Benue State is one of the North central states in Nigeria with a population of about 4,253,641 in 2006 census. It is inhabited predominantly by the Tiv and Igede peoples, who speak Tiv and Igede languages respectively, its capital is Makurdi, Benue is a rich agricultural region. Benue State is named after the Benue River and was formed from the former Benue-Plateau State in 1976, along with Igala and some part of Kwara State. In 1991 some areas of Benue state, along with areas in Kwara State, were carved out to become part of the new Kogi State. Igbo people are found in the boundary areas like Oju etc.. Samuel Ortom is the governor and Benson Abounu is the deputy governor. Both were elected under the All Progressives Congress but defected to the Peoples Democratic Party in 2018. Benue state has three universities: Federal University of Agriculture, Benue State University, University of Mkar, it has two polytechnics: Benue State Polytechnic and Fidei polytechnic, Gboko as well as the Akperan Orshi college of Agriculture Yandev.
There are about four colleges of education which are Federal College of Education Agasha, College of Education Oju, College of Education Kastina Ala. Benue State as it exists today is a surviving legacy of an administrative entity, carved out of the protectorate of northern Nigeria at the beginning of the twentieth century; the territory was known as Munshi Province until 1918 when the name of its dominant geographical feature, the'Benue River' was adopted. The State, located in the North Central region of Nigeria, has a total population of 4,253,641 in 2006 census, with an average population density of 99 persons per km2; this makes Benue the 9th most populous state in Nigeria. However, the distribution of the population according to Local government areas shows marked duality. There are areas of low population density; such as Guma, Gwer East, Katsina-Ala, Apa and Agatu, each with less than seventy persons per km2, while Vandeikya, Ogbadibo and Gboko have densities ranging from 160 persons to 200 persons per 2.
Makurdi LGA has over 380 person per km2. The males are 49.8 percent of the total population. Benue State region was depleted of its human population during the slave trade, it is rural, with scattered settlements in tiny compounds or homesteads, whose population range from 630 people, most of whom are farmers. Urbanization in Benue State did not predate the colonial era; the few towns established during colonial rule remained small up to the creation of Benue State in 1976. Benue towns can be categorised into three groups; the first group consists of those with a population of 80,000 to 500,000 people. These include Makurdi, the State Capital and Otukpo the "headquarters" of the two dominant ethnic groups; the second group comprises towns with a population of between 20,000 and 50,000 people and includes Katsina-Ala, Zaki-Biam, Ukum￼￼, Adikpo, Kwande. These are all local government headquarters; the third category comprises towns with a population of 10,000 to 19,000 people and includes Vandeikya, lhugh, Adoka, Okpoga, Oju, Ugbokolo, Ugbokpo, Otukpa and Korinya.
Most of these towns are headquarters of created Local Government Areas and/or district headquarters or major market areas. Some of the headquarters of the newly created LGAs have populations of less than 10,000 people; such places include Tse-Agberaba, Buruku, Idekpa and Obarikeito. Apart from earth roads, periodic markets and chemists, the rural areas are used for farming, relying on the urban centres for most of their urban needs. Benue State has no problem of capital city primacy. Rather, three towns stand out clearly as important urban centres which together account for more than 70 per cent of the social amenities provided in the state and all the industrial establishments; these centres are Makurdi and Otukpo. They are amongst the oldest towns in the state and are growing at a much faster rate than the smaller younger towns. Makurdi doubles as the capital of the state and the headquarters of Makurdi LGA, while Gboko and Oju double as the local government and ethnic headquarters. All the roads in the state radiate from these three centres.
