Les Artigues-de-Lussac is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. It is around 10 km northeast of Libourne, around 35 km east-northeast of Bordeaux. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Audenge is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. The town is situated on the Bassin d'Arcachon, between Lanton and Marcheprime. Inhabitants of Audenge are called Audengeois. Audenge's patron saint is patron of fishermen. Communes of the Gironde department Parc naturel régional des Landes de Gascogne INSEE
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Gironde is a navigable estuary, in southwest France and is formed from the meeting of the rivers Dordogne and Garonne just downstream of the centre of Bordeaux. Covering around 635 km2, it is the largest estuary in western Europe; the Gironde is 80 km long and 3–11 km wide and the French département Gironde is named after it. The Gironde is subject to strong tidal currents and great care is needed when navigating the estuary by any size or type of boat. In December 1942, during the Second World War, Operation Frankton took place with the goal of destroying shipping moored at the docks in Bordeaux; these German blockade runners were causing havoc in the Western approaches. The raid was carried out by a small unit of Royal Marines known as the Royal Marines Boom Patrol Detachment, part of Combined Operations, led by Herbert'Blondie' Hasler. Within the estuary between the Pointe de Grave at the seaward end and the Bec d'Ambès are a series of small islands; the Île de Patiras is 200 ha in size with a lighthouse to aid navigation in the estuary.
Vines and maize are grown there. The Île Sans-Pain and Île Bouchaud are now joined due to progressive silting and are referred to as the Ile Nouvelle, they total about 265 ha and are owned by the Conservatoire du Littoral and managed by the Department of the Gironde. The Île Paté is about 13 ha and in 2006 was owned; the island has a historic fort built between 1685 and 1693 as part of the national fortification program masterminded by Vauban. The building is oval in shape, about 12 metres high and was equipped with about 30 cannon. Fort Paté, together with Fort Médoc and the ancient citadelle of Blaye, defended the estuary and Bordeaux. During the French Revolution the fort was used as a prison for priests. In 2006, the Conseil General decided to make the island a ZPENS. ZPENS status protects the island from development. If the owner wishes to sell the island the Department has a pre-emptive right. After two months the Conservatoire National du Littoral has the next pre-emptive right and after another 2 months the town of Blaye has a final pre-emptive right to acquire the island.
The Île Verte, Île du Nord and Île Cazeau comprise about 800 ha and because of their natural state provide a fine stopping off place for migrating birds. The Île Margaux is 25 ha and in 2005 had 14 ha devoted to vines and is part of the world famous Médoc wine region; the information relating to the protected status of Île Paté and the general information relating to the other islands is public domain information, summarised as part of an article in the regional'Sud Ouest' newspaper dated 3 October 2006
Asques is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Blaye is a commune and subprefecture in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Its inhabitants are called the Blayaises. Blaye is located on the right bank of the Gironde estuary, close to the A10 autoroute, 56 km north of Bordeaux. There is a rail line with occasional freight trains. A small ferry crosses the Gironde to Lamarque, in Medoc. In ancient times Blaye was a port of the Santones. Tradition states that the Frankish hero Roland was buried in its basilica, on the site of the citadel, it was early an important stronghold which played an important part in the wars against the English and the French Wars of Religion. The duchess of Berry was imprisoned in its fortress in 1832–1833; the town was named Blaye-et-Sainte-Luce and was renamed Blaye in June 1961. The town has a citadel built by Vauban on a rock beside the river, which contains the ruins of a medieval castle, Château des Rudel, the ruins of Basilica of Saint-Romain, which holds the tomb of Charibert II, king of Aquitaine, son of Clotaire II.
Nearby, Fort Paté, on an island in the river, Fort Médoc on its left bank of the 17th century, completed Vauban's defenses of the water approaches of Bordeaux. The citadel of Blaye, its city walls, Fort Paté and Fort Médoc were listed in 2008 as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as part of the "Fortifications of Vauban" group. Blaye has a small river-port used for grain exports. Fine red wine is produced in the AOC Côtes de Blaye. A large nuclear power station with four reactors is located nearby. Several schools are located in Blaye. Public schools include the following: École Maternelle Pierre Bergeon École Maternelle Lucien Grosperrin École Elementaire Pierre Malbeteau École Elementaire Andre Vallaeys The town has tribunals of first instance and of commerce. Bordeaux wine regions Communes of the Gironde department INSEE Town council website Personal website about Blaye Webpage about Blaye Citadel Another webpage about Blaye Citadel
Barsac is a commune on the left bank of the Garonne river in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Barsac is located 37 km upstream the Garonne river of Bordeaux; the town gives its name to a wine making Barsac AOC, that produces sweet white wines. The town and its vineyards are separated from the area of Sauternes to the south by the Ciron river, whose cooling effect is of key importance in encouraging the annual action of the Botrytis fungus on the Sémillon grapes; the area is marginally flatter than its neighbour and its wines are considered to be marginally lighter. The area is however permitted to use the Sauternes appellation. Producers from the area include the First Growths Château Climens, Château Coutet. Venerable Marie-Thérèse de Lamourous, a French Lay-woman, member of the underground Church during the French Revolution, foundress of the Sister of the Miséricorde of Bordeaux. French wine Bordeaux wine Communes of the Gironde département Bordeaux wine regions INSEE Official website