The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U. S. states of Colorado, Kansas and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado the Arkansas River Valley, where the headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges, it flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas. At 1,469 miles, it is the sixth-longest river in the United States, the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi–Missouri system, the 45th longest river in the world, its origin is in the Rocky Mountains in Lake County, near Leadville. In 1859, placer gold discovered in the Leadville area brought thousands seeking to strike it rich, but the recovered placer gold was exhausted; the Arkansas River's mouth is at Napoleon and its drainage basin covers nearly 170,000 sq mi. In terms of volume, the river is much smaller than the Missouri and Ohio Rivers, with a mean discharge of about 40,000 cubic feet per second.
The Arkansas from its headwaters to the 100th meridian west formed part of the U. S.-Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty until the Texas Annexation or Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Name pronunciation varies by region. Many people in western states, including Kansas and parts of Colorado, pronounce it ar-KAN-zəs, People in Oklahoma, parts of Colorado, the majority of the remaining United States pronounce it AR-kən-saw, how the Arkansas state is always pronounced according to a state law passed in 1881; the path of the Arkansas River has changed over time. Sediments from the river found in a palaeochannel next to Nolan, a site in the Tensas Basin, show that part of the river's meander belt flowed through up to 5200 BP. Whilst it was thought that this relict channel was active at the same time as another relict of Mississippi River's meander belt, it has been shown that this channel of the Arkansas was inactive 400 years before the Mississippi channel was active; the Arkansas has three distinct sections in its long path through central North America.
At its headwaters beginning near Leadville, the Arkansas runs as a steep fast-flowing mountain river through the Rockies in its narrow valley, dropping 4,600 feet in 120 miles. This section supports extensive whitewater rafting, including The Numbers, Brown's Canyon, the Royal Gorge. At Cañon City, the Arkansas River valley widens and flattens markedly. Just west of Pueblo, the river enters the Great Plains. Through the rest of Colorado and much of Oklahoma, it is a typical Great Plains riverway, with wide, shallow banks subject to seasonal flooding and periods of dwindling flow. Tributaries include the Salt Fork Arkansas River. In eastern Oklahoma the river begins to widen further into a more contained consistent channel. To maintain more reliable flow rates, a series of large reservoir lakes have been built on the Arkansas and its intersecting tributaries including the Canadian, Neosho and Poteau rivers; these locks and dams allow the river to be navigable by barges and large river craft downriver of Muskogee, where the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System joins in with the Verdigris River.
Into western Arkansas, the river path works between the encroaching Boston and Ouachita Mountains, including many isolated, flat-topped mesas, buttes, or monadnocks such as Mount Nebo, Petit Jean Mountain, Mount Magazine, the highest point in the state. The river valley expands as it encounters much flatter land beginning just west of Little Rock, Arkansas, it continues eastward across the plains and forests of eastern Arkansas until it flows into the Mississippi River. Water flow in the Arkansas River has dropped from 248 cubic feet per second average from 1944-1963 to 53 cubic feet per second average from 1984–2003 because of the pumping of groundwater for irrigation in eastern Colorado and western Kansas. Important cities along the Arkansas River include Colorado; the I-40 bridge disaster of May 2002 took place on I-40's crossing of Kerr Reservoir on the Arkansas River near Webbers Falls, Oklahoma. Since 1902, Kansas has claimed Colorado takes too much of the river's water, resulting in a number of lawsuits before the U.
S. Supreme Court that continue to this day under the name of Kansas v. Colorado; the problems over the possession and use of Arkansas River water by Colorado and Kansas led to the creation of an interstate compact or agreement between the two states. While Congress approved the Arkansas River Compact in 1949, the compact did not stop further disputes by the two states over water rights to the river; the Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Basin Compact was created in 1965 to promote mutual consideration and equity over water use in the basin shared by those states. It led to the Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Commission, charged with administering the compact and reducing pollution; the compact was approved and implemented by both states in 1970, has been in force since then. The McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System begins at the Tulsa Port of Catoosa on the Verdigris River, enters the Arkansas River near Muskogee, runs via an extensive lock and dam system to the Mississippi River. Through Oklahoma and Arkansas, dams which artificially deepen and widen the river to sustain comme
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
U.S. Route 89
U. S. Route 89 is a north–south United States Highway with two sections, one former section; the southern section runs for 848 miles from Flagstaff, Arizona, to the southern entrance of Yellowstone National Park. The northern section runs for 404 miles from the northern entrance of Yellowstone National Park in Montana, ending at the Canada–US border. Unnumbered roads through Yellowstone connect the two sections. Before 1992, U. S. Highway 89 was a Canada to Mexico, border-to-border, highway that ended at Nogales, Arizona, on its southern end. Sometimes called the National Park Highway, U. S. 89 links seven national parks across the Mountain West. In addition, fourteen other national park areas national monuments, are reachable from this backbone of the Rockies. National Geographic named U. S. Route 89 the No. 1 Driver's Drive in the world. U. S. 89 begins at Arizona. The highway proceeds north passing through the Navajo Nation. Near the Utah state line, the highway splits into U. S. 89 and U. S. 89A. The Alternate is the original highway.
