A boulevard abbreviated Blvd, is a type of large road running through a city. In modern American usage it means a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare divided with a median down the centre, with roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery. Phnom Penh has numerous boulevards scattered throughout the city. Norodom Boulevard, Sisowath Boulevard, Monivong Boulevard, Sothearos Boulevard are the most famous. Indira Gandhi Sarani Red Road, is a road in Kolkata that runs from Raj Bhavan to Fort William; the road, a wide boulevard, was built in 1820. The British authorities during colonial era intended for the road to be able to host large parades; the name'Red Road' was given due to its surfacing. During the Second World War, the road, in the heart of Kolkata, served as a landing strip for fighter aircraft; the annual Kolkata Marathon starts from outside the Rangers Club on Red Road. The name'Indira Gandhi Sarani' was adopted in 1985.
Mumbai'sMarine Drive is a 4.3 km -long crescent-shaped coastal road located in South Mumbai along the Arabian Sea. It is called the Queen's Necklace because if the stretch is viewed from an elevated point, the lamp posts along the road seem like pearls and thus in continuation look like a necklace. A promenade lies parallel to the road, it is one of the major tourist attractions in Mumbai. The Gateway of India is located just 1.7 kilometres away from Marine Drive. Though used, Marine Drive's official name is Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Marg. Local residents use it for morning exercises as well, it is popular among youths who come here to enjoy the splash of water during high tide. New Delhi's premier boulevard is the Rajpath, a thoroughfare. New Delhi being the national capital, many such thoroughfares were built to sustain the exploding traffic growth that New Delhi and most Indian metro cities have seen in recent decades. Rajpath, a tree lined road with ponds and fountains, was designed, along with Janpath, by British architect Edwin Lutyens during the British Raj.
Various national events such as Independence Day parades and Republic Day parades among many others take place over here annually. Hyderabad's Necklace Road is a boulevard adjoining the Hussain Sagar lake. In Chennai, the capital city of Tamil Nadu the major road is the Anna Salai. Another boulevard is Radakrishnan Salai called Cathedral Road; some of the most important thoroughfares in Jakarta are not named as a boulevard while do in fact follow the boulevard configuration of multiple lanes and/or landscaping. Examples of these are Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jalan M. H. Thamrin, Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto, Jalan H. R. Rasuna Said, Jalan Gajah Mada/Jalan Hayam Wuruk, Jalan Haji Benyamin Sueb, Jalan Teuku Umar, Jalan Prof. Dr. Satrio; the term boulevard - sometimes under its Indonesian translation "bulevar" - is however used for thoroughfares in integrated urban centers as developed by private developers, such as Jalan Boulevard Raya in Kelapa Gading, Jalan Boulevard BSD Timur in Bumi Serpong Damai and Jalan Boulevard Gading Serpong in Gading Serpong.
Note that the term "Jalan" is still used despite the use of the term "Boulevard". Examples of boulevards in other Indonesian cities are Jalan Dago in Bandung, Jalan Pahlawan in Semarang, Jalan Mayjen Sungkono and Jalan Raya Darmo in Surabaya. In Iran, "Boulevard" is defined as a wide road surrounded by trees in sides and divided by a green space line including grass, trees or buxuses in the middle. There are many boulevards in Iran. One of the most famous one is Keshavarz Boulevard in Tehran, referred to as "The Boulevard". Isfahan has a historical boulevard, called Chaharbagh Boulevard. Tel Aviv, was designed along the guidelines set out by architect Sir Patrick Geddes. Geddes designed a green or garden ring of boulevards surrounding the central city, which still exists today and continues to characterize Tel Aviv. One of the most famous and busy streets in the city is Rothschild Boulevard. Roxas Boulevard is a major boulevard in Metro Manila, Philippines; the boulevard, which runs along the shores of Manila Bay, is popular for its view of Manila's famous sunsets and stretch of coconut trees.
