Çandarlızade Ali Pasha
Çandarlızade Ali Pasha was the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1387 until 1406, under sultan Bayezid I and, during the Ottoman Interregnum, Süleyman Çelebi. As a member of the prominent Çandarlı family, Ali was the son of Grand Vizier Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha. Like his father, he advanced from kadı to kadıasker, before becoming Grand Vizier immediately after the death of his father in 1387, he served as Grand Vizier to Sultans Murad I, Bayezid I, during the Ottoman Interregnum, of Süleyman Çelebi, until his death in December 1406. As Grand Vizier, he was not only chief minister and head of the administration, but chief army commander. In 1387/8, he accompanied Murad I in his campaign against the Karamanids of central Anatolia; the Karamanid ruler, offered peace, but Çandarlızade Ali advised the Sultan to press on, until securing Aleddin's complete submission. In the next year, 1388/9, he led operations against the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shisman, his army captured several fortresses, including Provadia and Shumen, the Bulgarian capital of Veliko Tarnovo, forcing Shishman to capitulate to the Ottomans.
Çandarlızade Ali led his troops to join Sultan Murad at the crucial Battle of Kosovo on 20 June 1389 against the Serbian ruler Lazar. The Ottomans won, but the Sultan was killed, was succeeded by his son, Bayezid I.Çandarlızade Ali accompanied Bayezid in his campaigns in Greece and Bosnia, fought in the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, which resulted in the defeat of the Crusader army under the King of Hungary, Sigismund. In 1391 Bayezid began an on-and-off blockade and intermittent siege of the Byzantine capital, that lasted until 1402. Ali was a proponent of maintaining diplomatic avenues open, in 1391 or 1396 he brokered an agreement that temporarily lifted the siege in exchange for the establishment of a mosque and a Turkish quarter in the city, with its own kadı. On 26 July 1402, in the Battle of Ankara, Bayezid I was captured by Timur; this momentous event overturned the balance of power in the region, as the Ottoman domains in Anatolia were divided by Timur, who restored many of the Anatolian beyliks absorbed by Bayezid.
Timur did not interfere with the Balkans, where the Ottoman conquest was far advanced. Ali helped save Bayezid's oldest son, Süleyman Çelebi, from capture, escorted him to the Ottoman capital Bursa, to the Ottomans' European capital, Adrianople, he continued serving Süleyman Çelebi as Grand Vizier during the early stages of the Ottoman Interregnum civil war, was responsible for the Treaty of Gallipoli with the Christian powers of the region in early 1403, which preserved most of the Ottoman conquests in the Balkans. During Süleyman Çelebi's campaign into Anatolia in 1403–1404, against his younger brother Mehmed Çelebi, Ali is said to have been responsible for the peaceful surrender of Ankara, by forging letters from Mehmed to the city's garrison, he died in Ankara in December 1406. He was buried in the Yeşil Mosque at Iznik, which he completed, his loss deprived Süleyman of a capable minister, helping to bring about his downfall in 1410. As Grand Vizier, Çandarlızade Ali contributed to the gradual development of the Ottoman state's administration.
Notably he codified the responsibilities of the kadıs and arranged for them to charge fees for their services instead of receiving a fixed salary. He founded the corps of palace pages, which would provide the military and administrative elite of the empire, enhanced the prestige of the viziers. Ottoman chroniclers present a negative picture of Çandarlızade Ali, accusing him of being a drunkard and a paedophile, of inducing both Bayezid and Süleyman to follow his debauched lifestyle; the chroniclers claim that he was unpopular both among the administration and the common people. These accusations should be treated with caution, however, as they were circulated by his rivals and enemies the partisans of Mehmed I, who emerged victorious in the civil war. Apart from the Yeşil Mosque in Iznik, Ali founded a small mosque and a tekke in Bursa, where a quarter bore his name. Atçıl, Abdurrahman. "Çandarlızade Ali Paşa". In Fleet, Kate. Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830. Kastritsis, Dimitris.
The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman Civil War of 1402-13. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-15836-8. Mantran, R.. "Alī Pas̲h̲a Čāndārli̊̊-Zāde". In Gibb, H. A. R.. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume I: A–B. Leiden: E. J. Brill. P. 394
Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest
Zaganos Pasha was an Ottoman military commander, with the titles and ranks of kapudan pasha and the highest military rank, grand vizier, during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror". A Christian, conscripted and converted through the devşirme system, he became a Muslim and rose through the ranks of the janissaries, he became one of the prominent military commanders of Mehmed II and a lala – the sultan's advisor, tutor, protector, all at once. He removed his rival, the previous Grand Vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger, amid the fall of Constantinople, he served as the governor of Thessaly of Macedonia. Zaganos rose through the ranks of the janissaries, he was Christian. Sources do not mention his descent. E. Goldberg, R. Kasaba and J. S. Migdal say that he was either Serb. Jorga says. D. Nicolle, J. F. Haldon and S. R. Turnbull believes that he was of Albanian origin. M. Philippides believes that he was of either Albanian origin. According to İnalcık he was the son of Vrana Konti, he became a committed Muslim after conversion.
