Government of Queensland
The Government of Queensland referred to as the Queensland Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Queensland. The Government of Queensland, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1859 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Queensland ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Key state government offices are located at 1 William Street in the Brisbane central business district; the Government of Queensland operates under the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. The Governor of Queensland, as the representative of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, holds nominal power, although in practice only performs ceremonial duties.
The Parliament of Queensland holds legislative power, while executive power lies with the Premier and Cabinet, judicial power is exercised by a system of courts and tribunals. The Parliament of Queensland is the state's legislature, it consists of Her Majesty The Queen, a single chamber. Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament after a second chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly has 93 members. Elections for the Legislative Assembly are held every four years; the Cabinet of Queensland is the government's chief policy-making organ, consists of the Premier and all ministers. The Queensland Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility; each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament. As of April 2016 there were nineteen lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services Department of Education and Training Department of Energy and Water Supply Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Health Department of Housing and Public Works Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning Department of Justice and Attorney-General Department of National Parks and Racing Department of Natural Resources and Mines Queensland Police Service and Queensland Fire and Emergency Services Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation Department of State Development Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland Treasury Department of Tourism, Major Events, Small Business and the Commonwealth GamesA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
The judiciary of Queensland consists of the Magistrates Court, the District Court, the Supreme Court, as well as a number of smaller courts and tribunals. The Chief Justice of Queensland is the state's most senior judicial officer; the Magistrates Court is the lowest tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland. The court's criminal jurisdiction covers summary offences, indictable offences which may be heard summarily, but all criminal proceedings in Queensland begin in the Magistrates Court if they are not within this jurisdiction. For charges beyond its jurisdiction, the court conducts committal hearings in which the presiding magistrate decides, based on the strength of the evidence, whether to refer the matter to a higher court or dismiss it; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is less than or equal to $150,000. Appeals against decisions by the Magistrates Court are heard by the District Court; the District Court is the middle tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland.
The court has jurisdiction to hear all appeals from decisions made in the Magistrates Court. Its criminal jurisdiction covers serious indictable offences; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is more than $150,000 but less than or equal to $750,000. Appeals against decisions by the District Court are heard by the Court of Appeal, a division of the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court is the highest tier of the judicial hierarchy Queensland. The court has two divisions; the Trial Division's jurisdiction covers serious criminal offences, civil matters involving claims of more than $750,000. The Court of Appeal's jurisdiction allows it to hear cases on appeal from the Trial Division, the District Court, a number of other judicial tribunals in Queensland. Appeals against decisions by the Court of Appeal are heard by the High Court of Australia. There are several factors; the legislature has no upper house. For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that favoured rural electorates.
This, combined with the decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections; this is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot, which some say is to the
Amity is a small town and locality located on the north western point of North Stradbroke Island within Redland City, Australia. It is known as Pulan Pulan by the Quandamooka people. In the 2011 census, Amity had a population of 348. In the 2011 census, the population declined to 348 people. Directly north is the southern tip of Moreton Island. To the east lies the small town of Point Lookout and to the south lies the main town of North Stradbroke Island, Dunwich. Wallum Creek snakes along the southern border of the town. Rainbow Channel lies directly adjacent to Amity Point in Moreton Bay. John Oxley named the headland Amity Point after the brig Amity he sailed in when establishing the Moreton Bay penal colony, it had been given the name Cypress Point. The site was chosen as a pilot station by John Gray because of its location close to the South Passage into Moreton Bay, it was the first European settlement on Stradbroke Island. A supply boat called The Otter, which carried tourists, ran between Brisbane's central business district and Amity from 1885 to 1946.