The boulevard is an eight-lane major arterial road designated as Radial Road 1 that connects the center of Manila with Pasay and Parañaque. Other boulevards in Metro Manila include the Shaw Boulevard, España Boulevard, Pedro Tuazon Boulevard and Quezon Boulevard. Not all boulevards in the Philippines have ornamentation, or slow lanes, like the Aurora Boulevard and E. Rodriguez Sr. Boulevard, which have no ornamentation at all. Osmeña Boulevard is a boulevard in the Philippines' second city, it is Cebu's most important street and is its primary ceremonial avenue, the conventional route of the city's civic and cultural parades. Measuring six to ten lanes wide with 3-5 meter-wide sidewalks on both sides and a landscaped central median, the boulevard is lined with narra trees. Midway is the roundabout of Fuente Osmeña; the Ring Road is a circular ring road surrounding the Innere Stadt district of Vienna, Austria and is one of its main sights. Constructed in the mid-19th century after the dismantling of the city fortification walls, its architecture is typical of the eclectic, historicist style called Ringstraßenstil of the 1860s to 1890s.
Known for its unique architectural beauty and history, it
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
California State Route 19
State Route 19 known as Lakewood Boulevard and Rosemead Boulevard, is a state highway in the Los Angeles area of the U. S. state of California. The route is a north–south four-to-six lane suburban roadway, lying between the Long Beach Freeway and San Gabriel River Freeway, connecting the eastern parts of Long Beach and Pasadena via the Whittier Narrows. Since 1998, several pieces have been relinquished to local governments, more transfers are authorized by state law; the portion of SR 19 north of the Whittier Narrows is State Route 164, once planned to be upgraded as the Rio Hondo Freeway, but has always been signed as part of SR 19. SR 19 and SR 164 are part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. Lakewood Boulevard begins at the Long Beach Traffic Circle, where State Route 1 heads west and southeast, Los Coyotes Diagonal heads northeast, it heads north past Interstate 405.
Lakewood Boulevard passes to the west of Lakewood Center Mall before passing through the neighborhood of Mayfair. As the sections of SR 19 in Long Beach and Lakewood have been relinquished, SR 19 now begins at the city of Bellflower at the intersection of Lakewood Boulevard and Rose Street. SR 19 in Bellflower will be relinquished by the state to the city. SR 19 intersects State Route 91 before straddling the city border between Bellflower and Paramount and Bellflower and Downey. North of Gardendale Street, SR 19 has been relinquished to the city of Downey. In Downey, Lakewood Boulevard intersects with Interstate 105 before passing by the large site occupied by North American Aviation, Rockwell International and Boeing Reusable Space Systems and interchanging with Interstate 5. At Telegraph Road at the Downey-Pico Rivera line, Lakewood Boulevard turns into Rosemead Boulevard. Upon changing to Rosemead Boulevard, SR 19 enters Pico Rivera; this portion of SR 19 has been relinquished to the city as well.
Rosemead Boulevard continues through Pico Rivera past Pico Rivera Plaza to Gallatin Road. The 9.56-mile piece of SR 19 north of Gallatin Road in Pico Rivera has been State Route 164 since the 1964 renumbering, but has always been signed as SR 19. Original plans for SR 164 took it southeast to Interstate 605 from the present transition between SR 164 and SR 19, it was planned as the Rio Hondo Freeway. SR 164 begins as Rosemead Boulevard, leaves the city of Pico Rivera, enters an unincorporated area. SR 164 travels across Whittier Narrows Dam before entering the Whittier Narrows Recreation Area and intersecting with the cloverleaf interchange of State Route 60. After this, SR 164 enters South El Monte before crossing the Rio Hondo and straddling the city boundary between Rosemead and El Monte. SR 164 intersects with Interstate 10 before passing by Rosemead Shopping Center; the next section of SR 164 was relinquished to Temple City in 2008. Upon leaving Temple City, the maintenance of SR 164 transfers to the county, for this segment of SR 164 has been relinquished.
Rosemead Boulevard continues north to Interstate 210. Presently, the north end of the route is at I-210 about a mile south of Sierra Madre Villa Avenue. Planned as a freeway, it was to be the intermediate north–south freeway between I-710 and I-605. Today, locals refer to this road as either Lakewood Boulevard or Rosemead Boulevard, not by its numerical designation; the portion of Rosemead Blvd. between Gallatin Rd. in Pico Rivera and Interstate 10 is built to expressway standards. Bus service is provided by Metro Local line 266 and Long Beach Transit line 111 throughout Rosemead Boulevard and Lakewood Boulevard; the Metro Green Line is provided by a station in the median of Interstate 105 under Lakewood Boulevard. Before the present SR 19 was constructed, San Gabriel Boulevard, which extended from Lamanda Park south to Downey, was widened and repaved by an assessment tax in 1925, was the main road through the Whittier Narrows, requiring several turns to stay on it and to continue south to Long Beach.
