Sirkazhi is a municipal town in Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu, India. It is located 13 km from the coast of the Bay of Bengal, 250 km from the state capital Chennai. Sirkazhi was a part of Thanjavur district until 1991 and has been part of Nagapattinam district; the town covers an area of 13.21 km2 and in 2011 had a population of 34,927. It is administered by a second grade municipality. A Sirkazhi is part of the Cauvery delta region and agriculture is the major occupation. Roads are the main means of transportation; the town is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled by the Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, the Vijayanagar Empire, the Marathas and the British. The Tamil trinity of Carnatic music; the Saiva saint Tirugnanasambandar, foremost of the Saiva Nayanars, was born here in the seventh century. The history of the town is centred on the Sattainathar Temple, dedicated to Hindu god Shiva. In ancient times, this town had twelve different names, including Brahmapuram, Thonipuram, Pugali and Shri Kali.
According to Hindu legend, during one of the biggest deluges that submerged the planet earth, Hindu god Shiva is said to have carried the 64 arts on a raft. The presiding deity in the temple, Shiva, is thus called "Thoniappar" and the region is called "Thonipuram"; the Hindu god Brahma is believed to have worshiped Shiva here, giving the name "Bhramapureeswarar" and so the region is referred as "Bhramapureeswaram". Shiva is believed to have quelled the arrogance of Hindu god Vishnu, after showing his dominance over the three worlds and hence got the name "Sattainathar" here; the town is thus called "Sattainathapuram". The town was known as "Kalumalam" during the early Chola period. Thirugnanasambandar, the seventh century Saiva nayanar, as an infant is believed to have been fed with the milk of wisdom by the divine mother Parvati on the banks of the temple tank; the child Sambandar started singing the anthology of Tevaram hymns from on, commencing with "Todudaiya Seviyan". Sambandar refers the town as "Kazhi" in his verses.
It was called Shiyali during British rule, after Independence, it was renamed "Sirkazhi". The earliest mention of Sirkazhi is found in the history of the Chola king Kocengannan from the Sangam Age, believed to have won a bloody battle here. During the 7th–8th century, there were widespread disputes between the Hindu sects of Saivism and Vaishnavism. Tirugnanasambandar and Thirumangai Azhwar, belonging to Saivism and Vaishnavism and both natives of Sirkazhi, had disputes over their religious compositions and theologies during the period; the Chola Kings ruled over the region for more than four centuries, from 850 to 1280, were temple patrons. There 41 inscriptions from the Chola kings in the temple that record various gifts like land, sheep and oil to the temple; the region fell under the control of Pandyas in 1532 and became part of the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom. The region was conquered in 1674 by Ekoji I, the Maratha enemy of the Nawab of Bijapur and half-brother of Shivaji; the town and the region became part of the British East India Company during the mid-18th century.
Tanjore district was constituted in 1799 when the Thanjavur Maratha ruler Serfoji II ceded most of his kingdom to the British East India Company in return for his restitution on the throne. After India's independence, Sirkazhi continued to be a part of Thanjavur district until 1991, when it became part of the newly created Nagapattinam district. Sirkazhi is located at 11.23°N 79.73°E / 11.23. Sirkazhi has an average elevation of 5.18 m above sea level and is located at 13 km west of Bay of Bengal. It is located 95 km north-east of Thanjavur, 24 km north of Mayiladuthurai and 20 kilometres south of Chidambaram; the town experiences long summers and short winters,and receives an average yearly rainfall of 1,250 mm from the north-east monsoon between October and December. Its close proximity to the sea means. Sirkazhi is part of the Cauvery delta region and has irrigation channels, called the Kollidam channels, which carry water from the rivers and provide a rich deposit of fertile silt before reaching the sea.