The two highways rejoin in Utah. The main branch passes over the Colorado River just south of the Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Powell near Page, it enters Utah; the 89A branch crosses the Colorado River at Navajo Bridge and skirts the North Rim of the Grand Canyon before entering Utah. National Park Highway - Starting just north of the Mexican border in Arizona is the Tumacacori National Monument. Saguaro National Park is the first national park by title, in Tucson. Short links from Highway 89 take motorists to the Casa Grande National Monument and the Hohokam Pima National Monument, before reaching Phoenix. Approaching Flagstaff there is a quartet of parks, including Tuzigoot National Monument, Walnut Canyon National Monument, Sunset Crater National Monument, Wupatki National Monument. North of Flagstaff is the Grand Canyon National Park, the second of the seven national parks along this highway. Continuing northward, U. S. 89 divides into U. S. 89 and U. S. 89A. The northern mainline route passes by Page and through the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area before leaving the state and Lake Powell.
U. S. 89A turns westward, it serves Lees Ferry, it goes over the Kaibab Plateau, connecting with Arizona State Route 67 at Jacob Lake, Arizona with Arizona State Route 389 in Fredonia, before turning north into the state of Utah. State Route 67 will take travelers to the North Rim of the Grand Canyon, while State Route 389 serves the Pipe Spring National Monument, the last National Park Service area in Arizona; the first city in Utah along either U. S. 89 or U. S. 89A is Kanab. From Kanab U. S. 89 proceeds north passing by Zion National Park and Bryce Canyon National Park. It enters Sevier County and the Sanpete Valleys; the highway passes by Thistle, Utah, a ghost town, destroyed by a lake resulting from a landslide in 1983. The highway enters the Wasatch Front where U. S. 89 becomes the main street for many cities in Utah. The highway is often in the shadows of Interstate 15 during its route along the Wasatch Front. U. S. 89 runs concurrent with I-15 from Bountiful to Farmington, where it departs and runs at the base of the Wasatch Mountains until it reaches Ogden.
In Ogden, the highway is Washington Blvd. From Ogden the highway runs north until it meets U. S. 91 at Brigham City, where it turns east to serve Cache Valley and Logan, concurrent with U. S. 91. In Logan, U. S. 89 forms the southern portion of Main Street before splitting off to the east, passing by the campus of the Utah State University. The highway next proceeds up Logan Canyon to Bear Lake where the highway exits Utah. Two sections of U. S. 89 in Utah have been designated Scenic Byways. The Kanab to Mt. Carmel and Long Valley Scenic Byway is a designated Utah Scenic Byway; the segment from Logan to Bear Lake is designated as the Logan Canyon Scenic Byway by the National Scenic Byways project. The section of U. S. 89 in Utah, other than concurrencies with Interstate 70, Interstate 15, U. S. Highway 6, U. S. Highway 91, is defined in the Utah Code Annotated § 72-4-114. Utah is dominated by the Colorado Plateau. Along U. S. 89 are Zion National Park, Bryce Canyon National Park, Cedar Breaks National Monument.