The state legislature added Route 168 to the state highway system in 1933, which followed this general alignment between Route 60 in Long Beach and Route 9 near Lamanda Park. SR 19 was designated out of the 1964 state highway renumbering. However, since many segments of SR 19 have been relinquished to the cities that they run through. Caltrans relinquished Long Beach's portion of SR 19 to the city on January 27, 1999, Downey's segment of SR 19 was relinquished to the city on July 3, 2001. However, the segment in Pico Rivera was not relinquished to that city until June 22, 2004. On October 27, 2006, the northern portion of SR 164 that went through an unincorporated area of the county from Callita Street to I-210 was relinquished to the county. In April 2008, the section of SR 164 through Temple City was relinquished to that city. On April 9, 2012, the section of SR 19 through Lakewood was relinquished to that city. In 2017, the relinquishment process in Bellflower has started. Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment that existed at the time, do not reflect current mileage.
R reflects a realignment in the route since M indicates a second realignment, L refers a
A commuter town is a populated area with residents who work elsewhere, but in which they live and sleep. The term additionally implies a community that has little commercial or industrial activity beyond a small amount of locally oriented retail business. A commuter town may be called by many other terms: "exurb", "bedroom community", "bedroom town", "bedroom suburb", "dormitory town", "dormitory suburb", or, less "dormitory village". In Japan, a commuter town may be referred to with the wasei-eigo coinage "bed town". Suburbs and commuter towns coincide, but are not synonymous. Similar to college town, resort town and mill town, the term commuter town describes the municipality's predominant economic function. A suburb, in contrast, is a community of lesser size, political power and/or commerce comparative to a nearby community, of greater economic importance. A town's economic function may change, for example when improved transport brings commuters to industrial suburbs or railway towns in search of suburban living.
Some suburbs, for example Teterboro, New Jersey and Emeryville, remained industrial when they became surrounded by commuter towns. As a general rule, suburbs are developed in areas adjacent to a main employment center, such as a town or a city, but may or may not have many jobs locally, whereas bedroom communities have few local businesses, most residents who have jobs commute to employment centers some distance away. Commuter towns may be in rural or semi-rural areas, with a ring of green space separating them from the larger city or town. Where urban sprawl and conurbation have erased clear lines among towns and cities in large metropolitan areas, this is not the case. Commuter towns can arise for a number of different reasons. Sometimes, as in Sleepy Hollow, New York or Tiburon, California, a town loses its main source of employment, leaving its residents to seek work elsewhere. In other cases, a pleasant small town, such as Warwick, New York, over time attracts more residents but not large businesses to employ them, requiring denizens to commute to employment centers.
Another cause relevant in the American South and West, is the rapid growth of once-small cities. Owing to the earlier creation of the Interstate Highway System, the greatest growth was seen by the sprawling metropolitan areas of these cities; as a result, many small cities were absorbed into the suburbs of these larger cities. However, commuter towns form when workers in a region cannot afford to live where they work and must seek residency in another town with a lower cost of living; the late 20th century dot-com bubble and United States housing bubble drove housing costs in Californian metropolitan areas to historic highs, spawning exurban growth in adjacent counties. For example, most cities in western Riverside County, California can be considered exurbs of Orange County and Los Angeles County, California; as of 2003, over 80% of the workforce of Tracy, California was employed in the San Francisco Bay Area. A related phenomenon is common in the resort towns of the American West that require large workforces, yet emphasize building larger single-family residences and other expensive housing.
For example, the resort town of Jackson, Wyoming has spawned several nearby bedroom communities, including Victor, Driggs and Alpine, where the majority of the Jackson workforce resides. On Long Island, New York, many of the workforce who serve The Hamptons reside in communities more modest and more suburban than their workplace, giving rise to a daily reverse commuter flow from more dense to less dense areas. In certain major European cities, such as Berlin and London, commuter towns were founded in response to bomb damage sustained during World War II. Residents were relocated to semi-rural areas within a 50-mile radius, firstly because much inner city housing had been destroyed, secondly in order to stimulate development away from cities as the industrial infrastructure shifted from rail to road. Around London, several towns – such as Basildon, Crawley and Stevenage – were built for this purpose by the Commission for New Towns. In some cases, commuter towns can result from negative economic conditions.
