Lake County, Minnesota
Lake County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,866, its county seat is Two Harbors. Lake County was founded on February 20, 1855, as Superior County, though its name was changed on March 3, of that year to Saint Louis County. On March 1, 1856, Saint Louis County became Lake County, while Newton County to the west was renamed Saint Louis County. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the area had long been inhabited by Native American groups. At the time of European contact, the principal Native American groups in the region were the Dakota and Ojibwe; the economy of these groups was based on hunting and gathering, with wild rice being of particular importance. The first Europeans to explore the area were the French in the late 17th century who were followed by trappers, fur traders and explorers. Beaver Bay was the first city in Lake County in 1855. In 1868, iron ore was discovered on the Vermilion Range by George Stuntz. In 1884, the first shipment of ore left Agate Bay, marking Minnesota's entry into the iron ore industry.
During the late 1880s, commercial fishing began on Lake Superior with the coming of Swedish and Norwegian immigrants to the North Shore. In 1890, the Merritt brothers discovered the Mesabi Range; the Two Harbors Lighthouse was built on Agate Bay in 1892. Ten years five Two Harbors businessmen signed the articles of incorporation for a new mining company named 3M. Today, 3M Corporation has over 70,000 employees worldwide and produces more than 50,000 adhesive household products, now has its headquarters in Saint Paul. In 1906, the Court House, which stands to this day, was built. In 1907, one of the nation's first steel ore docks was built in Two Harbors. In 1944, one of the first HMOs in the United States was created in Lake County to serve railroad employees. A second iron ore boom took place in the 1950s with the development of the taconite beneficiation process for turning lean, low-grade iron ore into a shippable product. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,991 square miles, of which 2,109 square miles is land and 881 square miles is water.
It is the fifth-largest county in Minnesota by area. Lake County is located in the Arrowhead Region of Northeastern Minnesota covering 2,062 miles. Within the county's boundaries are four state parks and a National Forest. Lake County offers hiking, camping and winter recreational activities. Lake County has the largest freshwater lake in the world at its side. With its natural environment and shoreline, Lake County offers recreational opportunities as well as historical shipwrecks, two operating lighthouses and two public marinas. Lake County is home to mining, wood products, lumbering and transportation, health care and tourism. Minnesota State Highway 1 Minnesota State Highway 61 Minnesota State Highway 169 List of county roads Rainy River District, Ontario Cook County Ashland County, Wisconsin Bayfield County, Wisconsin Douglas County, Wisconsin Saint Louis County Superior National Forest Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness As of the 2000 census, there were 11,058 people, 4,646 households, 3,140 families residing in the county.
The population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 6,840 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.99% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. 0.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.3% were of Norwegian, 17.8% German, 14.3% Swedish, 8.4% Finnish, 6.3% Irish and 5.4% English ancestry. There were 4,646 households out of which 27.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 28.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.83. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 24.50% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 20.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,402, the median income for a family was $46,980. Males had a median income of $39,719 versus $26,500 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,761. About 5.50% of families and 7.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.40% of those under age 18 and 5.70% of those age 65 or over. Lake County has a historic Democratic/Labor lean, it was the top county for Socialist Party of America candidate Eugene V. Debs in 1908, 1912, 1920; the last Republican to carry the county was Herbert Hoover’s failed run for re-election in 1932, although in the 1932 election Socialist Norman Thomas received 19.32% of the county’s vote, one of the highest percentages in the country. Lake County was the only county in Minnesota to vote for Hoover in 1932. In 2016, Lake County was the whitest county in the entire country to vote for Democrat Hillary Clinton over Republican Donald Trump.