Although not adjacent to U. S. 89, Capitol Reef National Park is accessible from U. S. 89. U. S. 89 leaves northern Utah well-north of Salt Lake City and Timpanogos Cave National Monument and the Golden Spike National Historic Site. In Idaho, the highway circumnavigates the Bear Lake which straddles the Utah / Idaho state line. In Wyoming, U. S. 89 passes through many scenic sites including Grand Teton National Park, the Jackson Hole valley, the Snake River Canyon, the Star Valley. Passing northward along the western border of Wyoming with Idaho, U. S. 89 enters the Grand Teton National Park. Here, U. S. 89 is the backbone visitor highway for two U. S. National Parks. Leaving the Tetons, the road enters a lesser known park, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway, before ending at the South Entrance of Yellowstone National Park. An unnumbered park road connects the two sections of U. S. 89 through Yellowstone. U. S. 89 enters Montana at the North Entrance of Yellowstone National Park. It traverses the width of the state before approaching Glacier National Park.
At St. Mary, Montana, U. S. 89 is the access highway to Glacier Route One known as the Going-to-the-Sun Road. The Kings Hill Scenic Byway passes through the Little Belt Mountains in the Lewis and Clark National Forest in Montana; the route is home to a wide variety of wildl
The Southwest Chief is a passenger train operated by Amtrak on a 2,265-mile route through the Midwestern and Southwestern United States. It runs between Chicago and Los Angeles, passing through Illinois, Missouri, Colorado, New Mexico and California. During fiscal year 2015, the Southwest Chief carried 367,267 passengers, up 4.3 percent from FY 2014. The route grossed $44,904,314 in revenue during FY 2015, a 0.6 percent increase from FY 2014. Amtrak had plans for replacing the route between Albuquerque, New Mexico and Dodge City, Kansas with bus service, but as of October 2018, these are shelved; the Southwest Chief is the successor to the Super Chief, along with the Chief and El Capitan, were notable Chicago-Los Angeles trains operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. The Super Chief name was retained after Amtrak took over passenger rail service in 1971. In March 1974, the Santa Fe forced Amtrak to drop the name because of a perceived decline in quality after the Amtrak takeover; the train was renamed the Southwest Limited.
After subsequent improvements, the Santa Fe allowed Amtrak to change its name to the Southwest Chief on October 28, 1984. Amtrak operated the Southwest Chief in conjunction with the Capitol Limited, a daily Washington DC-Chicago service, in 1997 and 1998; the two trains used the same Superliner equipment sets, passengers traveling on both trains could remain aboard during the layover in Chicago. Announced in 1996, Amtrak planned to call this through service the "National Chief" with its own numbers, although the name and numbers were never used. Amtrak dropped the practice with the May 1998 timetable. On October 2, 1979, the Southwest Limited derailed at Kansas. Of the 30 crew and 147 passengers on board, two people were killed and 69 were injured; the cause was excessive speed on a curve. Underlying causes were that the engineer was unfamiliar with the route, that signage indicating the speed restriction had been removed during track repairs. On August 9, 1997, the eastbound Southwest Chief derailed about 5 miles northeast of Kingman, when a bridge, its undergirding washed out by a flash flood, collapsed under the weight of the train, traveling close to 90 miles per hour.
While the lead locomotive stayed on the track, the three trailing locomotives, nine passenger cars, seven baggage and mail cars derailed. All stayed upright. Of the 325 passengers and crew aboard, 154 people were injured and none were killed. On October 16, 1999, the westbound Southwest Chief suffered a minor derailment near Ludlow, following the Hector Mine earthquake. All the cars stayed upright, four passengers were injured. On March 14, 2016, the Southwest Chief derailed 3 miles from Kansas. Of 14 crew and 128 passengers, 20 were injured. Investigators determined the train derailed after the tracks were knocked out of alignment by a runaway truck from a nearby farm operation; the vehicle had rolled down a hill and struck the tracks after the owners had failed to secure the parking brake. Unique among all long-distance Superliner trains, the Southwest Chief is permitted to run up to a maximum of 90 mph along significant portions of the route because of automatic train stop installed by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway.
Given Amtrak's projected 41-hour travel time, the average speed is in excess of 55 mph, including stops. During the spring and summer, Volunteer Rangers with the Trails and Rails program from the National Park Service travel onboard and provide a narrative between La Junta and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Starting in May 2013, Volunteer Rangers with Trails and Rails will be onboard providing a narrative between Chicago and La Plata, Missouri. From June through August, the Southwest Chief is used by Boy Scouts traveling to and from Philmont Scout Ranch via the Raton station. During those months, Raton station handles checked baggage; this route was one of five studied for possible performance improvements by Amtrak in FY 2012. No BNSF freight service is offered between La Junta and Lamy, New Mexico, the railroad informed Amtrak that all maintenance costs are to be paid by the passenger carrier if it wished to continue to use the route. BNSF declared it will maintain trackage between Hutchinson, La Junta, at a Class III speed instead of Class IV.