The soil contains fertile alluvial sediment. The area's main crop is rice; the landscape consists of plain lands with fields and small portions of scrub jungle. Antelope, spotted deer, wild hog and fox are present in the jungles and outlying areas of the town. Crow and ordinary game birds are found in large numbers in the town; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea, megathrust earthquake that occurred on 26 December 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, triggering a series of devastating tsunamis along coastal fringes of the Indian Ocean. Nagapattinam district was the most affected part of Tamil Nadu, accounting for 6,064 off the 8,009 casualties in the state. Sirkazhi remained unaffected by the tsunami, but the groundwater quality deteriorated where aquifers were close to the water bodies. There was heavy salt water intrusion inland. According to 2011 census, Si
Srirangam is an island and a part of the city of Tiruchirappalli, India. Srirangam is bounded by the Kaveri River on one side, the Kaveri distributary Kollidam on the other side. Srirangam is home to a significant population of Srivaishnavites. Srirangam is famous for its Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, a major pilgrimage destination for Hindus and the largest temple complex in India. According to the temple's website, Srirangam can be considered the biggest functioning Hindu temple in the world, as it covers an area of about 631,000 square metres with a perimeter of 4 km. Angkor Wat is non-functioning. Srirangam among a few "self-manifested" shrines of Lord Vishnu; the temple complex is spans 156 acres. It has seven enclosures; these enclosures are formed by huge rampart walls which run round the sanctum. There are 21 magnificent towers in all prakaras providing a unique sight to any visitor; the temple town lies on an islet formed by the twin rivers Coleroon. The Srirangam temple complex is composed of 21 towers gopuram.
The southern gopuram of the temple, called the Rajagopuram, is 239.5 feet tall and, as of 2016, is the tallest in Asia. The construction of this Rajagopuram was begun during the reign of Achyuta Deva Raya of the Vijayanagara empire. However, construction was halted after his death and the structure of the rajagopuram remained incomplete for 400 years; the monumental task of completion of the rajagopuram was undertaken and completed by Sri Vedanta Desika Yatheendra Mahadesikan, the 44th jeeyar of Sri Ahobila Matha. The construction was completed in a span of 8 years; the Rajagopuram was consecrated on 25 March 1987. The temple has seven prakaras with gopurams articulating the axial path, the highest at the outermost prakara and the lowest at the innermost. In historic times, just after the construction of this temple, the city of Srirangam lived within the walls of this temple and hence is quoted as an example of Hindu religious utopia – during its peak of existence; the Srirangam temple is one of the three temples of the God Ranganatha that are situated in the natural islands formed in the Kaveri river.
They are: Adi Ranga: the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangapattana Madhya Ranga: the Ranganathaswamy temple at Shivanasamudra Antya Ranga: the Ranganathaswamy temple at SrirangamThere is a gopuram made of gold, protected by an electrical fence. Clothes such as Silk Sarees, Towels, etc.. used for religious purposes are auctioned here. Ramanujar body was kept inside this temple. Inside the temple complex, there is a separate temple dedicated to the goddess Andal. Additionally, there is a library and a bookshop. Lord Rama performed aradhanam to Vishnu's idol; as a symbol of love he gifted the idol to Vibishana to take back with him to Lanka. There was a condition that he could not set the idol on earth and if he did it would seat itself permanently. Vibishana took this idol and while travelling towards Lanka, came upon the banks of the river Kaveri, he placed the idol on banks of river Kaveri. When the utsavam got over, the Lord refused to move; when Vibhishana requested him to come along with him, the lord refused but promised to bless Vibhishana by always facing South Hence it is that the deity faces South.
Chola kings Dharmavarcholan and Killivalavan developed the shrine into the big temple seen now. They built main buildings. Srirangam's History got important during the invasion of Muslim emperors. Srirangam was captured and the riches were looted, they took away the idol of Alagiyamanavalar Perumal and plundered the treasures and ornaments which belonged to Srirangam temple. The temple idol of Alagiyamanavalar Perumal was sent to Delhi. In Delhi, the idol of Alagiyamanavalar Perumal was taken care of by the daughter of the Sultan; the Sultan handed over the statue of Alagiyamanavalar Perumal back to Ramanujacharya. The Daughter of Sultan could not bear this, she is said to have disappeared mysteriously. She now has people worship her, she is called "Thulukka Nachiyar". After this incident Srirangam was attacked and ransacked by the muslim sultans of Delhi and latter by the Bahamani sultanate established in Deccan region. After the rise of Vijayanagara Empire, Krishna Deva Raya realized the importance of this sacred city and prioritized Srirangam as equal as Thirupathi and bequeathed a plenty of treasures and lands to the Srirangam temple.