Trump, got the highest percentage of the vote of any Republican since 1928. Beaver Bay Silver Bay Two Harbors Beaver Bay Township Crystal Bay Township Fall Lake Township Silver Creek Township Stony River Township Finland L
Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States or the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U. S. states on the continent of North America. The terms exclude the non-contiguous states of Alaska and Hawaii, all other off-shore insular areas; these differ from the related term continental United States which includes Alaska but excludes Hawaii and insular territories. The greatest distance within the 48 contiguous states is 2,802 miles. Together, the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combined area of 3,119,884.69 square miles. Of this area, 2,959,064.44 square miles is contiguous land, composing 83.65% of total U. S. land area, similar to the area of Australia. 160,820.25 square miles of the contiguous United States is water area, composing 62.66% of the nation's total water area. The contiguous United States would be placed 5th in the list of sovereign states and dependencies by area. Brazil is the only country, larger in total area than the contiguous United States, but smaller than the entire United States, while Russia and China are the only three countries larger than both.
The 2010 census population of this area was 306,675,006, comprising 99.33% of the nation's population, a density of 103.639 inhabitants/sq mi, compared to 87.264/sq mi for the nation as a whole. The contiguous United States does not include overseas U. S. territories such as American Samoa, U. S. Virgin Islands, Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico, the latter of which has a higher population than Alaska and Hawaii. While conterminous U. S. has the precise meaning of contiguous U. S. other terms used to describe the 48 contiguous states have a greater degree of ambiguity. Because Alaska is on the North American continent, the term continental United States includes that state, so the term is qualified with the explicit inclusion of Alaska to resolve any ambiguity. On May 14, 1959, the United States Board on Geographic Names issued the following definitions based on the reference in the Alaska Omnibus Bill, which defined the continental United States as "the 49 States on the North American Continent and the District of Columbia..."
The Board reaffirmed these definitions on May 13, 1999. However before Alaska became a state, it was properly included within the continental U. S. due to being an incorporated territory. CONUS, a technical term used by the U. S. Department of Defense, General Services Administration, NOAA/National Weather Service, others, has been defined both as the continental United States, as the 48 contiguous states; the District of Columbia is not always mentioned as being part of CONUS. OCONUS is derived from CONUS with O for outside added, thus referring to Outside of Continental United States; the term lower 48 is used to refer to the conterminous United States. The National Geographic style guide recommends the use of contiguous or conterminous United States instead of lower 48 when the 48 states are meant, unless used in the context of Alaska. During World War II, the first four numbered Air Forces of the United States Army Air Forces were said to be assigned to the Zone of the Interior by the American military organizations of the time—the future states of Alaska and Hawaii each only organized incorporated territories of the Union, were covered by the Eleventh Air Force and Seventh Air Force during the war.
Alaskans and non-continental territories have unique labels for the contiguous United States because of their own locations relative to them. Alaska became the 49th state of the United States on January 3, 1959. Alaska is on the northwest end of the North American continent, but separated from the rest of the United States Pacific coast by the Canadian province of British Columbia. In Alaska, given the ambiguity surrounding the usage of continental, the term "continental United States" is unheard of when referring to the contiguous 48 states. Several other terms have been used over the years; the term Lower 48 has, for many years, been a common Alaskan equivalent for "contiguous United States". Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States on August 21, 1959, it is the southernmost and so far, the latest state to join the Union. Not part of any continent, Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, about 2,200 miles from North America and halfway to Asia. In Hawaii and overseas American territories, for instance, the terms the Mainland or U.
S. Mainland are used to refer to the contiguous United States. Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. Puerto Ricans born in Puerto Rico are free to move to the mainland. A Stateside Puerto Rican is a term for residents in a U. S. state who were trace family ancestry to Puerto Rico. Apart from off-shore US islands, a few continental portions of the contiguous US are accessible by road only by traveling through Canada. Point Roberts, Washington. Alburgh, Vermont, is not directly connected by land, but
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Lake of the Woods
Lake of the Woods is a lake occupying parts of the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba and the U. S. state of Minnesota. It separates a small land area of Minnesota from the rest of the United States; the Northwest Angle and the town of Angle Township can be reached from the rest of Minnesota only by crossing the lake or by traveling through Canada. The Northwest Angle is the northernmost part of the contiguous United States, its "northwesternmost point" served as a problematic landmark in treaties defining the international border. Lake of the Woods is fed by Shoal Lake, Kakagi Lake and other smaller rivers; the lake drains into the Winnipeg River and into Lake Winnipeg. Its outflow goes north through the Nelson River to Hudson Bay. Lake of the Woods is over 70 miles long and wide, contains more than 14,552 islands and 65,000 miles of shoreline. Lake of the Woods is the sixth largest freshwater lake located in the United States, after the five Great Lakes; the lake's islands provide nesting habitats for the piping plover and large numbers of American white pelicans and as as the early 20th century provided calving habitat to boreal woodland caribou.