As an administrative unit, Benue State was first created on 3 February 1976. It was one of the seven states created by the military administration headed by General Murtala Mohammed, which increased the number of states in the country from 13 to 19. In 1991, its boundaries were re-adjusted with the creation of Kogi State; the new Benue State of today has twenty-three local government areas, which are administered by local government councils. Benue State lies within the lower river Benue trough in the middle belt region of Nigeria, its geographic coordinates are longitude 7° 47' and 10° 0' East. Latitude 6° 25' and 8° 8' North; the state shares a common boundary with the Republic of Cameroon on the south-east. Benue occupies a landmass of 34,059 square kilometres. Based on Köppen climate classification, Benue State lies within the AW climate and experiences two distinct seasons, the Wet season and the Dry season; the rainy season lasts from April to October with annual rai
Adamawa is a state in northeastern Nigeria, with its capital at Yola. In 1991, when Taraba State was carved out from Gongola State, the geographical entity Gongola State was renamed Adamawa State, with four administrative divisions: Adamawa, Ganye and Numan, it is the home of the American University of Nigeria in Yola and Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola. It is one of the thirty-six states. On May 14, 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Adamawa State, along with neighboring Borno State and Yobe State, due to the activities of Boko Haram. Adamawa occupies about 36,917 square kilometres, it is bordered by the states of Borno to the northwest, Gombe to the west and Taraba to the southwest. Its eastern border forms the national eastern border with Cameroon. Topographically, it is a mountainous land crossed by the large river valleys – Benue and Yedsarem; the valleys of the Mount Cameroon, Mandara Mountains and Adamawa Plateau form part of the landscape. The major occupation of the people is farming as reflected in their two notable vegetational zones, the Sub-Sudan and Northern Guinea Savannah zones.
Their cash crops are cotton and groundnuts while food crops include maize, cassava, guinea corn and rice. The village communities living on the banks of the rivers engage in fishing while the Fulanis are cattle rearers; the state has a network of roads linking all parts of the country. The development of many communities in the state can be traced to the colonial era when the Germans ruled a swath of territory known as the Northern and Southern Kameruns from Dikwa in the North to Victoria on the Atlantic coast in the 19th century; these were, handed over as United Nations Trust Territories to the British at the end of the World War I with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. After a series of referendums, the Northern Kameruns joined Nigeria to form the Sardauna Province, the Southern Kameruns formed a Confederation with French speaking Cameroon. Adamawa State is home to the headquarters of two indigenous churches, the Church of the Brethren in Nigeria with its headquarters in Mubi in the northern zone of the state, the Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria with headquarters in Numan in the southern zone of the state.
The Church of the Brethren in Nigeria was founded in Garkida Gombi Local Government of the state in March 1923 by American missionaries. The Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria was founded in Numan by Dutch missionaries in 1913. Before it became a state in Nigeria, Adamawa was a subordinate kingdom of the Sultanate of Sokoto which included much of northern Cameroon; the rulers bear the title of emir. The name "Adamawa" came from the founder of the kingdom, Modibo Adama, a regional leader of the Fulani Jihad organized by Usman dan Fodio of Sokoto in 1804. Modibo Adama came from the region of Gurin and in 1806, received a green flag for leading the jihad in his native country. In the following years, Adama conquered many tribes. In 1838, he moved his capital to Ribadu, in 1839, to Joboliwo. In 1841, he founded Yola, where he died in 1848. After the European colonization, the rulers remained as emirs and the line of succession has continued to the present day. Emirs of Adamawa have included: Modibbo Adama ben Hassan, 1809–1848 Lawalu ben Adama, 1848–1872 Sanda ben Adama, 1872–1890 Zubayru ben Adama, 1890–1901 Bobbo Ahmadu ben Adama, 1901–1909 Iya ben Sanda, 1909–1910 Muhammadu Abba, 1910–1924 Muhammadu Bello ben Ahmadu ben Hamidu ben Adamu, 1924–1928 Mustafa ben Muhammadu Abba, 1928–1946 Ahmadu ben Muhammadu Bello, 1946–1953 Aliyu Mustafa, 1953–2010 Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Musdafa, 2011–present Adamawa State has been impacted by the Islamist insurgency in Nigeria.
