Marco Antonio Bragadin
Marco Antonio Bragadin Marcantonio Bragadin, was a Venetian lawyer and military officer of the Republic of Venice. Bragadin joined the Fanti da Mar Corps of the Republic of Venice. In 1569, he was appointed Captain-General of Famagusta in Cyprus and led the Venetian resistance to the Ottoman conquest that began in 1570, he was gruesomely killed in August 1571 after the Ottomans took the city, the fall of which signalled the end of Western presence in the Mediterranean island for the next three centuries. He was born in Venice. After a short stint as lawyer in 1543, Bragadin pursued a career in the navy, being entrusted with several posts on the Venetian galleys. Once back in Venice Bragadin was pressed into the city's magistrates. In 1569 he was elected as Captain of the Kingdom of Cyprus and moved to Famagusta a rich port, where he assumed civil governorship over the whole island, well aware that a decisive clash with the Ottoman fleet was imminent. Bragadin worked hard to fortify Famagusta thoroughly.
So the harbour was endowed with strong defenses, such as the Martinengo bastion, an excellent example of modern fortification granting easy defense on both sides of its walls. The Turks landed at Cyprus on July 3, 1570. Nicosia fell in two months' time and its garrison was slaughtered; the severed head of the locumtenens regni, Niccolò Dandolo, was sent to Bragadin, undaunted, prepared for the enemy assault. Famagusta came under siege on September 17, 1570. Marcantonio Bragadin led the defence of Famagusta with Lorenzo Tiepolo, Captain of Paphos, general Astorre Baglioni; the Ottoman forces kept pressure on for months, while their artillery relentlessly pounded the city's bulwarks. According to Venetian chroniclers, about 6,000 garrison troops stood against some 100,000 Turks with 1,500 cannons, backed by about 150 ships enforcing a naval blockade to stave off reinforcements and victuals; the besieged garrison of Famagusta put up a heroic struggle lasting well beyond the most optimistic assumptions, against far superior enemy numbers and without any hope of help from the motherland.
Furthermore, the Turks were employing new tactics. The entire belt of walls surrounding the town and the exterior plain was filled with earth up to the top of the fortifications. In the meantime a number of tunnels were dug out towards and under the city walls to undermine and breach them. In July, 1571 the Turks breached the fortifications and their forces broke into the citadel, being repulsed only at the cost of heavy losses. With provisions and ammunition running out, no sign of relief from Venice on August 1, Bragadin asked for terms of surrender. Famagusta's defenders made terms with the Ottomans before the city was taken by force, since the traditional laws of war allowed for negotiation before the city's defenses were breached, whereas after a city fell by storm all lives and property in the city would be forfeit; the Ottoman commander agreed that, in return for the city's surrender, all Westerners in the city could exit under their own flag and be guaranteed safe passage to Venice-held Crete.
For the next four days, evacuation proceeded smoothly. At the surrender ceremony on August 5 where Bragadin offered the vacated city to Mustafa, the Ottoman general accused him of murdering Turkish prisoners and hiding munitions. Mustafa pulled a knife and cut off Bragadin's right ear ordered his guards to cut off the other ear and his nose. There followed a massacre of all Christians still in the city, with Bragadin himself most brutally abused. After being left in prison for two weeks, his earlier wounds festering, he was dragged round the walls with "sacks of earth and stone" on his back, he was taken to his place of execution in the main square, tied naked to a column, flayed alive. Bragadin's quartered body was distributed as a war trophy among the army, his skin was stuffed with straw and sewn, reinvested with his military insignia, exhibited riding an ox in a mocking procession along the streets of Famagusta; the macabre trophy, together with the severed heads of general Alvise Martinengo, Gianantonio Querini and castellan Andrea Bragadin, was hoisted upon the masthead pennant of the personal galley of the Ottoman commander, Amir al-bahr Mustafa Pasha, to be brought to Constantinople as a gift for Sultan Selim II.