There are several hundred nesting pairs of bald eagles in this area. Lake of the Woods, a translation of the original French name lac des Bois, was so named from its wooded setting. However, it may have been a mistranslation of the Ojibway name. "The earliest name we find the lake known by is that given by Verendrye in his journey in 1731. He says it was called Des Bois; the former of these names, seems to be Ojibway, to mean Lake of the Islands referring to a large number of islands found in the northern half of the lake. The other name Lac des Bois, or Lake of the Woods, seems to have been a mistranslation of the Indian name by which the Lake was known." The construction of dams at the Lake of the Woods outlets in present-day Kenora in the late 19th century led to concerns over high and low water levels on the lake early in the 20th century. The federal governments of Canada and the United States referred the matter to the International Joint Commission in 1912. In 1917 the IJC recommended the creation of control boards and the operating conditions they would apply to lake level management.
The first of these boards, the Lake of the Woods Control Board, was established by Canadian Order-in-Council in 1919. Two additional acts provided statutory establishment of the LWCB, defined its jurisdiction and powers, provided for board members appointed by Canada and Ontario: the Lake of the Woods Control Board Act, Canada, 1921, the Lake of the Woods Control Board Act, Ontario, 1922. In 1922 the Canada-Ontario-Manitoba Tripartite Agreement was signed by the respective governments. Only Canada and Ontario appointed members to the board as, at that time, natural resources in Manitoba were administered by Canada. In 1958, having gained control over its natural resources, Manitoba passed its own Lake of the Woods Control Board Act; that same year and Ontario amended their original versions of the acts. As a result of these legislative changes, the LWCB now has one member appointed by Canada, two appointed by Ontario, one appointed by Manitoba. Following the IJC recommendations of 1917, discussions between the federal governments of Canada and the United States resulted in the 1925 Canada/USA Convention and Protocol regarding Lake of the Woods.
This treaty established the water level operating range on Lake of the Woods, defined the purpose and general mode of operation, provided for two boards to control regulation. The established Canadian LWCB was to regulate the lake on an ongoing basis, but its decisions were to be subject to approval by an International Lake of the Woods Control Board whenever lake levels rose above or fell below certain limits. In cases where agreement could not be reached between Canadian and American members of the international board, the disputed matter would be referred to the IJC for the final decision; the International Lake of the Woods Control Board, however, is not a board created by the IJC. The board's members are appointed by the respective federal governments. Shoal Lake is adjacent to the Lake of the Woods and is the source for the City of Winnipeg drinking water via the Greater Winnipeg Water District aqueduct, so the administration of the lake is a continuing interest of the governments of Winnipeg and Manitoba.
Northwest Angle 33 First Nation Big Grassy First Nation French Portage Narrows Kenora Minaki Lake of the Woods Anishnaabeg of Naongashiing First Nation Naotkamegwanning First Nation Sioux Narrows-Nestor Falls Obashkaandagaang Bay First Nation Ochiichagwe'Babigo'Ining Ojibway Nation Ojibways of Onigaming First Nation Rainy River Northwest Angle 37 First Nation Anishinabe of Wauzhushk Onigum First Nation Middlebro Buffalo Point First Nation Angle Township Hackett Baudette Warroad Wheeler's Point The largest land feature in Lake of the Woods is the Aulneau Peninsula. It is connected to the mainland with a tiny neck of land at its southeast corner, but a canal was cut through at this point making the Aulneau an island; the canal has now been filled back in. A manually run portage for small- to medium-sized boats is in its place; the Aulneau is twenty miles long and ten miles wide. It contains within it over eighty lakes, the largest of, Arrow Lake, with thirteen islands in it; the Aulneau Peninsula was named after the Jesuit Father Jean-Pierre Aulneau, a French Catholic priest, who wa
The Northwest Angle, known as the Angle by locals, coextensive with Angle Township, is a part of northern Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota. Except for minor surveying errors, it is the only place in the United States outside Alaska, north of the 49th parallel, which forms the border between the U. S. and Canada from the Northwest Angle westward to the Strait of Georgia. The land area of the Angle is separated from the rest of Minnesota by Lake of the Woods, but shares a land border with Canada, it is one of only six non-island locations in the 48 contiguous states that are practical exclaves of the U. S, it is the northernmost township in Minnesota and contains the northernmost point in the contiguous 48 states. The unincorporated community of Angle Inlet is located in the Northwest Angle. Seventy percent of the land of the Angle is held in trust by the Red Lake Indian Reservation. Although the Angle is listed as one of several distinct regions of Minnesota, its total population was 119 at the 2010 census.