As of November 30, 2014, the state has become home to camps housing an estimated 35,000 internally displaced persons fleeing violence from Boko Haram in locations such as Mubi, Askira Uba and Gwoza in the states of Adamawa and Yobe. In 2014, an estimate placed the number of internally displaced persons around Yola at 400,000. In 2017, when jihadist Fulani herdsmen attacked Christians in Demsa, it was alleged that the government sent the airforce to bomb the defending Christians and protect the aggressors. Organizations serving the community include the Adamawa Peace Initiative - a group of business and community leaders- and the Adamawa Muslim Council; the United States Agency for International Development has pledged to provide continuing humanitarian assistance. A measles outbreak was reported in the camps in January 2015. Mubi Nuhu Auwalu Wakili's Palace Sukur World Heritage Site Lamido's Palace American University of Nigeria Kamale Mountain Peak in Michika Three Sisters Rock in Song The confluence of Rivers Benue and Gongola in Numan Uba under Mubi Adamawa State consists of twenty-one Local Government Areas: Abubakar Saleh Michika Bamanga Tukur Mohammed Bello Atiku Abubakar Murtala Nyako Boni Haruna Babachir David Lawal Nuhu Ribadu Buba Marwa Aisha Buhari Binta Masi Garba Alex Badeh Ibrahim Lamorde Ahmed Hassan Barata Muhammadu Gambo Jimeta Iya Abubakar Boss Mustapha Adamawa.com - Articles and art from Adamawa State
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
The University of Nigeria referred to as UNN, is a federal university located in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Founded by Nnamdi Azikiwe in 1955 and formally opened on 7 October 1960, the University of Nigeria has three campuses – Nsukka and Ituku-Ozalla – all located in Enugu State; the University of Nigeria was the first full-fledged indigenous and first autonomous university in Nigeria, modelled upon the American educational system. It is one of the five elite universities in Nigeria; the university has 102 academic departments. The University offers 211 postgraduate programmes; the university celebrated its 50th anniversary on October 2010. A law to establish a University in the Eastern Region of Nigeria was passed on 18 May 1955. While that date marks the formal beginning of the history of the University of Nigeria, the enactment of this legislation by several Nigerian leaders, inspired by the Premier of the Eastern Region, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe. One of the first steps taken by the Eastern Nigeria Government towards the implementation of its commitment was an invitation to both the United States of America and the United Kingdom to send advisers to help in the planning of physical and educational aspects of the proposed university.
Under the joint auspices of the Inter-University Council for Higher Education and Overseas and the International Co-operation Administration, J. W. Cook, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Exeter, Dr John A. Hannah, President of Michigan State University and Dr Glen L. Taggart, Dean of International Programs at the same university, came to Nigeria in 1958; the team surveyed the site at Nsukka, extensively investigated a great variety of factors pertinent to the establishment of a new university. The results of their efforts were contained in a white paper issued by the Eastern Nigeria Government on 30 November 1958, they had recommended "that the development of the University of Nigeria based upon the concept of service to problems and needs of Nigeria, is a desirable project and one that should receive support from any source which could help to make it a sound endeavor". They further recommended that a provisional council be established to "draw upon the technical and consultative resources available throughout the world for help in planning the institution".
The provisional council, authorised by the Eastern Nigeria Legislature, was appointed by the Governor in Council in April 1959, given necessary financial and administrative powers to build a sound university. It reflected the spirit of international co-operation, it consisted of Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, Chairman, Dr. T. Olawale Elias and Dr. Okechukwu Ikejiani from the Federation of Nigeria, J. S. Fulton from the United Kingdom, Dr. Margueritue Cartwright and Dr. Eldon Lee Johnson from the United States of America; the University was formally opened on 7 October 1960, as the climax to the Nigerian independence celebrations in the Eastern Region. Her Royal Highness, Princess Alexandra of Kent, representing Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II at the Nigerian independence celebrations, performed the opening ceremonies and laid the foundation stone of one of the University's early buildings. Classes began on 17 October 1960 with an enrollment of 220 students and 13 members of the academic staff; the opening convocation addresses were delivered by the Chairman of the Provisional Council, Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe, the first President of the Federation of Nigeria, by Dr John A. Hannah, President of Michigan State University, USA.
The university was autonomous, with the power to grant its own degrees. Technically speaking, therefore, it became the first fully-fledged university in Nigeria, since Ibadan was still at that time a university college granting London degrees, it became the first university established by a Nigerian Regional Government. The University College Ibadan, the oldest university institution, cut its umbilical cord with London in October 1962, becoming the University of Ibadan. In July 1965, it turned out the first graduates holding Ibadan degrees, by which time Nsukka had produced two crops of graduates and taken all the publicity for turning out the first graduates of an autonomous Nigerian university; the University has four campuses – Nsukka, Ituku-Ozalla and Aba. The main campus of the University is located on 871 hectares of hilly savannah in the town of Nsukka, about eighty kilometres north of Enugu, enjoys a pleasant and healthy climate. Additionally 209 hectares of arable land are available for an experimental agricultural farm and 207 hectares for staff housing development.