Amity Point Post Office opened around 1942. In the 2011 census, Amity recorded a population of 348 people, 49.7 % male. The median age of the Amity population was 53 years, compared to the national median age of 37. 86% of people living in Amity were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were England 4.4%, New Zealand 1.7%, Solomon Islands 1.2%, Papua New Guinea 1.2%, Latvia 1.2%. 98% of people spoke only English at home. Amity has little infrastructure built by either the public sectors. Due to this, the town's populace have to end up driving to either Dunwich for health and schooling facilities, or going by ferry or boat to the mainland town of Redlands; the only government infrastructure for the town is a single jetty, a library, a community hall, a Fire Station and a post office. No schools or hospitals are found in the town. This, however, is not due to a lack of government investment for the town, but rather due to the small size of the town. There are only eighteen roads in the town, with the majority of those small.
Claytons Road called Point Lookout Road by the locals, due to the road leading to Point Lookout, is the only road which gives access to Amity from the rest of the island. The Redland City Council operate the Amity Point Library, it is a small library being only 22 m² on the veranda of the local community hall and open only 9 hours each week. Private sector investments on the town only cater for the large number of tourists which come to the island every holiday season to make use of the town's beaches. There is a caravan park; the cricket club at Amity is the only investment by the private sector, catered for the local populace of the town, though it still receives much business from tourists. Amity is surrounded by virgin forests to the south pristine beaches elsewhere; the forests surrounding Amity are subtropical rainforests with a significant amount of diversity in both flora and fauna. This is despite the fact that North Stradbroke Island, along with Moreton Island to the north and South Stradbroke Island to the south, are made up of sand, a substance that only a few monocotyledon plants have managed to survive in elsewhere in the world.
The three islands have species of ancient ferns that have survived only on these islands. The flowering rate of these ferns are slow, the trees are protected by Australian law so that only the Aboriginals, the original people of the island, may harvest them; the beaches around Amity township have been eroded by the rainbow channel, but Flinders Beach, 2–3 km to the east, the Wanga Wallen Bank 500 m to the south are in pristine condition, with a range of wildlife from U-Tube worms to Wobbegongs, a small brown shark, all present. Amity Point boasts some of the largest shark numbers in the world, though shark attacks are rare, with only one recorded fatal attack. Despite the presence of shark drumlines, in places since 1997, a Brisbane woman was mauled to death by sharks while swimming in Rainbow Channel; the species of shark remains unknown, with bull sharks suspected by an expert and tiger sharks suggested by locals
Ormiston is a suburb in Redland City, Australia. It is adjacent to the suburbs of Wellington Point. At the 2016 Australian Census, the suburb recorded a population of 5,793. Ormiston is home to the Redlands Christian Reformed Ormiston House; the Koobenpul lived on the mainland coastal strip stretching from Talwarrapin to the mouth of the Mairwar, including the area now known as Ormiston. Canoe trees and a bora ring from pre-settlement days still remain along Hilliards creek. Part of the township of Cleveland, early industry included a brickworks established by James Maskell on the eastern bank of Hilliards Creek in 1852 and fellmongery owned by a Thomas Blackett Stephens until the early 1860s. Joseph Clark ran cattle on Ormiston from 1855 until he relinquished the lease in 1858. Land around Ormiston was bought in 1853 by Captain Louis Hope, a Scottish aristocrat and a founder of the Queensland sugar industry. Hope built Ormiston House from 1865 as the centre of a 325-acre sugar estate. Ormiston House is one of the finest examples of colonial architecture in Queensland.
The property was called Woojanness, but was renamed Ormiston after the Hope's family ancestral village of Ormiston, Scotland. It has an ornamental garden. Hope continued with his plantation until 1875, until he lost a dispute over access to his sugar mill and decided to dismantle it. Since the 1960s the house has been a museum. Although the house was called Ormiston, the area around it was still known as Cleveland for many years; when the railway came through the area in 1889, the new railway station and the area around it became known as Ormiston. Ormiston has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Sturgeon Street: Ormiston Fellmongery Wellington Street: Ormiston House Estate Wellington Street: St Andrews Church Ormiston railway station provides access to regular Queensland Rail City network services to Brisbane and Cleveland. Ormiston Redbacks Swim Club - amateur swimming club. Redlands Softball League Redlands Boxing Club Ormiston College Established on 3rd April 1872, the Ormiston State School is an Education Queensland Independent public school offering a curriculum from Prep to Year 6.