Bragadin's skin was stolen from Constantinople's arsenal in 1580 by the young Venetian seaman Girolamo Polidori, there on business. He brought it back to Venice; the skin was preserved first in the church of San Gregorio interred with full honors in the Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, where it still is. Bragadin's fame rests upon the incredible resistance that he made against the vastly superior besieging forces. From a military point of view, the besieged garrison's perseverance required a massive effort by the Ottoman Turks, who were so committed that they were unable to redeploy in time when the Holy League built up the fleet victorious against the Muslim power at Lepanto. Historians to this day debate just why Venice did not send help to Bragadin from Souda, Crete
Northern Cyprus the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, is a de facto state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus. Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community to be part of the Republic of Cyprus. Northern Cyprus extends from the tip of the Karpass Peninsula in the northeast to Morphou Bay, Cape Kormakitis and its westernmost point, the Kokkina exclave in the west, its southernmost point is the village of Louroujina. A buffer zone under the control of the United Nations stretches between Northern Cyprus and the rest of the island and divides Nicosia, the island's largest city and capital of both sides. A coup d'état in 1974, performed as part of an attempt to annex the island to Greece, prompted the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; this resulted in the eviction of much of the north's Greek Cypriot population, the flight of Turkish Cypriots from the south, the partitioning of the island, leading to a unilateral declaration of independence by the North in 1983.
Due to its lack of recognition, Northern Cyprus is dependent on Turkey for economic and military support. Attempts to reach a solution to the Cyprus dispute have been unsuccessful; the Turkish Army maintains a large force in Northern Cyprus. While its presence is supported and approved by the TRNC government, the Republic of Cyprus and the international community regard it as an occupation force, its presence has been denounced in several United Nations Security Council resolutions. Northern Cyprus is a semi-presidential, democratic republic with a cultural heritage incorporating various influences and an economy, dominated by the services sector; the economy has seen growth through the 2000s and 2010s, with the GNP per capita more than tripling in the 2000s, but is held back by an international embargo due to the official closure of the ports in Northern Cyprus by the Republic of Cyprus. The official language is Turkish, with a distinct local dialect being spoken; the vast majority of the population consists of Sunni Muslims, while religious attitudes are moderate and secular.
Northern Cyprus is an observer of the OIC and ECO, has observer status in the PACE under the title "Turkish Cypriot Community". A united Cyprus gained independence from British rule in August 1960, after both Greek and Turkish Cypriots agreed to abandon their respective plans for enosis and taksim; the agreement involved Cyprus being governed under a constitution which apportioned Cabinet posts, parliamentary seats and civil service jobs on an agreed ratio between the two communities. Within three years, tensions began to show between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in administrative affairs. In particular, disputes over separate municipalities and taxation created a deadlock in government. In 1963 President Makarios proposed unilateral changes via 13 amendments. Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots rejected the proposed amendments, claiming that this was an attempt to settle constitutional disputes in favour of the Greek Cypriots and to demote Turkish status from co-founders of the state to one of minority status, removing their constitutional safeguards in the process.
Turkish Cypriots filed a lawsuit against the 13 amendments in the Supreme Constitutional Court of Cyprus. Makarios announced that he would not comply with the decision of the SCCC, whatever it was, defended his amendments as being necessary "to resolve constitutional deadlocks" as opposed to the stance of the SCCC. On 25 April 1963, the SCCC decided; the Cyprus Supreme Court's ruling found that Makarios had violated the constitution by failing to implement its measures and that Turkish Cypriots had not been allowed to return to their positions in government without first accepting the proposed constitutional amendments. On 21 May, the president of the SCCC resigned due to Makarios's stance. On 15 July, Makarios ignored the decision of the SCCC. After the resignation of the president of the SCCC, the SCCC ceased to exist; the Supreme Court of Cyprus was formed by merging the SCCC and the High Court of Cyprus, undertook the jurisdiction and powers of the SCCC and HCC. On 30 November, Makarios legalized the 13 proposals.
In 1963, the Greek Cypriot wing of the government created the Akritas plan which outlined a policy that would remove Turkish Cypriots from the government and lead to union with Greece. The plan stated that if the Turkish Cypriots objected they should be "violently subjugated before foreign powers could intervene". On 21 December 1963, shots were fired at a Turkish Cypriot crowd that had gathered as the Greek police patrol stopped two Turkish Cypriots, claiming to ask for identification. Intercommunal violence broke out with a major Greek Cypriot paramilitary attack upon Turkish Cypriots in Nicosia and Larnaca. Though the TMT—a Turkish resistance group created in 1959 to promote a policy of taksim, in opposition to the Greek Cypriot nationalist group EOKA and its advocacy of enosis —committed a number of acts of retaliation, historian of the Cyprus conflict Keith Kyle noted that "there is no doubt that the main victims of the numerous incidents that took place during the next few months were Turks".