There is regular road transport between Nsukka and Enugu, Nsukka is quite accessible from all parts of Nigeria. There are a large market in Nsukka town; the Nsukka campus houses the Faculties of Agriculture, Biological Sciences, Engineering, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, Veterinary Medicine. The former Nigerian College of Arts and Technology, was incorporated into the University in 1961, its buildings now form the Enugu Campus of the University located in the heart of Enugu, the administrative capital of Enugu State of Nigeria. Enugu is a modern city, accessible by air and road; the Faculties of Business Administration, Environmental Studies and Medical Sciences are located at the Enugu Campus. The teaching hospital attach
Anambra is a state in southeastern Nigeria. Its name was inspired by one of its Northern and riverine clans Anam but merged with "branch"; the colonialists who travelled from the present day Anambra region to present Northern Nigeria described where they were coming from as "Anam branch". The term coupled with Omambala, the Igbo name of the Anambra River formed the name Anambra; the capital and seat of government is Awka. Onitsha, a historic port city from pre-colonial times, has developed as by far the largest urban area in the state; the state's theme is "Light of the nation". Boundaries are formed by Delta State to the west, Imo State and Rivers State to the south, Enugu State to the east, Kogi State to the north; the name was derived from the Anambra River m which flows through the area and is a tributary of the River Niger. The indigenous ethnic groups in Anambra state are the Igbo and a small population of Igala, who live in the north-western part of the state. Anambra is the eighth-most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second-most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State.
The stretch of more than 45 km between the towns of Oba and Amorka contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns, giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500–2,000 persons per square kilometre. Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude oil and ceramic, it has an 100 percent arable soil. Anambra state has many other resources in terms of agro-based activities such as fisheries and farming, as well as land cultivated for pasturing and animal husbandry, it has the lowest poverty rate in Nigeria. In the year 2006, a foundation-laying ceremony for the first Nigerian private refinery, Orient Petroleum Refinery, was made at Aguleri area; the Orient Petroleum Resource Ltd, owners of OPR, was licensed in June 2002, by the Federal Government to construct a private refinery with a capacity of 55,000 barrels per day. In 2012, following the efforts of Governor Peter Obi and other stakeholders of Orient Petroleum, Anambra State became an oil-producing state; the indigenous company struck oil in the Anambra River basin.
On August 2, 2015, the management of Orient Petroleum Resources Plc said the company planned to increase its crude oil production to 3,000 barrels per day by September 2015, as it stepped up production activities in two new oil wells in its Aguleri oil fields. An indigenous company and Stanley Ltd, was to establish a gas plant at Umueje in Ayamelum Local Government Area to support economic activities in the oil and gas industry in the state. Since the late 1990s, there has been a migration from rural to urban areas in the state, resulting in Anambra becoming a urbanized state: 62% of its population lives in urban areas. In October 2015, the APGA-led state government of Willie Obiano signed a memorandum of understanding with Galway modular housing company, Affordable Building Concepts International, for 10,000 housing units to be built in the state. Given decades of neglect of infrastructure and bad governance, the shift in human migration has posed problems for the state. Infrastructure improvements, both physical and social, have lagged behind the growth in population.
There are problems in environmental sanitation, erosion control, provision of social services. Major cities have become characterized by inadequate and deteriorated road networks and walkways, unregulated building patterns, poor sanitation, uncontrolled street trading, mountains of garbage, chaotic transport systems, creating congestion, noise pollution, overcrowding; the government of Peter Obi, with the assistance of the UN-HABITAT, produced 20-year structural plans for three major cities in the State: Onitsha and Awka Capital Territory, to restore urban planning and guide their growth into the future. The plans contain policies and proposals for land use, city beautification, road infrastructure, industrial development, waste disposal, water supply and health and educational facilities to turn the cities into successful urban areas that can generate employment and wealth, provide high living standards for their residents. Anambra became the first state in Nigeria to adopt Structural Plans for its cities.
With effective implementation, it should systematically grow as a major economic center in Nigeria and West Africa. The process of urbanization is contributed by population growth, immigration and infrastructure initiatives like good road, water and gardens, resulting in the growth of villages into towns, town into cities and cities into metros. To have ecologically feasible development, planning requires an understanding of the growth dynamics. There is a fear that if too many people leave the villages, only the aged men and women will be left to farm; this pattern has been seen in Amesi and Achina towns in Aguata local government area. They have been important in the production of yam and cassava through consistent agriculture, but such activities have suffered due to the out-migration of youth to the urban centres. There has been both food scarcity in the over-population in urban areas. To upgrade the State capital and improve traffic, Governor Willie Obiano signed off on construction of three fly-overs between the Amawbia and Arroma end of the Enugu-Onitsha Expressway, a distance of about three kilometres within the city.