When Mehmed II was exiled in 1446, Zagan accompanied him. Young Mehmed II had after his return and accession confirmed Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger as his first Vizier, raised Zaganos Pasha from third to second Vizier. Halil Pasha had been appointed first Vizier after the demotion of Ishak Pasha. Zaganos, younger, was jealous of the position of Halil Pasha. During the Siege of Constantinople, the bulk of the Ottoman army were encamped south of the Golden Horn; the regular European troops, stretched out along the entire length of the walls, were commanded by Karadja Pasha. The regular troops from Anatolia under Ishak Pasha were stationed south of the Lycus down to the Sea of Marmara. Mehmed himself erected his red-and-gold tent near the Mesoteichion, where the guns and the elite regiments, the Janissaries, were positioned; the Bashi-bazouks were spread out behind the front lines. Other troops under Zaganos were employed north of the Golden Horn. Communication was maintained by a road, constructed over the marshy head of the Horn.
After the inconclusive frontal offensives, the Ottomans sought to break through the walls by constructing underground tunnels in an effort to mine them from mid-May to 25 May. Many of the sappers were miners of German origin sent from Novo Brdo by the Serbian Despot, they were placed under the command of Zaganos Pasha. However, the Byzantines employed an engineer named Johannes Grant, who had counter-mines dug, allowing Byzantine troops to enter the mines and kill the Turkish workers; the Byzantines intercepted the first Serbian tunnel on the night of 16 May. Subsequent tunneling efforts were interrupted on 21, 23, 25 May, destroying them with Greek fire and vigorous combat. On 23 May, the Byzantines captured and tortured two Turkish officers, who revealed the location of all the Turkish tunnels, which were destroyed. On 21 May, Mehmed sent an ambassador to Constantinople and offered to lift the siege if they gave him the city. Constantine XI accepted to pay higher tributes to the sultan and recognized the status of all the conquered castles and lands in the hands of the Turks as Ottoman possession.
Around this time, Mehmed had a final council with his senior officers. Here he encountered some resistance. Halil was overruled by Zaganos. Having been accused of bribery, Halil Pasha was put to death that year. Mehmed planned to overpower the walls by sheer force, expecting that the weakened Byzantine defense by the prolonged siege would now be worn out before he ran out of troops and started preparations for a final all-out offensive. After the Ottoman occupation of Constantinople, the Sultan ordered Zaganos to set out with his galleys for Galata, to prevent the Byzantine ships from setting sail; the stories of Halil Pasha's collaboration with the Byzantines were most spread by the faction of Zaganos. Zaganos succeeded Halil Pasha as Grand Vizier. In 1456, Zaganos was made scapegoat after a failed expedition against Hungarian-held Belgrade. Zaganos' daughter was expelled from the Sultan's harem, the two were expelled to Balıkesir, where he had property. In 1459, Zaganos returned and became kapudan pasha of the fast-growing Ottoman navy, the next year he was the governor of Thessaly and Macedonia.
Zaganos was said to be a intelligent man. He has been called the most cruel Ottoman captain of his time, was said to be an enemy of Christians, he was in absolute loyalty to Mehmed II when he was just a prince, knowing that his prospects depended on his master's success. Zaganos was a soldier who believed that the Ottoman Empire must always expand in order to keep the enemies off-balance, he was known for his warlike beliefs and played an important role in the 1453 Fall of Constantinople. He was one of the prominent Ottoman military commanders of Mehmed II and a lala, at once an advisor, tutor and protector, for the sultan. During the final siege of Constantinople, Zagan Pasha's troops were the first to reach the towers. Ulubatlı Hasan was the first soldier. During the siege many of the sappers were placed under the command of Zagan Pasha. Mehmet took Zaganos' advice exclusively. Mehmet II honored him for his loyalty and hon
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire
The Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire concerns the history of the Ottoman Empire from the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453 until the second half of the sixteenth century the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During this period a system of patrimonial rule based on the absolute authority of the sultan reached its apex, the empire developed the institutional foundations which it would maintain, in modified form, for several centuries; the territory of the Ottoman Empire expanded, led to what some historians have called the Pax Ottomana. The process of centralization undergone by the empire prior to 1453 was brought to completion in the reign of Mehmed II; the Ottoman Empire of the Classical Age experienced dramatic territorial growth. The period opened with the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453. Mehmed II went on to consolidate the empire's position in the Balkans and Anatolia, conquering Serbia in 1454-5, the Peloponnese in 1458-9, Trebizond in 1461, Bosnia in 1463.