The area is water and the land is forest. Angle Township was designated as territory of the United States because negotiators of the initial Canada–US border misunderstood the geography of the area. Benjamin Franklin and British representatives relied on the Mitchell Map of colonial American geographer John Mitchell, which did not indicate the source of the Mississippi River—thought to lie some distance to the northwest—or the true shape of Lake of the Woods, instead shown as oval; the 1783 Treaty of Paris thus stated that the boundary between U. S. territory and the British possessions to the north would run "...through the Lake of the Woods to the northwestern-most point thereof, from thence on a due west course to the river Mississippi..." But the source of the Mississippi River, Lake Itasca, lies due south of Lake of the Woods, rather than north and west of it. Additionally, the irregular actual shape of the lake made the identification of its northwest corner difficult. A survey team led by David Thompson in 1824, mapped the lake and found four possibilities, but did not conclusively declare one location.
In 1825, German astronomer in British service,Dr. Johann Ludwig Tiarks, surveyed the lake. Tiarks identified two possibilities for the northwesternmost point on the lake, based on Thompson's maps: the Angle Inlet and Rat Portage. To determine which point was the most northwestern, he drew a line from each point in the southwest-northeast direction. If the line intersected the lake at any point, it was not the most northwestern point, as shown in the example diagram here. Tiarks determined that the only such line that did not intersect the lake was at the edge of a pond on the Angle Inlet. A 1940 academic study documents this point as being in the immediate vicinity of 49°23′51.324″N 95°9′12.20783″W. In the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, the error regarding the Mississippi River was awkwardly corrected by having the boundary continue due south from the northwest point of the lake, but only to the 49th parallel and westward along it; the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842 reaffirmed this border.
However, the placement of the northwestern corner and shape of the lake meant that this north–south line cut off a section of U. S. territory to its east, now known as the Northwest Angle. According to the United States Census Bureau, Angle Township has a total area of 596.3 square miles of which 123.09 square miles is land and 473.2 square miles is water. The land includes several islands, including Oak Island, two small capes that are below the 49th parallel north in the extreme southwest part of the township, one of, known as Elm Point, south of the southeast corner of Manitoba, not far from the northeast corner of Roseau County. Of the 2000 census population of 152, there were 118 living on the mainland, 34 persons on the islands in Lake of the Woods. All of the populated islands are north of the 49th parallel; the mainland portion of the township north of the 49th parallel has an area of 116.632 square miles. The total land area of all islands is 6.303 square miles, the two capes total 100 acres.
The township has the last one-room public school in the state. Elm Point, in Lake of the Woods County, is a small cape southwest of the Northwest Angle, it borders Canada and is, together with a similar smaller cape to the west, separated by land from the continental United States. The Angle is accessible from the rest of Minnesota by one of two ways: The Angle can be reached without crossing the international border by crossing the Lake of the Woods; this can be done by boat when the lake is free of ice, by ice road in the winter or by flying over it in a plane. No automobile ferries operate on the lake, so vehicles coming from the rest of Minnesota can reach the Angle without crossing the border only in winter. While the ice is forming in late autumn and breaking up in the spring, the lake's surface cannot be crossed safely – at these times domestic access to the Angle is possible only by air. To reach the Angle by land, travelers take Minnesota State Highway 313 northbound across the Warroad-Sprague Border Crossing connecting to Manitoba Highway 12 at the border to Provincial Road 308, to Provincial Road 525 finally crossing back into the United States in the Northwest Angle south of Angle Inlet, Minnesota.