Agulu Crocodile Lake is located along Awka road in Agulu, Anaocha Local Government Area of the state. A potential tourist site, it is home to water turtles. Fishing is not allowed on the lake; as the crocodiles are considered sacred animals, they cannot be killed. Legend says that t
Ibadan is the capital and most populous city of Oyo State, Nigeria. With a population of over 3 million, it is the third most populous city in Nigeria after Lagos and Kano. At the time of Nigeria's independence in 1960, Ibadan was the largest and most populous city in the country, the second most populous in Africa after Cairo. Ibadan is located in south-western Nigeria, 128 km inland northeast of Lagos and 530 km southwest of Abuja, the federal capital, is a prominent transit point between the coastal region and the areas in the hinterland of the country. Ibadan had been the centre of administration of the old Western Region since the days of the British colonial rule, parts of the city's ancient protective walls still stand to this day; the principal inhabitants of the city are the Yorubas, as well as various communities from other parts of the country. Ibadan came into existence in 1829, during a period of turmoil that characterized Yorubaland at the time, it was in this period that many old Yoruba cities such as old Oyo and Owu disappeared, newer ones such as Abeokuta, new Oyo and Ibadan sprang up to replace them.
According to local historians, Lagelu founded the city, was intended to be a war camp for warriors coming from Oyo and Ijebu. As a forest site containing several ranges of hills, varying in elevation from 160 to 275 metres, the location of the camp offered strategic defence opportunities. Moreover, its location at the fringe of the forest promoted its emergence as a marketing centre for traders and goods from both the forest and grassland areas. In 1852 the Church Missionary Society sent Anna Hinderer to found a mission, they decided to build the mission and a church in Ibadan when they arrived in 1853. Ibadan thus had begun as a military state and remained so until the last decade of the 19th century; the city-state succeeded in building a large empire from the 1860s to the 1890s which extended over much of northern and eastern Yorubaland. It was appropriately nicknamed "gun base", because of its unique military character. Unlike other Yoruba cities with traditional kingship institutions however, In Ibadan, the warrior class became the rulers of the city as well as the most important economic group.
According to HRH Sir Isaac Babalola Akinyele, the late Olubadan of Ibadan, in his authoritative book on the history of Ibadan, Iwe Itan Ibadan, the first city was destroyed due to an incident at an Egungun festival when an Egungun was accidentally disrobed and derisively mocked by women and children in an open marketplace full of people. The Alaafin of Oyo of that time ordered the old city destroyed for the act. Lagelu could not stop the destruction of his city, but he and some of his people survived the attack and fled to a nearby hill for sanctuary; the new city grew prosperous and became a commercial centre. The newly enthroned Olubadan made a friendly gesture to the Olowu of Owu by allowing Olowu to marry his only daughter, Nkan. A part of Ibadan was an Egba town; the Egba occupants were forced to leave the town and moved to present-day Abeokuta under the leadership of Sodeke as a result of their disloyalty. Ibadan grew into an impressive and sprawling urban center so much that by the end of 1829, Ibadan dominated the Yorùbá region militarily and economically.
The military sanctuary expanded further when refugees began arriving in large numbers from northern Oyo following raids by Fulani warriors. After losing the northern portion of their region to the marauding Fulanis, many Oyo indigenes retreated deeper into the Ibadan environs; the Fulani Caliphate attempted to expand further into the southern region of modern-day Nigeria, but was decisively defeated by the armies of Ibadan in 1840, which halted their progress. The colonial period reinforced the position of the city in the Yoruba urban network. After a small boom in rubber business, cocoa became the main produce of the region and attracted European and Levantine firms, as well as southern and northern traders from Lagos, Ijebu-Ode and Kano among others; the city became a major point of bulk trade. Its central location and accessibility from the capital city of Lagos were major considerations in the choice of Ibadan as the headquarters of the Western Provinces which ranged from the northernmost areas of Oyo State to Ekeremor and Patani, which were regions transferred from the old Delta province in the Old Western region and Mid-west to the old Rivers state and Bayelsa, in the redistricting of Nigeria carried out by the Yakubu Gowon administration shortly before the Nigerian civil war In 1893, Ibadan area became a British Protectorate after a treaty signed by Fijabi, the Baale of Ibadan with the British acting Governor of Lagos Colony, George C. Denton on 15 August.