During his period the Srirangam temple was well reformed and many plans were executed for the growth and people welfare and so Srirangam got developed rapidly. Due to the famous temple, Srirangam has a thriving economy based on tourism. Devotees come from all parts of India and abroad; the number of devotees to the town increases during the festivals like Vaikunta Ekadashi which falls on the Tamil month of Marghazi. Thiruvarangam is one of the few temples, always being crowded by devotees. There are many other famous temples near Srirangam, they include Rockfort temple, Samayapuram Mariamman temple, Tiruvaanaikovil temple, Vayalur Murugan temple, Uraiyur Vekkali Amman temple, Kattu Azhagiya singer temple etc. In addition along the banks of Kaveri in areas near Srirangam and Tiruchirappalli
Kallanai is an ancient dam, built across the Kaveri river in Thanjavur District in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. Located at a distance of 15 km from Tiruchirappalli, the dam was constructed by the Chola king Karikalan in c. 100 BC – c. 100 AD. It is located on Kaveri river 20 KM from Trichy city, the dam falls under Thanjavur district, and is the fourth-oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world and the oldest in India, still in use. The dam was built by King Karikalan of the Chola Dynasty in the c. 100 BC – c. 100 AD. The dam is located on the River Kaveri 20km from the city of Tiruchirapalli; the idea behind the construction of the dam was to divert the river to the delta districts thereby boosting irrigation. The dam was re-modeled by the British during the 19th century. In 1804, Captain Caldwell, a military engineer, was appointed by the British to make a study on the Kaveri river and promote irrigation for the delta region, he found that a large amount of water passed onto the Kollidam leaving behind a small volume for irrigation purposes.
Caldwell proposed a solution by raising the dam and hence raised the dam stones to a height of 69 centimetres, thus increasing the capacity of the dam. Following this, Major Sim proposed the idea of undersluices across the river with outlets leading to the Kollidam River thus preventing formation of silt; the Lower Anaicut built by Sir Arthur Cotton in 19th century CE across Coleroon, the major tributary of Cauvery, is said to be a replicated structure of Kallanai. The Kaveri river splits into two at a point 20 miles west of Kallanai; the two rivers form the island of Srirangam before joining at Kallanai. The northern channel is called the Kollidam. On the seaward face of its delta are the seaports of Nagapattinam and Karaikal; the purpose of the Kallanai was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals and to its northern delta branch Kollidam/Coleroon. Down stream of the barrage, the river Kaveri splits into four streams known as Kollidam Aru, Kaviri and Puthu Aru.
However, the flood waters can be allowed, by opening the barrage/anaicut gates, to pass through the other three delta branches to join the sea. It is 329 m long, 20 m wide and 5.4 m high. The dam is still in excellent condition, supplied a model to engineers, including Sir Arthur Cotton's 19th-century dam across the Kollidam, the major tributary of the Kaveri; the area irrigated by the ancient irrigation network is about 69,000 acres. By the early 20th century, the irrigated area had been increased to about one million acres; the Delta farmers of Tamil Nadu have demanded that the Tamil Nadu government honour Karikala Cholan, who built the Kallanai. Tamil language Tamil literature Sangam period Lemuria
Bhavani is a major river in Kongu Nadu region of Tamil Nadu, India. It's a major tributary of the Kaveri River. Bhavani river originates from Nilgiri hills of the Western Ghats, enters the Silent Valley National Park in Kerala and flows back towards Tamil Nadu; the Bhavani is a 217-kilometre long perennial river fed by the southwest monsoon and supplemented by the northeast monsoon. Its watershed drains an area of 0.62 million hectares spread over Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The main river courses majorly through Coimbatore Erode district in Tamil Nadu. About 90 per cent of the river's water is used for agriculture irrigation. Twelve major rivulets including West and East Varagar rivers join Bhavani draining the southern Nilgiri slopes. At Mukkali, Bhavani takes an abrupt 120-degree turn towards the northeast and flows for another 25 kilometres through Attappady plateau, it gets reinforced by the Kunda river coming from the north. Siruvani river, a perennial stream and the Kodungarapallam river, flowing from the south and southeast join the Bhavani at Kerala-Tamil Nadu border.
The river flows east along the base of Nilgiris and enters the plains near Bathra Kaliamman temple at Mettupalayam after joining with Coonoor river coming from northwest. About 30 kilometres downstream, Moyar River, a major tributary originating in Mudumalai National Park, flows in from the northwest, where it drains the valley between the northern slopes of the Nilgiris and the southern slopes of the Bilgiri Hills. After the Moyar it is blocked by the Lower Bhavani Dam, feeding Lower Bhavani Project Canal near Sathyamangalam in Erode District; the river continues east for over 160 kilometres through Erode District, traversing Kodiveri Dam, near Gobichettipalayam which feeds the Arakkankottai and Thadappalli canals constructed for agricultural purposes. A small barrage across the river was built by Kalingarayan in 1283 AD to feed the 90-kilometre Kalingarayan irrigation canal; the river joins Kaveri at Kooduthurai near Sangameswarar Temple, Bhavani where it is believed that the mystic Sarasvati River joins the confluence.