Many Venetian territories in Greece were conquered during the 1463-79 Ottoman-Venetian War. By 1474 the Ottomans had conquered their Anatolian rival the Karamanids, in 1475 conquered Kaffa on the Crimean Peninsula, establishing the Crimean Khanate as a vassal state. In 1480 an invasion of Otranto in Italy was launched, but the death of Mehmed II the following year led to an Ottoman withdrawal; the reign of Bayezid II was one of consolidation after the rapid conquests of the previous era, the empire's territory was expanded only marginally. In 1484 Bayezid led a campaign against Moldavia, subjecting it to vassal status and annexing the strategic ports of Kilia and Akkerman. Major Venetian ports were conquered in Greece and Albania during the 1499-1503 war, most Modon and Durazzo. However, by the end of his reign, Ottoman territory in the east was coming under threat from the newly established Safavid Empire. Rapid expansion resumed under Selim I, who defeated the Safavids in the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, annexing much of eastern Anatolia and occupying Tabriz.
In 1516 he led a campaign against the Mamluk Sultanate, conquering first Syria and Egypt the following year. This marked a dramatic shift in the orientation of the Ottoman Empire, as it now came to rule over the Muslim heartlands of the Middle East, as well as establishing its protection over the holy cities of Mecca and Medina; this increased the influence of Islamic practices on the government of the empire, facilitated much greater interaction between the Arabic-speaking world and the Ottoman heartlands in Anatolia and the Balkans. Under Selim's reign the empire's territory expanded from 341,100 sq mi to 576,900 sq mi. Expansion continued during the first half of the reign of Suleiman I, who conquered first Belgrade and Rhodes, before invading Hungary in 1526, defeating and killing King Louis II in the Battle of Mohács and occupying Buda. Lacking a king, Hungary descended into civil war over the succession, the Ottomans gave support to John Zápolya as a vassal prince; when their rivals the Habsburgs began to achieve the upper hand, Suleiman directly intervened by again conquering Buda and annexing it to the empire in 1541.
Elsewhere, Suleiman led major campaigns against Safavid Iran, conquering Baghdad in 1534 and annexing Iraq. Ottoman rule was further extended with the incorporation of much of North Africa, the conquest of coastal Yemen in 1538, the subsequent annexation of the interior. After the annexation of Buda in 1541 the pace of Ottoman expansion slowed as the empire attempted to consolidate its vast gains, became engrossed in imperial warfare on three fronts: in Hungary, in Iran, in the Mediterranean. Additional conquests were marginal, served to shore up the Ottoman position. Ottoman control over Hungary was expanded in a series of campaigns, a second Hungarian province was established with the conquests of Temeşvar in 1552. Control over North Africa was increased with the conquest of Tripoli in 1551, while the Ottomans shored up their position in the Red Sea with the annexation of Massawa and the extension of Ottoman rule over much of coastal Eritrea and Djibouti. By the end of Suleiman's reign the empire's territory had expanded to 877,888 sq mi.
The conquest of Constantinople allowed Mehmed II to turn his attention to Anatolia. Mehmed II tried to create a single political entity in Anatolia by capturing Turkish states called Beyliks and the Greek Empire of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia and allied himself with the Crimean Khanate. Uniting the Anatolian Beyliks was first accomplished by Sultan Bayezid I, more than fifty years earlier than Mehmed II but after the destructive Battle of Ankara back in 1402, the newly formed Anatolian unification was gone. Mehmed II recovered the Ottoman power on other Turkish states; these conquests allowed him to push further into Europe. Another important political entity which shaped the Eastern policy of Mehmed II was the White Sheep Turcomans. With the leadership of Uzun Hasan, this Turcoman kingdom gained power in the East but because of their strong relations with the Christian powers like Empire of Trebizond and the Republic of Venice and the alliance between Turcomans and Karamanid tribe, Mehmed saw them as a threat to his own power.