By the population had swelled to 120,000. The British developed the new colony to facilitate their commercial activities in the area, Ibadan shortly grew into the major trading center that it is today. Ibadan is located in south-western Nigeria in the southeastern part of Oyo State at about 119 kilometres northeast of Lagos and 120 kilometres east of the Nigerian international border with the Republic of Benin, it lies within the tropical forest zone but close to the boundary between the forest and the derived savanna. The city ranges in elevation from 150 m in the valley area, to 275 m above sea level on the major north-south ridge which crosses the central part of the city; the city covers a total area of 3,080 square kilometres (1,190
Cross River State
Cross River is a state in South Nigeria, bordering Cameroon to the east. Its capital is Calabar, its name is derived from the Cross River, which passes through the state. English, Bekwarra and Efik are major languages of this state. Cross River State derives its name from the Cross River, it is a coastal state located in the Niger Delta region, occupies 20,156 square kilometers. It shares boundaries with Benue State to the north and Abia States to the west, to the east by Cameroon Republic and to the south by Akwa-Ibom and the Atlantic Ocean; the South-South State was created on 27 May 1967 from the former Eastern Region, Nigeria by the General Yakubu Gowon regime. Its name was changed to Cross River State in the 1976 state creation exercise by the General Murtala Mohammed regime from South Eastern State; the present day Akwa Ibom State was excised from it in the state creation exercise of September 1987 by the regime of General Ibrahim Babangida. Its capital is Calabar, its major towns are Akamkpa, Calabar South, Igede, Odukpani, Bekwarra, Obudu, Akpabuyo, Iso-bendghe, Boki, Bendeghe Ekiem, Etomi and Ukelle.
The state has been governed by many governors and administrators including Udoakaha J. Esuene, Paul Omu, Tunde Elegbede, Clement Isong, Donald Etiebet, Daniel Archibong, Ibim Princewill, Ernest Atta, Clement Ebri, Ibrahim Kefas, Gregory Agboneni, Umar Faoruk Ahmed, Christopher Osondu, Donald Duke, Liyel Imoke and Benedict Ayade; the Current Governor is Benedict Ayade, sworn into office on 29 May 2015. The State is composed of several ethnic groups, which include the Efik, the Ejagham, Bette, Igede and the Bekwarra. There are four major languages spoken in the state: French, Efik and Ejagham; the Efik language is spoken in the southern part of Cross River State in Calabar Municipality, Calabar South, Akpabuyo and Odukpani Local Government Areas. The Ejagham language is the most spoken language in Cross River State; the Efik-speaking people live in the Southern senatorial districts of Cross River, or as it is referred to, the Greater Calabar district, which includes Calabar Municipality, Calabar South, Biase, Akpabuyo and Akamkpa LGAs.
There is the Qua community in Calabar, which speaks Ejagham. The main Ejagham group occupies the Greater Calabar areas of Calabar Municipality, Odukpani and Akampkpa sections of Cross River State. There are the Yakurr/Agoi/Bahumono ethnic groups in Yakurr and Abi LGA, while the Mbembe are predominantly found in Obubra LGA. Further up the core northern part of the state are several sub-dialectical groups, among which are Etung, Ofutop, Nkim/Nkum, Abanajum and Boki in both Ikom and Boki LGAs; the Yala/Yache, Ukelle, Mbube, Bette and Utugwanga people are found in Ogoja, Yala and Obanliku and Bekwarra LGA's. The Yala are a subgroup of the Idoma nation, part of the Yala LGA's subgroups are the Igede speaking people believed to have migrated from the Oju part of Benue State, who migrated from Ora, in Edo North. In Cross River North, Bekwarra is the most spoken language, it is understood by other tribes in the district. This language along with Efik and Ejagham is used for news broadcast in the state owned radio and TV stations.
Cross River State epitomises the nation's linguistic and cultural plurality and it is important to note that, in spite of the diversity of dialects, all the indigenous languages in the state have common linguistic roots as Niger–Congo languages. The State boasts of being the venue of the largest carnival in Africa. Cross River healthcare delivery system is skewed in favour of the urban settlements. Cross River State consists of seventeen Local Government Areas, they are: In line with the objectives of the former Governor of the state Mr. Donald Duke to mix business with pleasure, there are many festivals; these festivals bring in tourists from far and wide into the state to enjoy themselves and do business in the state. These festivals include The Cross River State Christmas Festival, which promises to be an event that will rival any festival events in Africa, with over 30 days of endless fun, games, cultural display, art exhibition and music performance; this year's Christmas event and Carnival promise to be the best.