Bhavanisagar Bhavanisagar dam is located on the Bhavani river in Tamil Nadu, India. The dam is one of the largest earthen dams in the world; the dam is situated some 16 km west of 35 km from Gobichettipalayam. The Lower Bhavani Project was the first major irrigation project initiated in India after independence in 1948, it was completed by 1955 and opened for use in 1956. The dam was constructed at a cost of ₹210 million; the dam is 40 m high. The full reservoir level is 120 ft and the dam has a capacity of 32.8×10^9 cu ft. The dam has two hydel power stations, one on the east bank canal and the other on the Bhavani river; each has a capacity of 16 megawatts for a total capacity of 32 megawatts. Kodiveri Kodiveri dam is located on the Bhavani River near Gobichettipalayam in Western Tamil Nadu; the dam is situated along the State Highway 15 about 15 km from Gobichettipalayam towards Sathyamangalam. It was constructed by Kongalvan in the year 1125 AD. Industrial and agricultural pollution of the river results in poor water quality and negative impacts on the health of people and animals dependent on the river water
The Kabini called Kapila, is one of the major tributaries of the river Cauvery in southern India. It originates in the Wayanad District of Kerala state by the confluence of the Panamaram River and the Mananthavady River, it flows eastward to join the Kaveri River at Tirumakudalu Narasipura in Karnataka. Close to the town of Sargur it forms the huge Kabini Reservoir; the backwaters of the Kabini reservoir are rich in wildlife in summer when the water level recedes to form rich grassy meadows. The Kabini dam is 2,284 ft in length with an original gross storage of 19.52 tmcft. The Kabini Dam is situated between villages Bichanahalli and Bidarahalli having distance of 17 km 6 km away from Sargur town in Heggadadevana kote taluk, Mysore district, Karnataka; the Kabini Forest Reserve is one of the most popular wildlife destinations of Karnataka because of its accessibility, lush green landscape surrounding a large lake, sightings of herds of elephants, tigers. It is 80 km away from Mysuru and 205 km from Bengaluru, comprises the south-eastern part of Nagarahole National Park.
Situated on the banks of the Kabini River, the reserve is spread over 55 acres of forestland, steep valleys, water bodies. Once a private hunting lodge of the Maharaja of Mysore, Kabini was a popular shikar hotspot for British Viceroys and Indian royalty. Now it is considered to be one of the best Wildlife National Parks in India, famous for its spectacular wildlife and bird life. There are around 120 tigers, 100+ leopards, Four types of deer, Sloth bear, Indian Gaurs and elephants in the Nagarahole National Park; the river originates in the Pakramthalam hills at Kuttiady-Mananthavady road. Makkiyad river and Periya river join it near Valad respectively. After flowing through Mananthavady town, Panamaram river joins Kabini near Payyampally. One branch of the Panamaram river starts from the Banasura Sagar reservoir near Padinjarethara and the other branch of the river start from Lakkidi hills. After traversing 2 kilometres from the confluence of Panamaram river Kabini forms an island called Kuruva Island, spreading over 520 acres with diverse flora and fauna.
Within 20 km it reaches the Kabini reservoir bordering Karnataka for some distance. Between Kabani reservoir and Kuruva island Kalindi river joins Kabini. Kalindi river originates from Brahmagiri hills which on reaching near Thirunelli Temple the rivulet Papanasini joins it. Taraka and Nugu are the two small rivers in Heggadadevana kote taluk; the Kabini dam is built on the River Kabini in the district of Mysore. The dam is 696 meters in length and was built in 1974; the exact location of the dam is in Taluk Heggadadevanakote. The catchment area of the dam is 2,141.90 km2. It caters to the needs of around 22 villages and 14 hamlets and a prominent source of drinking water to Bengaluru. Further significant amount of water is discharged to the Mettur reservoir in Tamilnadu to fulfill the state's needs; this dam provides water to the combined system of Sagaredoddakere and Upper Nugu Dams. There is an arrangement of lifting and transfer of 28.00 TMC of water during the monsoons months from the Kabini dam to the other two smaller dams.