The distance from Warroad or Roseau to the Angle proper is 63 miles through Minnesota and Manitoba back to the Angle's U. S. border. It is approximately
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Canada–United States border
The Canada–United States border known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries. It is shared between Canada and the United States, the second- and fourth/third largest countries by area, respectively; the terrestrial boundary is 8,891 kilometres long, of which 2,475 kilometres is Canada's border with Alaska. Eight Canadian provinces and territories, thirteen U. S. states are located along the border. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States. In the second article of the Treaty the parties agreed on all of the boundaries of the United States, including but not limited to the boundary with British North America to the north; the agreed boundary included the line from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River, proceeded down along the middle of the river to the 45th parallel of north latitude. That parallel had been established in the 1760s as the boundary between the provinces of Quebec and New York.
It was surveyed and marked by John Collins and Thomas Valentine from 1771 to 1773. The Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes became the boundary further west. Northwest of Lake Superior, the boundary followed rivers to the Lake of the Woods. From the Lake of the Woods, the boundary was agreed to go straight west until it met the Mississippi River. In fact that line never meets the river; the Jay Treaty of 1794 created the International Boundary Commission, charged with surveying and mapping the boundary. It provided for removal of British military and administration from Detroit and other frontier outposts on the U. S. side. It was superseded by the Treaty of Ghent concluding the War of 1812, which included pre-war boundaries; the Rush–Bagot Treaty of 1817 provided a plan for demilitarizing the two combatant sides in the War of 1812 and laid out preliminary principles for drawing a border between British North America and the United States. Westward expansion of both British North America and the United States saw the boundary extended west along the 49th parallel from the Northwest Angle at Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains under the Treaty of 1818.
That treaty extinguished British claims south of that latitude to the Red River Valley, part of Rupert's Land. The treaty extinguished U. S. claims to land north of that line in the watershed of the Missouri River, part of the Louisiana Purchase. Along the 49th parallel, the border vista is theoretically straight but in practice follows the 19th-century surveyed border markers and varies by several hundred feet in spots. Disputes over the interpretation of the border treaties and mistakes in surveying required additional negotiations resulting in the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842; the treaty resolved the dispute known as the Aroostook War over the boundary between Maine on the one hand, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada on the other. The treaty redefined the border between New Hampshire and New York on the one hand, the Province of Canada on the other, resolving the Indian Stream dispute and the Fort Blunder dilemma at the outlet to Lake Champlain; the part of the 45th parallel that separates Quebec from the U.
S. states of Vermont and New York had first been surveyed from 1771 to 1773 after it had been declared the boundary between New York and Quebec, it was surveyed again after the War of 1812. The U. S. federal government began to construct fortifications just south of the border at Rouses Point, New York, on Lake Champlain. After a significant portion of the construction was completed, measurements revealed that at that point, the actual 45th parallel was three-quarters of a mile south of the surveyed line; this created a dilemma for the United States, not resolved until a provision of the treaty left the border on the meandering line as surveyed. The border along the Boundary Waters in present-day Ontario and Minnesota between Lake Superior and the Northwest Angle was redefined. An 1844 boundary dispute during U. S. President James K. Polk's administration led to a call for the northern boundary of the U. S. west of the Rockies to be latitude 54° 40' north, but the United Kingdom wanted a border that followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
The dispute was resolved in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, which established the 49th parallel as the boundary through the Rockies. The Northwest Boundary Survey laid out the land boundary, but the water boundary was not settled for some time. After the Pig War in 1859, arbitration in 1872 established the border between the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands; the International Boundary Survey, called the Northern Boundary Survey in the United States, began in 1872. Its mandate was to estab