It is located on expansive grounds at 82-110 Gordon Street. In the 2011 census, Ormiston recorded a population of 5,641 people, 47.6 % male. The median age of the Ormiston population was 44 years, 7 years above the national median of 37. 67.3% of people living in Ormiston were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were England 9.9%, New Zealand 5.5%, South Africa 3.3%, Scotland 1.6%, Germany 0.8%. 90.8% of people spoke only English at home. John Cameron and occupied the house Doobawah in Ormiston Louis Hope, established the Ormiston Estate University of Queensland: Queensland Places:Ormiston
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Mount Cotton, Queensland
Mount Cotton is a locality in the City of Redland, Australia. The area was settled by Germans in the late 1860s. In the 20th century, poultry farms were established and in recent years the number of residential sub-developments has expanded. Mount Cotton is named for the mountain, in the area, it was named by a surveyor in the colony of Queensland. He named it after the commandant of Major Sydney Cotton. In 1933, the first chicken farm in the area was established; until the Shire of Tingalpa was abolished in 1949, Mount Cotton hosted its council chambers. Sirromet Wines winery on Mount Cotton Road opened in 2000; the vineyards are located on the Granite Belt. Mount Cotton is a koala conservation area. In the west, the Venman Bushland National Park preserves a section of bushland along Tingalpa Creek. To the east, a wildlife corridor goes from the mountain towards Eprapah scout environmental site and Victoria Point, along Eprapah Creek. Several poultry farms are located in Mount Cotton. A Hillview Road chicken farm is developing a biomass power plant, expected to provide renewable energy to the electrical grid.
The project has faced opposition from local residents and delays as the plant was re-designed to encompass improvements in technology. Developers Cleveland Power claim the power plant will be able to supply electricity to 7500 homes annually. In the 2011 census, Mount Cotton recorded a population of 4,804 people, 49.2 % male. The median age of the Mount Cotton population was 32 years, 5 years below the national median of 37. 76.8% of people living in Mount Cotton were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were England 7.8%, New Zealand 4.1%, South Africa 2.4%, Scotland 0.7%, Ireland 0.5%. 93.7% of people spoke only English at home. The Redland City Council operates a mobile library service which visits the Mount Cotton Community Park at Bohemia Court. Mount Cotton Hillclimb University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Mount Cotton Mount Cotton - a brief history by Mary Howell
Peel Island is a small heritage-listed island located in Moreton Bay, east of Brisbane, in South East Queensland, Australia. The island is within the local government area of Redland City. During the mid-19th century, Peel Island was used as a quarantine station for the colony of Brisbane. Sailing ships would anchor to the north of the island, the passengers would disembark on Peel Island for a quarantine period before moving on to Dunwich on nearby North Stradbroke Island; the arriving sailing ships would be fumigated and scrubbed down with carbolic to sanitise them before they ventured on to Brisbane with the new arrivals. Remains of the old quarantine station are at the southwest corner of the island, where the old well can be found. Peel Island was used as an asylum for vagrants from Brisbane around the start of the 20th century, but the conditions were too harsh and the inmates were moved to Dunwich, on nearby Stradbroke Island. Peel Island was used as a sisal farm; the inmates would harvest the sisal and manufacture rope, sold to help fund the asylum.
Remnants of the sisal plantations are still visible when walking around the western side of the island. Between 1907 and 1959 the island was a leper colony; the island is only accessible by watercraft. Dugongs and dolphins frequent the waters around the island. There are thousands of jellyfish following the surrounding currents, sharks are known to inhabit these waters. Horseshoe Bay, with its sandy beach, is popular with boating visitors, it is a common overnight anchorage for sailors, considered by many to be the best shelter from northerly winds in Moreton Bay. Sea kayakers use the island for overnight stays; the island is known for its natural environment, with bird and animal life undisturbed by pollution. Up to 74 bird species have been identified. In 2007, the island was declared as Conservation Park. There are limited facilities in Peel Island. Tracks which were used when the island was a leper colony can now be used to walk across the island; the leper colony's housing is being restored for school camps, but there is asbestos in some of the housing used for Indigenous Australians housed there.