The dam is spread over an area of 55 hectares covering forests, rivers and valleys
Tharangambadi Tranquebar, is a town in the Nagapattinam district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu on the Coromandel Coast. It lies 15 kilometres north near the mouth of a distributary of the Kaveri River. Tranquebar was the first Danish trading post in India established in 1620. King Christian IV had sent his envoy Ove Gjedde who established contact with Raghunatha Nayak of Tanjore; the Danish government sold the colony of Tranquebar to the British East India Company in 1845. Until an annual tribute had been paid by the Danes to the Rajah of Tanjore. Tharangambadi is the headquarters of Tharangambadi taluk, while its name means "place of the singing waves"; the name Trankebar remains current in modern Danish. The place dates back to the 14th century. Masilamani nathar temple was built in 1306, in a land given by Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I; as of now, this temple is the oldest monument. Until 1620, when the Danes came, the place was under Thanjavur Nayak kingdom. Danish admiral Ove Gjedde felt the place would be a potential trading centre, made a deal with Raghunatha Nayak and built a fort, known as Fort Dansborg.
A Jesuit Catholic congregation in Tranquebar predated the arrival of the Danes by several decades. This congregation descended from Keralan fisherman converted by Portuguese missionaries from Goa. There was a sizable population of Indo-Portuguese due to their presence nearby in Nagapattinam; the Catholic church was demolished to build the fort. This fort was the residence and headquarters of the governor and other officials for about 150 years, it is now a museum hosting a collection of artefacts from the colonial era. Among the first Protestant missionaries to set foot in India were two Lutherans from Germany, Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg and Heinrich Pluetschau, who began work in 1705 in the Danish settlement of Tranquebar. Ziegenbalg translated the Old and New Testaments into Tamil, imported a printing press, printed the New Testament in Tamil in 1714; the local people were forced to learn the broken Portuguese, the lingua franca between Indians and Europeans at the time, on translated the Bible into the local Tamil language.
They established a printing press, which within a hundred years of its establishment in 1712 had printed 300 books in Tamil. At first they only made little progress in their religious efforts, but the mission spread to Madras and Tanjore. Today Bishop of Tranquebar is the official title of a bishop in the Tamil Evangelical Lutheran Church in South India, founded in 1919 as a result of the German Lutheran Leipzig Mission and Church of Sweden Mission; the seat of the Bishop, the Cathedral and its Church House is in Tiruchirappalli. The Zion church was consecrated in 1701, the oldest Protestant church in India. In 1718, The New Jerusalem Church was constructed. Moravian Brethren missionaries from Herrnhut, Saxony established the Brethren's Garden at Porayar near Tranquebar and operated it as a missionary centre for a number of years. An Italian Catholic Father Constanzo Beschi, who worked in the colony from 1711 to 1740, found himself in conflict with the Lutheran pioneers at Tranquebar, against whom he wrote several polemical works.
Tranquebar was occupied by the British in February 1808 during the Napoleonic Wars but was restored to Denmark following the Treaty of Kiel in 1814 and The Norwegian Declaration of Independence. Along with the Danish settlement of Serampore in Bengal, it was sold to the British in 1845. Tranquebar was still a busy port, but it lost its importance after a railway was opened to Nagapattinam; the Subrahmanya Temple, located in the outskirts of the town is one of the most prominent Murugan temples in the region. The 17th and 18th century antiquities and relics from the Vijayanagara empire and Thanjavur Nayak kingdom, which authorized and sanctioned the aforementioned Danish port township connected with the colonial period and Danish settlement at Tharangampadi are exhibited; the museum contains porcelain ware, Danish manuscripts, glass objects, Chinese tea jars, steatitle lamps, decorated terracotta objects, lamps, sculptures, daggers, sudai figurines and wooden objects. There is part of a whale skeleton,a giant sawfish rostrum and small cannonballs.
The New Jerusalem Church was built in 1718 by the Royal Danish missionary Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg in the coastal town of Tranquebar, India, at that time a Danish India Colony. The church is located on King Street, church services are conducted every Sunday; the church, along with other buildings of the Tranquebar Mission was damaged during the tsunami of 2004, were renovated at a cost of INR 7 million, re-consecrated in 2006. Construction of Fort Dansborg started in 1620. Many parts of the fort have been reconstructed several times. Dansborg is the second largest Danish fort constructed, with Kronborg in Helsingør being the largest; the rampart wall is a large four sided structure, with bastions at each cardinal point. A single storied building was constructed along three inner sides of the rampart, with barracks, warehouse and jail; the rooms on the southern side remain in good condition, but the rooms on the western and northern sides have been damaged. On the eastern side of the fort, there was a two storied building facing the sea.