The Cross River State Christmas Festival – 1 December to 31 December annually The Cross River State Carnival Float – 26 and 27 December yearly The Yakurr Leboku Yam festival – 28 August annually The Calabar Boat RegataAnother Interesting Festival in cross River state is Anong Bahumono Festival which holds in Anong Village, during which different cultural dances are showcased, including Ikpobin, Obam and Etangala Dances. Bekwarra,Obudu,Obanliku New yam festival, held every 1st Saturday of September every year has grown to become a national festival. From the soaring plateaus of the mountain tops of Obanliku to the Rain forests of Afi, from the Waterfalls of Agbokim and Kwa to the spiralling ox-bow Calabar River which provides sights and images of the Tinapa Business Resort, Calabar Marina, Calabar Residency Museum and the Calabar Slave Park along its course, there is always a thrilling adventure awaiting the eco-tourist visiting Cross River State. Other tourist attractions are the Ikom Monoliths, the Mary Slessor Tomb, Calabar Drill Monkey Sanctu
Chinwoke Mbadinuju was Governor of Anambra State in Nigeria from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2003, elected on the People's Democratic Party platform. His period in office was noted for internal PDP disputes resulting in a failure of effective government. After leaving office, he was embroiled in court cases over alleged involvement in a political murder. Chinwoke Mbadinuju was born on 14 June 1945, he obtained a BA in Political Science, a doctorate in Government. He gained a Law degree from one of the best English Universities, He was an editor of Times International. Before entering politics he was an Associate Professor of Politics and African Studies at the State University of New York, he was Personal Assistant to Governor of the old Enugu State, Dr. Jim Chris Nwobodo, between 1979 and 1980, he served as the Personal Assistant to President Shehu Shagari between 1980 and 1983. He is married to Nnebuogo Mbadinuju, they have five children: Ada Mbadinuju, Chetachi Mbadinuju, Nwachukwu Mbadinuju, Uche Mbadinuju and Chima Mbadinuju.
After the return to democracy in 1998, Chinwoke Mbadinuju became the People's Democratic Party candidate for Anambra State governorship in competition with professor A. B. C Nwosu, who had served four military governors as Commissioner for Health, after a dispute that had to be resolved by the PDP Electoral Appeal Panel, he was elected Governor of Anambra State in April 1999 and he was the least performed Governor since the creation of the state in 1991. Mbadinuju had been sponsored by an Anambra kingmaker. After a falling out between Mbadinuju and his "godfather", the power struggle between the two men crippled the machinery of government in the state. By September 2002, unpaid teachers had been on strike for a year and civil servants and court workers had been on strike for months; the president of the Onitsha branch of the Nigerian Bar Association, Barnabas Igwe, said state leaders had pocketed the money meant to pay the striking workers. On 1 September 2002, Igwe and his pregnant wife Amaka were brutally and publicly assassinated by Nigerian militia men.
While in office, Chinwoke Mbaninuju passed a law that created the Anambra Vigilante Services, which enshrined the Bakassi Boys, a popular if feared vigilante group credited with reducing crime in the state. Mbadinuju said that crime in the state had reached such an appalling level that something had to be done. In a November 2009 interview, Mbadinuju defended his decision on the basis of the results it achieved in reducing crime, he fell out with Chris Uba, another power broker or godfather in the state. Mbadinuju claimed that he was excluded from the governorship contest in 2003 despite winning the PDP primaries because Uba and President Olusegun Obasanjo opposed his candidacy. In his place, Dr. Chris Ngige ran for the PDP, but he was beaten by the candidate of the All Progressives Grand Alliance. After the election was nullified and re-run, Chris Ngige gained the post. In December 2005, the police arraigned Chinwoke Mbadinuju on charges that he had conspired to murder Barnabas Igwe of the Nigerian Bar Association and his wife, Amaka, in September 2002.
Mbadinuju was accused of masterminding the killing although he was in Houston, Texas at the time of the assassination. Igwe had been a vocal critic of Mbadinuju, calling for his resignation due to the failure to pay government workers for several months. In January 2006 Mbadinuju was retained in prison custody over the suit. In June 2008, the case was reopened when an Abuja High Court said Chinwoke Mbadinuju was again wanted over alleged forgery and conspiracy in the murder of Barnabas Igwe, his wife; the police claimed the accused had forged a police document exonerating Mbadinuju of the Igwes' killing