Steubenville, for instance, had its own regional identity along with neighboring Weirton, West Virginia until the collapse of the steel industry in the 1980s. Combined with easier access to the much larger city of Pittsburgh via the Steubenville Pike and the Parkway West, Steubenville has shifted its marketing efforts to being a commuter town to Pittsburgh, as well as one with a lower cost of living in Ohio compared to tax-heavy Pennsylvania. In 2013, Jefferson County, Ohio was added to the Pittsburgh metropolitan area as part of its larger Combined Statistical Area. Where commuters are wealthier and small town housing markets weaker than city housing markets, the development of a bedroom community may raise local housing prices and attract upscale service businesses in a process akin to gentrification. Long-time residents may be displaced by new commuter residents due to rising house prices; this can be influenced by zoning restrictions in urbanized areas that prevent the construction of suitably cheap housing closer to places of employment.
The number of commuter towns increased in the US and the UK during the 20th century because of a trend for people to move out of the cities into the surrounding green belt. Commuter towns were developed by railway companies to create demand for their l
Phaseolus lunatus known as the lima bean, butter bean, sieva bean, or Madagascar bean, is a legume grown for its edible seeds or beans. Phaseolus lunatus is found in Meso- and South America. Two gene pools of cultivated lima beans point to independent domestication events; the Mesoamerican lima bean is distributed in neotropical lowlands while the other is found in the western Andes. They were discovered in Peru; the Andes domestication took place around 2000 BC, produced a large-seeded variety, while the second, taking place in Mesoamerica around 800 AD, produced a small-seeded variety. By around 1300, cultivation had spread north of the Rio Grande, in the 1500s, the plant began to be cultivated in the Old World; the small-seeded type is found distributed from Mexico to Argentina below 1,600 m above sea level, while the large-seeded wild form is found distributed in the north of Peru, from 320 to 2,030 m above sea level. The Moche Culture cultivated lima beans and depicted them in their art. During the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, lima beans were exported to the rest of the Americas and Europe, since the boxes of such goods had their place of origin labeled "Lima, Peru", the beans got named as such.
Despite the origin of the name, when referring to the bean, the word "lima" is pronounced differently than the Peruvian capital. The term "butter bean" is used for a large and yellow/white variety of lima bean. In the United States Sieva-type beans are traditionally called butter beans otherwise known as the Dixie or Henderson type. In that area, lima beans and butter beans are seen as two distinct types of beans. In Spain, it is called garrofón, constitutes one of the main ingredients of the famous Valencian paella. In the United Kingdom and the United States, "butter beans" refers to either dried beans which can be purchased to rehydrate, or the canned variety which are ready to use. In culinary use there, lima beans and butter beans are distinct, the latter being large and yellow, the former small and green. In areas where both are considered to be lima beans, the green variety may be labelled as "baby" limas. Lima bean is a domesticated species of economic and cultural importance worldwide in Mexico.
The species has two varieties. The wild variety is silvester and the domesticated one is lunatus. In the U. S, it is a warm season crop, grown in Delaware and mid-Atlantic region for processing and in Midwest and California for dry beans. Baby lima beans are harvested about 10 -- 12 weeks later. In western New York State, baby lima bean production increased exponentially from 2011 to 2015. Cultivation: The main rainy season lasts from June to August and most of the above-ground parts die during dry season. Germination or budding occurs in July; the first inflorescence is in November. The production of flowers and fruits ends between February and April. Cultivars: Both bush and pole cultivars exist, the latter range from 1 to 5 metres in height; the bush cultivars mature earlier than the pole cultivars. The pods are up to 15 cm long; the mature seeds are oval to kidney-shaped. In most cultivars the seeds are quite flat, but in the "potato" cultivars, the shape approaches spherical. White seeds are common, but black, red and variously mottled seeds are known.