It was the main building of the fort. The vaulted lower storey served as a magazine and a warehouse, while the vaulted upper storey contained the church and the lodgings of the governor, the senior merchants, the chaplain; the sea on the eastern and western side protected the fort. The fort was surrounded by a moat, access to the fort
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and a member of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency until 2003. NGA headquarters known as NGA Campus East, is located at Fort Belvoir North Area in Virginia; the agency operates major facilities in the St. Louis, Missouri area, as well as support and liaison offices worldwide; the NGA headquarters, at 2.3 million square feet, is the third-largest government building in the Washington metropolitan area after The Pentagon and the Ronald Reagan Building. In addition to using GEOINT for U. S. military and intelligence efforts, the NGA provides assistance during natural and man-made disasters, security planning for major events such as the Olympic Games. In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica".
U. S. mapping and charting efforts remained unchanged until World War I, when aerial photography became a major contributor to battlefield intelligence. Using stereo viewers, photo-interpreters reviewed thousands of images. Many of these were of the same target at different angles and times, giving rise to what became modern imagery analysis and mapmaking; the Engineer Reproduction Plant was the Army Corps of Engineers's first attempt to centralize mapping production and distribution. It was located on the grounds of the Army War College in Washington, D. C. Topographic mapping had been a function of individual field engineer units using field surveying techniques or copying existing or captured products. In addition, ERP assumed the "supervision and maintenance" of the War Department Map Collection, effective April 1, 1939. With the advent of the Second World War aviation, field surveys began giving way to photogrammetry, photo interpretation, geodesy. During wartime, it became possible to compile maps with minimal field work.
Out of this emerged AMS, which absorbed the existing ERP in May 1942. It was located at the Dalecarlia Site on MacArthur Blvd. just outside Washington, D. C. in Montgomery County and adjacent to the Dalecarlia Reservoir. AMS was designated as an Engineer field activity, effective July 1, 1942, by General Order 22, OCE, June 19, 1942; the Army Map Service combined many of the Army's remaining geographic intelligence organizations and the Engineer Technical Intelligence Division. AMS was redesignated the U. S. Army Topographic Command on September 1, 1968, continued as an independent organization until 1972, when it was merged into the new Defense Mapping Agency and redesignated as the DMA Topographic Center; the agency's credit union, Constellation Federal Credit Union, was chartered during the Army Map Service era, in 1944. It has continued to serve all successive legacy their families. After the war, as airplane capacity and range improved, the need for charts grew; the Army Air Corps established its map unit, renamed ACP in 1943 and was located in St. Louis, Missouri.
ACP was known as the U. S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center from 1952 to 1972. A credit union was chartered for the ACP in 1948, called Aero Chart Credit Union, it was renamed Arsenal Credit Union in 1952, a nod to the St. Louis site's Civil War-era use as an arsenal. Shortly before leaving office in January 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Photographic Interpretation Center, a joint project of the CIA and US DoD. NPIC was a component of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology and its primary function was imagery analysis. NPIC became part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in 1996. NPIC first identified the Soviet Union's basing of missiles in Cuba in 1962. By exploiting images from U-2 overflights and film from canisters ejected by orbiting Corona s, NPIC analysts developed the information necessary to inform U. S. influence operations during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their analysis garnered worldwide attention when the Kennedy Administration declassified and made public a portion of the images depicting the Soviet missiles on Cuban soil.
The Defense Mapping Agency was created on January 1, 1972, to consolidate all U. S. military mapping activities. DMA's "birth certificate", DoD Directive 5105.40, resulted from a classified Presidential directive, "Organization and Management of the U. S. Foreign Intelligence Community", which directed the consolidation of mapping functions dispersed among the military services. DMA became operational on July 1, 1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA. On Oct. 1, 1996, DMA was folded into the National Imagery and Mapping Agency – which became NGA. DMA was first headquartered at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C at Falls Church, Virginia, its civilian workforce was concentrated at production sites in Bethesda, Northern Virginia, St. Louis, Missouri. DMA was formed from the Mapping and Geodesy Division, Defense Intelligence Agency, from various mapping-related organizations of the military services. DMA Hydrographic Center DMAHC was formed in