Seven hundred Turkish hostages, including children, were taken from the northern suburbs of Nicosia. Nikos Sampson, a nationalist and future coup leader, led a group of Greek Cypriot irregulars into the mixed suburb of Omorphita/Küçük Kaymaklı and attacked the Turkish Cypriot population. By 1964, 364 Turkish Cypriots and 174 Greek
The Eyalet of Cyprus was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, annexed into the Empire in 1571. The Ottomans changed the way, it was a sanjak of the Eyalet of the Archipelago from 1670 to 1703, again from 1784 onwards. During Venetian rule, the Ottomans at times raided Cyprus. In 1489, the first year of Venetian control, Ottomans attacked the Karpass Peninsula and taking captives to be sold into slavery. In 1539 the Ottoman fleet destroyed Limassol. Fearing the ever-expanding Ottoman Empire, the Venetians had fortified Famagusta and Kyrenia, but most other cities were easy prey. In the summer of 1570, the Ottomans struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, laid siege to Nicosia; the city fell on September 9, 1570. Only women and boys who were captured to be sold as slaves were spared. Word of the massacre spread, a few days Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot.
Famagusta, resisted with the Siege of Famagusta and put up a defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571. The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months the naval forces of the Holy League, composed of Venetian and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history; the victory over the Ottomans, came too late to help Cyprus, the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries. In 1570, the Ottomans first occupied Cyprus, Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Turkish Governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice; the Pope formed a coalition between the Papal States, Spain and several other Italian states, with no real result. In 1573 the Venetians left; as soon as Nicosia was conquered, Cyprus was declared an eyalet under the administration of a beylerbey, Mustafa Pasha, the former beylerbey of Avlonya, was appointed to the post.
Cyprus was divided into three sanjaks: Famagusta and Paphos. Additionally, the sanjaks of Alâiye, Tarsus, İçel, Sis, Zülkadriye and Tripoli on the mainland were placed under the administration of the Cyprus eyalet. Cyprus was divided into several kazas: Tuzla, Episkopi, Paphos, Lefka, Hirsofu, Famagusta and Mesariye; these kazas each had naib. The sanjak of Tripoli, was removed from the jurisdiction of Cyprus in 1573 due to its distance and given to the Damascus Eyalet; the sanjaks of İçel, Alâiye and Tarsus were removed in 1610 and given to the newly created Adana Eyalet. However, after the Ottoman conquest of Crete, the Cypriot Orthodox Church argued that Cyprus had lost importance, that trade volume had decreased and that people were emigrating, it thus requested a change in the administrative status as Cyprus could not afford remaining an eyalet. Thus, in 1670, Cyprus became a sanjak under the Eyalet of the Archipelago, under the direct control of the Kapudan Pasha, the head of the Ottoman Navy.
This control was exercised through an appointed mütesellim. However, under this system, local aghas were the tax collectors; this magnified their power and resulted in discontent, with the rivalry between them causing a two-year long revolt in the 1680s, led by Boyacıoğlu Mehmed Agha. This proved that the existing system caused a power vacuum and was ineffective, so in 1703 Cyprus was placed directly under the control of the Grand Vizier, administered on his behalf by a muhassıl. To reduce the powers of the aghas, the muhassıl was given the power to collect taxes, as well as increased political and military authority. Between 1745 and 1748, Cyprus became an eyalet again; these three years the reign of governor Ebubekir Pasha, were a period of development and relative prosperity. After the end of Ebubekir Pasha's tenure, Cyprus reverted to its former status. Greek Cypriots had two important administrative positions: the Archbishop, who headed the Orthodox Church, was recognized as the sole representative of the Greek Cypriot population from the 1670s onwards, the Dragoman, chosen from the candidates determined by the Archbishop.
The muhassıl administration became more and more dysfunctional. In 1764, muhassıl Çil Osman Agha was killed amidst a chaotic environment caused by his rule. Meanwhile, the ongoing war with Russia meant a deterioration in the people's welfare. Thus, on the request of the Archbishop and the Dragoman, Cyprus was placed directly under the administration of the Imperial Council in 1785, with the muhassıl being directly appointed; these new muhassıls lacked some of their old powers, which increased the influence of the Orthodox clergy as they became tax collectors. In 1839, with the reforms of Abdülmecid I, the island once again became a sanjak of the Eyalet of the Archipelago but gained significant autonomy; the island was governed by a mutasarrıf, the kazas were consolidated into six larger kazas with their own administrative and judicial councils. A sanjak administrative council, in which Turks and other minorities were proportionally represented, was established. In 1861, Cy
A gable is the triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the structural system used, which reflects climate, material availability, aesthetic concerns. A gable wall or gable end more refers to the entire wall, including the gable and the wall below it. A parapet made of a series of curves or horizontal steps may hide the diagonal lines of the roof. Gable ends of more recent buildings are treated in the same way as the Classic pediment form, but unlike Classical structures, which operate through trabeation, the gable ends of many buildings are bearing-wall structures. Thus, the detailing can be misleading. Gable style is used in the design of fabric structures, with varying degree sloped roofs, dependent on how much snowfall is expected. Sharp gable roofs are a characteristic of the classical Greek styles of architecture; the opposite or inverted form of a gable roof is a butterfly roof. While a front-gabled building faces the street with its gable, a side-gabled building faces it with its cullis, meaning the ridge is parallel to the street.
The terms are used in city planning to determine a building in its urban situation. Front-gabled buildings are considered typical for German city streets in the medieval gothic period, while Renaissance buildings, influenced by Italian architecture are side-gabled. In America, front-gabled houses, such as the gablefront house, were popular between the early 19th century and 1920. A wimperg, in German and Dutch, is a Gothic ornamental gable with tracery over windows or portals, which were accompanied with pinnacles, it was a typical element in Gothic architecture in cathedral architecture. Wimpergs had crockets or other decorative elements in the Gothic style; the intention behind the wimperg was the perception of increased height. The gable end roof is a poor design for hurricane regions, as it peels off in strong winds; the part of the roof that overhangs the triangular wall often creates a trap that can catch wind like an umbrella. Winds blowing against the gable end can exert tremendous pressure, both on the triangular wall and on the roof edges where they overhang the triangular wall, causing the roof to peel off and the triangular wall to cave in.
Anne of Green Gables, a novel by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery, based in Canada The House of the Seven Gables The Seven Lamps of Architecture, John Ruskin's influential opinion on truth in architecture Bell-gable Cape Dutch architecture Crow-stepped gable Dutch gable Facade Gablet roof Hip roof List of roof shapes Tympanum Pugin, Augustus. A series of ornamental timber gables, from existing examples in England and France of the 16th Century. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gable". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. P. 380. Lexicon of architecture
A cathedral is a Catholic church that contains the cathedra of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. The equivalent word in German for such a church is Dom. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Catholic, Anglican and some Lutheran and Methodist churches. Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appeared in Italy, Gaul and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches and episcopal residences. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the English word "cathedral" translates as katholikon, meaning "assembly", but this title is applied to monastic and other major churches without episcopal responsibilities; when the church at which an archbishop or "metropolitan" presides is intended, the term kathedrikós naós is used.
Following the Protestant Reformation, the Christian church in several parts of Western Europe, such as Scotland, the Netherlands, certain Swiss Cantons and parts of Germany, adopted a Presbyterian polity that did away with bishops altogether. Where ancient cathedral buildings in these lands are still in use for congregational worship, they retain the title and dignity of "cathedral", maintaining and developing distinct cathedral functions, but void of hierarchical supremacy. From the 16th century onwards, but since the 19th century, churches originating in Western Europe have undertaken vigorous programmes of missionary activity, leading to the founding of large numbers of new dioceses with associated cathedral establishments of varying forms in Asia, Australasia and the Americas. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within Protestant lands for converts and migrant co-religionists, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations.
In the Catholic or Roman Catholic tradition, the term "cathedral" applies only to a church that houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy does not acquire the title. In any other jurisdiction canonically equivalent to a diocese but not canonically erected as such, the church that serves this function is called the "principal church" of the respective entity—though some have coopted the term "cathedral" anyway; the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction, renovation, or repair; this designation applies. A co-cathedral is a second cathedral in a diocese; this situation can arise in various ways such as a merger of two former dioceses, preparation to split a diocese, or perceived need to perform cathedral functions in a second location due to the expanse of the diocesan territory. A proto-cathedral is the former cathedral of a transferred.
The cathedral church of a metropolitan bishop is called a metropolitan cathedral. The term "cathedral" carries no implication as to the size or ornateness of the building. Most cathedrals are impressive edifices. Thus, the term "cathedral" is applied colloquially to any large and impressive church, regardless of whether it functions as a cathedral, such as the Crystal Cathedral in California or the Arctic Cathedral in Tromsø, Norway. Although the builders of Crystal Cathedral never intended the building to be a true cathedral, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange purchased the building and the surrounding campus in February 2012 for use as a new cathedral church; the building is now under renovation and restoration for solemn dedication under the title "Christ Cathedral" in 2019. The word "cathedral" is derived from the French cathédrale, from the Latin cathedra, from the Greek καθέδρα kathédra, "seat, bench", from κατά kata "down" and ἕδρα hedra "seat, chair." The word refers to the presence and prominence of the bishop's or archbishop's chair or throne, raised above both clergy and laity, located facing the congregation from behind the High Altar.
In the ancient world, the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishop's role as teacher. A raised throne within a basilican hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate; the episcopal throne embodies the principle that only a bishop makes a cathedral, this still applies in those churches that no longer have bishops, but retain cathedral dignity and functions in ancient churches over which bishops presided. But the throne can embody the principle that a cathedral makes a bishop.
Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was used for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century, its most prominent features included the use of the rib vault and the flying buttress, which allowed the weight of the roof to be counterbalanced by buttresses outside the building, giving greater height and more space for windows. Another important feature was the extensive use of stained glass, the rose window, to bring light and color to the interior. Another feature was the use of realistic statuary on the exterior over the portals, to illustrate biblical stories for the illiterate parishioners; these technologies had all existed in Romanesque architecture, but they were used in more innovative ways and more extensively in Gothic architecture to make buildings taller and stronger. The first notable example is considered to be the Abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris, whose choir and facade were reconstructed with Gothic features.
The choir was completed in 1144. The style appeared in some civic architecture in northern Europe, notably in town halls and university buildings. A Gothic revival began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th century Europe and continued for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum, The term "Gothic architecture" originated in the 16th century, was very negative, suggesting barbaric. Giorgio Vasari used the term "barbarous German style" in his 1550 Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, in the introduction to the Lives he attributed various architectural features to "the Goths" whom he held responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, erecting new ones in this style; the Gothic style originated in the Ile-de-France region of northern France in the first half of the 12th century. A new dynasty of French Kings, the Capetians, had subdued the feudal lords, had become the most powerful rulers in France, with their capital in Paris.
They allied themselves with the bishops of the major cities of northern France, reduced the power of the feudal abbots and monasteries. Their rise coincided with an enormous growth of the population and prosperity of the cities of northern France; the Capetian Kings and their bishops wished to build new cathedrals as monuments of their power and religious faith. The church which served as the primary model for the style was the Abbey of St-Denis, which underwent reconstruction by the Abbot Suger, first in the choir and the facade, Suger was a close ally and biographer of the French King, Louis VII, a fervent Catholic and builder, the founder of the University of Paris. Suger remodeled the ambulatory of the Abbey, removed the enclosures that separated the chapels, replaced the existing structure with imposing pillars and rib vaults; this created higher and wider bays, into which he installed larger windows, which filled the end of the church with light. Soon afterwards he rebuilt the facade, adding three deep portals, each with a tympanum, an arch filled with sculpture illustrating biblical stories.
The new facade was flanked by two towers. He installed a small circular rose window over the central portal; this design became the prototype for a series of new French cathedrals. Sens Cathedral was the first Cathedral to be built in the new style. Other versions of the new style soon appeared in Noyon Cathedral; the Gothic style was adapted by some French monastic orders, notably the Cistercian order under Saint Bernard of Clairvaux It was used in an austere form without ornament at the new Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay and the church of Clairvaux Abbey, whose site is now occupied by a French prison. The new style was copied outside the Kingdom of France in the Duchy of Normandy. Early examples of Norman Gothic included Coutances Cathedral. Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the new style was introduced to England and spread from there to Low Countries, Spain, northern Italy and Sicily; the Gothic style did not replace the Romanesque everywhere in Europe. The Late Romanesque continued to flourish in the Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufens and Rhineland.