The immature seeds are uniformly green. Lima beans yield 2,900 to 5,000 kg of seed and 3,000 to 8,000 kg of biomass per hectare; the seeds of the cultivars listed below are white. Related or synonymous names are listed on the same line.'Henderson' /'Thorogreen', 65 days'Eastland', 68 days'Jackson Wonder', 68 days'Dixie Butterpea', 75 days'Fordhook 242', 75 days, 1945 AAS winner'Carolina' /'Sieva', 75 days'Christmas' /'Chestnut' /'Giant Speckled' /'Speckled Calico', 78 days'Big 6' /'Big Mama', 80 days'Willow Leaf', 80 days'King of the Garden', 85 days a. Phytophthora phaseoli is one example of a pathogen of the lima bean, it is an oomycete plant pathogen that causes downy mildew of lima bean during cool and humid weather conditions. To combat this pathogen, developing lima bean cultivars with resistance is a cost-efficient method, environmentally safe as compared to using pesticides.b. Didymella is a foliar disease found in baby lima beans first reported in New York State. Symptoms include small necrotic tan spots with red to reddish brown irregular margins that come together to cover the entire leaf.
Lesions occur after around 3–4 weeks of planting and increase till there is considerable defoliation. Lesions are observed on the stems. Two pynidial fungi were found on leaves included Didymella sp, and Boeremia exigua var. exigua, pathogenic on baby lima bean and plays a role in the foliar disease complex. Other fungal diseases on lima beans with similar symptoms are B. exigua var. exigua, pod blight caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum, leaf spots caused by Phyllosticta sp. and Phoma subcircinata. The two-spotted spider mites or Tetranychus urticae lay eggs on lima bean leaves, it prefers lima bean plants as host food source over other plants such as cabbage plants. Spider mites pose the greatest threat to the lima bean plants as compa
Interstate 605 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Greater Los Angeles urban area of Southern California, running about 27 miles in length from Seal Beach to Duarte. The San Gabriel River Freeway parallels the San Gabriel River for most of its alignment, hence its name, one of the few Southern California freeways not named after a city along its route. Though this does not include the improvements with the interchange with I-105, reconstruction of I-10 between I-605 and I-405, the addition of an HOV lane between I-405 and I-10, I-605 is one of the only remaining freeways that kept its original alignment throughout its run through Los Angeles County since it first opened; the California Streets and Highways Code defines Route 605 as " Route 1 near Seal Beach to Route 405. Route 405 to Route 210 near Duarte." However, the portion in subsection A has yet to be constructed. The southern terminus of I-605 is at the San Garden Grove Freeways in Seal Beach. From there, it runs north through the Gateway Cities of the Los Angeles Basin.
It shifts north-northeast, crossing the Whittier Narrows and across the San Gabriel Valley. I-605 ends at its junction with the Foothill Freeway, in Duarte, a small city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains. I-605 follows most of the length of the San Gabriel River from the San Diego Freeway in Seal Beach to the Santa Fe Dam. Dry riverbed and flood basins are visible from many portions of the route near the northern terminus. In the mid 2000s, a HOV lane was added for motorists with two or more people to use between I-405 and I-10; the HOV lane ends at Interstate 10. There are no plans to extend it to Interstate 210 at this time. With the addition of the HOV lane, the left shoulder was eliminated to avoid massive costs to widen the freeway; the highway suffers from traffic jams especially the junction with I-5. Newer signs with exit numbers replaced the older signs between the Orange County line and Interstate 10 in 2016, with the completion of the I-605 and I-10 junction improvement.
Guide signs along I-605 never included destinations such as "Seal Beach" or "Irwindale" since its opening. Rather, cardinal directions, a simple "THRU TRAFFIC" designation in place of control cities, are used on signs along I-605 itself. I-605 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-605 from I-405 to I-10 is known as the San Gabriel River Freeway, as named by Senate Bill 99, Chapter 1101 in 1967. In 1957, the number for this route was proposed as I-13, as it is positioned midway between I-5 and I-15; that number was rejected, as was the second proposed number, I-102. The designation I-605 was accepted in 1958. Interstate 605 began construction in 1963 and the first section was opened in 1964 from Interstate 405 to Pomona Freeway CA 60; the newest section was opened in 1971 was signed as SR 243. There are plans to extend it to SR 1 further south in Orange County as SR 605, but strong community opposition means that it is unlikely that the alignment will be built.
California Roads portal Greater Los Angeles portal California @ AARoads.com - I-605 Caltrans: Route 605 highway conditions California Highways: I-605
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi