acres, most of this is a designated wilderness area in the national park where all hunting is banned, including over 3,922,000 acres of land. The park is named after Mount Katmai, its centerpiece stratovolcano, the park is located on the Alaska Peninsula, across from Kodiak Island, with headquarters in nearby King Salmon, about 290 miles southwest of Anchorage. The park includes as many as 18 individual volcanoes, seven of which have been active since 1900, following its designation, the monument was left undeveloped and largely unvisited until the 1950s. After a series of expansions, the present national park. Katmai occupies the Pacific Ocean side of the Alaska Peninsula, opposite Kodiak Island on the Shelikof Strait, the closest significant town to the park is King Salmon, where the parks headquarters is located, about 5 miles down the Naknek River from the park entrance.
The Alaska Peninsula Highway connects Naknek Lake near the entrance to King Salmon, the road is not connected to the Alaska road system. Access to the interior is by boat on Naknek Lake. Another road runs from Brooks Camp to Three Forks, which overlooks the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, the 497-mile long coastline is deeply indented, running from the entrance to the Cook Inlet at Kamishak Bay south to Cape Kubugakli. The mountains run from southwest to northeast, about 15 miles inland, the park includes McNeil River State Game Sanctuary and Refuge on Kamishak Bay. The Alagnak River, designated a wild river, originates within the preserve at Kukaklek Lake, the Naknek River, which empties into Bristol Bay, originates within the park. The park adjoins Becharof National Wildlife Refuge to the south, of the park and preserves acres,3,922,529 acres are in the national park where all sport and subsistence hunting is prohibited. 418,548 acres are preserve lands, where sport and subsistence hunting are permitted.
The most commonly hunted species in the preserve include grizzly bear, the granite Aleutian Range batholith has intruded through these rocks. The majority of the mountains in the park are of volcanic origin. The park has been altered by glaciation, both in the high lands where the mountains have been sculpted by glaciers, and in the lowlands where lakes have been excavated. Outwash plains and terminal moraines are featured in the park, soil types vary from rock or volcanic ash of vary depth to deep, wet soils overlain with peat Although permafrost exists at higher elevations, it is not present in the lowlands. Two physiographic provinces cover the park, the Aleutian Range province is composed of the Shelikof Strait coastline, about 10 miles deep along the coast, the Aleutian Mountain zone, and the lake, or Hudsonian zone
West Virginia /ˌwɛst vərˈdʒɪnjə/ is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States. It is bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the north, West Virginia is the 9th smallest by area, is ranked 38th in population, and has the second lowest household income of the 50 United States. The capital and largest city is Charleston, West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20,1863, and was a key Civil War border state. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States, the unique position of West Virginia means that it is often included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, and the Southeastern United States. It is the state that is entirely within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its historically significant logging and coal mining industries and it is one of the most densely karstic areas in the world, making it a choice area for recreational caving and scientific research.
The karst lands contribute to much of the states cool trout waters and it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, and hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various mound builder cultures survive, especially in the areas of Moundsville, South Charleston. The artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies and they had a tribal trade system culture that crafted cold-worked copper pieces. The Iroquois drove out other American Indian tribes from the region to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a ground in the 1670s. Siouan language tribes such as the Moneton had recorded in the area previously. West Virginia was originally part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776, residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the restored government. Most voted to separate from Virginia and the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863, in 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, which was ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote.
West Virginia abolished slavery and temporarily disfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy, West Virginias history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, and rich natural resources. These were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, a 2010 analysis of a local stalagmite revealed that Native Americans were burning forests to clear land as early as 100 BC. Some regional late-prehistoric Eastern Woodland tribes were involved in hunting and fishing, practicing the slash. Another group progressed to the more time-consuming, advanced companion crop fields method of gardening, continuing from ancient indigenous people of the state, field space and time was given to tobacco growing through to early historic. Maize did not make a contribution to the diet until after 1150 BP
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county