BNSF offered to host the Southwest Chief over its Southern Transcon via Wichita and Wellington, Amarillo and Clovis, New Mexico, once used by the San Francisco Chief. Amtrak sought help from the states involved to retain existing service on the train's historic route; the states of Kansas and New Mexico have since contributed money toward rebuilding the tracks and keeping the Chief on its current routing. Much of the funding for the rehabilitation projects has come from federal transportation grants. In 2018, the Southwest Chief became the focal point of a struggle to determine whether to continue Amtrak as a national network or to operate regional stand-alone networks; the issue was provoked by Amtrak introducing new requirements for the third renewal grant and raising undiscussed technical issues regarding the midsection of the route. A letter dated May 31, 2018, co-signed by 11 Senators condemned the action and urged providing the match. Former Amtrak President and CEO Joseph H. Boardman in an open letter stated, "The Southwest Chief issue is the battleground whose outcome will determine the fate of American’s national interconnected rail passenger network."In June, Amtrak announced that it was consid
Pueblo is a home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County, United States. The population was 106,595 in 2010 census, making it the 267th most populous city in the United States and the 9th largest in Colorado. Pueblo is the heart of the Pueblo Metropolitan Statistical Area, totaling over 160,000 people and an important part of the Front Range Urban Corridor; as of 2014, Pueblo is the primary city of the Pueblo–Cañon City combined statistical area totaling 208,000 people, making it the 134th largest in the nation. Pueblo is situated at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek, 112 miles south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver; the area is considered semi-arid desert land, with 12 inches of precipitation annually. With its location in the "Banana Belt", Pueblo tends to get less snow than the other major cities in Colorado. Pueblo is one of the largest steel-producing cities in the United States, for which reason Pueblo is referred to as the "Steel City".
The Historic Arkansas River Project is a river walk in the Union Avenue Historic Commercial District, shows the history of the devastating Pueblo Flood of 1921. Pueblo has the least expensive residential real estate of all major cities in Colorado; the median home price for homes on the market in Pueblo is $147,851 as of February 2013. It is the sixth most affordable place to live in America as measured by the 2014 Cost of Living Index. Costs of housing and services, transportation and health care are lower than the national average. Pueblo was listed by AARP in 2013 as one of the Best Places to Live in the USA. James Beckwourth, George Simpson, other trappers such as Mathew Kinkead, claimed to have helped construct the plaza that became known as El Pueblo around 1842. According to accounts of residents who traded at the plaza, the Fort Pueblo Massacre happened sometime between December 23 and December 25, 1854, by a war party of Utes and Jicarilla Apaches under the leadership of Tierra Blanca, a Ute chief.
They killed between fifteen and nineteen men, as well as captured two children and one woman. The trading post was abandoned after the raid, but it became important again between 1858 and 1859 during the Colorado Gold Rush of 1859; the current city of Pueblo represents the consolidation of four towns: Pueblo, South Pueblo, Central Pueblo, Bessemer. Pueblo, South Pueblo, Central Pueblo consolidated as the City of Pueblo between March 9 and April 6, 1886. Bessemer joined Pueblo in 1894; the consolidated city became a major economic and social center of Colorado, was home to important early Colorado families such as the Thatchers, the Ormans, the Adams. By the early 1870s the city was being hailed as a beacon of development, with newspapers like the Chicago Tribune boasting of how the region's lawless reputation was giving way to orderly agriculture with triumphalist rhetoric. One author crowed of Pueblo that "the necessity exists no longer for Sharp's revolvers; these have been supplied by the plow and the mowing-machine."Pueblo's development stretched beyond agriculture.