From the end of the 12th century until the middle of the 13th century, the gothic style spread from the Île-de-France to appear in other cities of northern France. New structures in the style included Chartres Cathedral; the early type of rib vault used of Saint Denis and Notre Dame, with six parts, was modified to four parts, making it simpler and stronger. Amiens and Chartres were among the first to use the flying buttress. At Reims, the buttresses were given greater weight and strength by the addition of heavy stone pinnacles on top; these were decorated with statues of ange
Minaret, from Arabic: منارة manarah known as Goldaste, is a type of tower found built into or adjacent to mosques. Minarets serve multiple purposes. While they provide a visual focal point, they are used for the Muslim call to prayer; the basic form of a minaret includes shaft, a cap and head. They are a tall spire with a conical or onion-shaped crown, they can either be taller than the associated support structure. The architecture and role of the minaret vary by region and time period. Minarets attached to mosques serve two main functions: to perform the call to prayer and to act as a symbol of Islam. In the early 9th century, the first minarets were placed opposite the qibla wall. Times, this placement was not beneficial in reaching the community for the call to prayer, they served as a reminder that the region was Islamic and helped to distinguish mosques from the surrounding architecture. In addition to providing a visual cue to a Muslim community, the other function is to provide a vantage point from which the call to prayer, or adhan, is made.
The call to prayer is issued five times each day: dawn, mid-afternoon and night. In most modern mosques, the adhān is called from the musallah via microphone to a speaker system on the minaret; the basic form of minarets consists of four parts: a shaft, a cap and a head. Minarets may be conical, cylindrical, or polygonal. Stairs circle the shaft in a counter-clockwise fashion, providing necessary structural support to the elongated shaft; the gallery is a balcony that encircles the upper sections from which the muezzin may give the call to prayer. It is covered by a roof-like canopy and adorned with ornamentation, such as decorative brick and tile work, cornices and inscriptions, with the transition from the shaft to the gallery displaying muqarnas; the earliest mosques lacked minarets, the call to prayer was performed from smaller tower structures. Hadiths relay that the early Muslim community of Medina gave the call to prayer from the roof of the house of Muhammad, which doubled as a place for prayer.
The first known minarets appear in the early 9th century under Abbasid rule, were not used until the 11th century. These early minaret forms were placed in the middle of the wall opposite the qibla wall; these towers were built across the empire in a height to width ratio of 3:1. The oldest minaret is the Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia and it is the oldest minaret still standing; the construction of the Great Mosque of Kairouan dates to the year 836. The mosque is constituted by three levels of decreasing widths. Minarets have had various forms in light of their architectural function. Minarets are built out of any material, available, changes from region to region; the number of minarets by mosques is not fixed one minaret would accompany each mosque the builder could construct several more. Styles and architecture can vary according to region and time period. Here are a few styles and the localities from which they derive: Central Asia During the Seljuk period, minarets were decorated with geometric and calligraphic design.
They were built prolifically at smaller mosques or mosque complexes. Additionally, minarets during the Seljuk period were characterized by their circular plans and octagonal bases; the Bukhara minaret remains the most well known of the Seljuk minarets for its use of brick patterns and inscriptions. The "international Timurid" style surfaced in central Asia during the 17th century and is categorized by the use of multiple minarets. Examples of this style include the minarets on the roof of the south gate in Akbar's Tomb at Sikandra, the minarets on the Tomb of Jahangir, as well as the four minarets surrounding the mausoleum of the Taj Mahal. Egypt The styles of minarets have varied throughout the history of Egypt. Most minarets were on a square base, the shaft could be plain or decorated and topped with various crowns and pavilions; the tiers of the minaret are separated by balconies. The Mosque of al-Hakim, built between 990 and 1010, has a square base with a shaft that tapers towards the crown.
East China Eastern Chinese minarets were influenced by the Islamic minarets of Iran. They had circular platforms and cylindrical shafts with decorative patterns of the Chinese landscape; the Tower of Light known as the Guangta minaret, merges aspects of Islamic and Chinese architecture. Iraq The Great Mosque of Samarra is one of the earliest minarets and is characterized by a 30 meter high cylindrical tower outside the walls of the mosque. A common Abbasid style of minaret seen in Iraq, is characterized by a structure with a polygonal base and a thick cylindrical shaft, it is typically found on the roof of the mosque. Two examples of this style are the Mosque of Qumriyya. Iran The minarets of 12th century Iran had cylindrical shafts with square or octagonal bases that taper towards their capitals; these minarets became the most common style across the Islamic world. These forms were highly decorated. Pairs of minaret towers. Southeast Asia Tower minarets were not as common in Southeast Asia as mosques were designed to function more as community structures.
Mosques were designed to be much smaller and contained staircase minarets. Tunisia The minaret at the Great Mosque of Kairouan, built in 83