He led a successful campaign against Uzun Hasan in 1473 which resulted with the decisive victory of the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Otlukbeli. After the Fall of Constantinople, Mehmed would go on to conquer the Despotate of Morea in the Peloponnese in 1460, the Empire of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia in 1461; the last two vestiges of Byzantine rule were th
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste
Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province. Modern Manisa is a booming center of industry and services, advantaged by its closeness to the international port city and the regional metropolitan center of İzmir and by its fertile hinterland rich in quantity and variety of agricultural production. In fact, İzmir's proximity adds a particular dimension to all aspects of life's pace in Manisa in the form of a dense traffic of daily commuters between the two cities, separated as they are by a half-hour drive served by a fine six-lane highway requiring attention at all times due to its curves and the rapid ascent across Mount Sipylus's mythic scenery; the historic part of Manisa spreads out from a forested valley in the immediate slopes of Sipylus mountainside, along Çaybaşı Stream which flows next to Niobe's "Weeping Rock", an ancient bridge called the "Red Bridge" as well as to several tombs-shrines in the Turkish style dating back to the Saruhan period.
Under Ottoman rule in the centuries that followed, the city had extended into the undulated terrain at the start of the plain. In the last couple of decades, Manisa's width more than tripled in size across its vast plain formed by the alluvial deposits of the River Gediz, a development in which the construction of new block apartments, industrial zones and of Celal Bayar University campus played a key role; the city of Manisa is widely visited during March and September festivals, the former festival being the continuation of a five-hundred-year-old "Mesir Paste Distribution" tradition, for the nearby Mount Spil national park. It is a departure point for other visitor attractions of international acclaim which are located nearby within Manisa's depending region, such as Sardes and Alaşehir inland. There is a Jewish community; the city was called Magnesia, more as Magnesia ad Sipylum to distinguish from Magnesia on the Maeander at a short distance to the south. Traditional view held that the name "Magnesia" derived from the tribe of Magnetes who would have immigrated here from Thessaly at the dawn of the region's recorded history.
A connection with native Anatolian languages has been suggested of recent date on the basis of discoveries made in the Hittite archives treating the Luwian western Anatolia. The name is rendered as Μαγνησία in modern Greek language; the name "Magnesia ad Sipylus" refers to Mount Sipylus that towers over the city and Magnesia became a city of importance starting with the Roman dominion after the 190 BC Battle of Magnesia. The names "Sipylus" or "Sipylum" in reference to a settlement here are encountered in some sources, again in reference to the mountain and as abbreviated forms. Pliny the Elder, supported by other sources, mentions that in the same place was a celebrated city, called "Tantalis" or "the city of Tantalus" whose ruins were still visible around his time. Under Turkish rule, the name attached to the Beys of "Saruhan", who founded the Beylik which preceded the Ottomans in the region, has been used, along with the name Manisa, for the city and the region alternatively and this until the present period of the Republic of Turkey.
The Ottoman Turkish form of the name "Manisa" was as it is still used presently, but a spelling with a longer first syllable, transcribed to modern Turkish as "Mağnisa", was occasionally encountered. During the first centuries of the Ottoman Empire, many of the sons of sultans received their education in Manisa and the city is still known in Turkey as "the city of shahzades", a distinctive title it shares only with Amasya and Trabzon; the English language root word "magnesia", from which the words "magnet" and "magnetism" and numerous other derivations were coined, as well as their equivalents in many other languages, may derive from the city's name. Traces of prehistory in the Manisa region, although few in number include two interesting finds that shed much light on western Anatolia's past; the first are the fossilized footprints, numbering more than fifty and dated to around 20.000-25.000 BC, discovered in 1969 by MTA, Turkey's state body for mineral exploration, in Sindel village near Manisa's depending district of Salihli and referred to under that village's name.
Some of these footprints are on display today in Manisa Museum while their site of origin of Sindel, where there are prehistoric paintings, will become Turkey's first geopark through a joint project with the European Commission. The second finds are tombs contemporaneous with Troy II and found in the village of Yortan near Kırkağaç district center, north of Manisa. Original burial practices observed in these sepulchres led scholars to the definition of a "Yortan culture" in Anatolia's prehistory, many of whose aspects remain yet to be explored. Central and southern parts of western Anatolia entered history with the still obscure Luwian kingdom of Arzawa offshoots, as well as neighbors and, after around 1320 BCE, vassals of the Hittite Empire. Cybele monument located at Akpınar on the northern flank of Mount Sipylus, at a distance of 7 km from Manisa on the road to Turgutlu is, along with the King of Mira rock relief at Mount Nif near Kemalpaşa and a number of cuneiform tablet records are among the principal evidence of extension of Hittite control and influence in western Anatolia based on local principalities.
Cybele monument by itself represents a step of innovation in Hittit