Steel emerged as a key industry early, in 1909 the city was considered the only steel town west of the Mississippi River. Until a series of major floods culminated in the Great Flood of 1921, Pueblo was considered the'Saddle-Making capital of the World'. One-third of Pueblo's downtown businesses were lost in this flood, along with a substantial number of buildings. Pueblo has had a resurgence in growth. Pueblo's orphanages were an influential part of the city; the transformations that have occurred throughout the three orphanages in the town of Pueblo, Colorado are important aspects of the city's history. Many people were influenced by the Orphanages of Pueblo and the homes are now all historical sites; the transformations have occurred architecturally and economically within the people from to now. The three orphanages in Pueblo were known as Sacred Heart, McClelland. Lincoln was the first black orphanage in Colorado, one of only seven in the country. Sacred Heart was run by the Catholic Welfare Bureau, while McClelland was run by the Lutheran Church.
Several children from Cuba were placed at Sacred Heart as part of "Operation Pedro Pan". Though the Orphanages in Pueblo are no longer in service, the buildings still exist and have transformed with the times. According to the Rocky Mountain News, in 1988 the Sacred Heart Orphanage was bought by the Pueblo Housing Authority and turned into 40 small-family housing units; the main industry in Pueblo for most of its history was the Colorado Fuel and Iron Steel Mill on the south side of town. For nearly a century the CF&I was the largest employer in the state of Colorado; the steel-market crash of 1982 led to the decline of the company. After several bankruptcies, the company was acquired by Oregon Steel Mills and changed its name to Rocky Mountain Steel Mills; the company was plagued with labor problems due to accusations of unfair labor practices. This culminated with a major strike in 1997. In September 2004, both United Steelworkers locals 2102 and 3267 won the strike and the unfair labor practice charges.
All of the striking steel workers returned to their jobs, the company paid them the back pay owed for the seven years they were on strike. In 2007, shortly after Oregon Steel made amends with the union and its workers, Evraz Group, one of Russia's biggest steel producers, agreed to buy the company for $2.3 bil
U.S. Route 287 in Colorado
U. S. Highway 287 is the portion of a north-south highway in Colorado that travels from the Oklahoma state line just south of Campo to the Wyoming state line north of Fort Collins. Heading from the Oklahoma border, US 287 and US 385, upon entering the state, pass through Campo, make an interchange with US 160 south of Springfield. In Lamar and Carlton, the highways split at an interchange with US 50, where US 287 continues north, this time concurrent with US 50. Just outside the town the highways make a sharp turn toward the west, the road heading north is SH 196. South of Wiley, US 50 heads west. East of Eads, Colorado US 287 turns toward the west again merging with SH 96. In Eads SH 96 continues west. Just east of Kit Carson, US 287 again turns toward the west and merges with US 40. East of Limon, the two highways make two interchanges with I-70 before entering Limon. After a brief concurrency with US 24, the two highways merge with I-70. Near the outskirts of Aurora US 36 merges with the group of highways as well.
Just past E-470, I-70 and US 36 split to follow a more northerly course, while US 287 and US 40 continue west into Downtown Denver on Colfax Avenue. The I-25, US 6, US 87, US 85 interchange marks US 287's second junction with its parent route, US 87. Shortly thereafter, at a cloverleaf interchange with Federal Boulevard, SH 88 runs south, US 40 continues west, US 287 turns north on Federal Boulevard. After crossing I-76 and US 36 for a second time, US 287 turns west onto 120th Avenue where it overlaps SH 128. Just before meeting US 36 again in Broomfield, US 287 bends back to the north, leaving CO 128 to continues west. At Baseline Road in Lafayette, SH 7 joins US 287 for about a mile, before it splits to the west on Arapahoe Avenue towards Boulder. US 287 intersects SH 119 as it enters Longmont on the busy Main Street intersects SH 66 at the north edge of town; the road bypasses Berthoud en route to Loveland, where US 287 splits into the pair of one-way streets. US 287 passes through Fort Collins on College Avenue.
On the edge of the mountains, SH 14 splits and heads west into Poudre Canyon, while US 287 continues north into Wyoming. The section of US 287 between Fort Collins and Laramie, Wyoming carries heavy truck traffic and was once considered dangerous; the original US 287 only traveled from Denver past the Wyoming state line in 1935. In 1940, US 287 was expanded past the Oklahoma state line, replacing US 285. After a head-on crash on the highway in 2001, there were people lobbying for a widening of US 287 at the Wyoming state line, their request was answered in April 2009. Throughout 2012, the highway was expanded to three lanes north of Fort Collins, was resurfaced, contained shoulders to prevent such accidents