After the island was decommissioned as a leper colony, it was discovered that the strain of leprosy which infected its inhabitants was non-contagious. The Harry Atkinson Artificial Reef has been constructed to the north of Peel Island. Peel Island is situated in the southern half of Moreton Bay on the east coast of Australia 20 kilometres from Brisbane, 6 kilometres from the town of Cleveland; the island lies between Cleveland Point and Dunwich on North Stradbroke Island, is fringed with mudflats, coral reefs and mangroves. The island covers an area of 400 hectares, extends for 1 kilometre north to south and 3 kilometres east to west. Horseshoe Bay, running in an unbroken arc along the southern side of the island, provides clean, sheltered waters for swimming. Peel Island operated as a lazaret from 1907–1959; the Peel Island lazaret is important to Queensland history because of its social and political significance in terms of state health policy, serving as a reminder of the conditions in which people lived and worked on the island.
The lazaret in Queensland was established to isolate those infected with leprosy. The influx of migrants to Queensland after free settlement brought leprosy, or Hansen’s disease, to Australia. Hansen’s disease has had a history of forced patient isolation from society, Queensland’s Leprosy Act of 1892 was an example of legislation intended to isolate leprosy patients from the mainland. Before Peel Island was used as a lazaret in 1907, it was used for a number of other purposes by colonial and Queensland governments, as well as being occupied by Australian Indigenous people. Before British colonial settlement in Australia, Indigenous people lived on Peel Island, with the land used as a feasting and ceremonial site. Archaeological studies show evidence of Indigenous occupancy through the presence of several midden sites. Into the 1800s, Peel Island, as well as North Stradbroke Island, was used as a quarantine station by the New South Wales colonial government which "housed persons considered unsuitable for mainstream society".
Subsequently, the quarantine station developed into an inebriates' asylum, later a lazaret in 1907. There were two established lazarets in Queensland: one on Friday Island and another on Dunwich, North Stradbroke Island. Both were closed due to varied criticism of conditions and treatment of patients. Subsequently, the Peel Island lazaret was established as a replacement. Peel Island was used for multiple purposes at any given time by the government, but was chosen over North Stradbroke Island to permanently establish the lazaret. Under earlier operations of the lazaret, the isolation of Peel Island more resembled incarceration than that of a medical institution for ill patients. In many instances, sufferers were removed from their families and communities without notice or an opportunity to say goodbye. Patients were locked up or chained by police before they were taken to the lazaret. There have been several accounts of patients being trawled behind a charter ship, isolated on a dinghy en route to the island.
Once at the facility, patients sought help from the outside community and the press in order to improve the dreadful conditions to which they were subjected. Because the lazaret was designed around the principle of isolation, each patient was housed in a separate hut grouped into three compounds according to gender
Dunwich, known as Goompi by the Quandamooka people, is a small town and locality on the western side of North Stradbroke Island in Queensland, Australia. The town is part of the Redland City local government area, based on the mainland in the Brisbane bayside suburb of Cleveland. Dunwich is one of three towns on North Stradbroke Island - the others being Amity Point and Point Lookout. In the 2011 census, Dunwich had a population of 883 people. Known as Goompi and renamed Green Point by the Colonisers, the first settlement at Dunwich was established in 1827 as pilot station and military post, it was supposed to be a good place to discharge cargo from visiting ships that traveled through the South Passage. However cargo was lost in bad weather and local aborigines were hostile so the post was disbanded in 1831. Dunwich was named after the Suffolk village of Dunwich near to the Stradbroke Estate by Sir Ralph Darling on 16 July 1827, in honour of the family title of the Earl of Stradbroke, father of Captain Henry John Rous RN, commander of HMS Rainbow, which carried Governor Darling to Moreton Bay and surveyed the immediate Dunwich area.
In 1892 a leper colony was established at Dunwich. A quarantine station opened in 1850, although this was moved to the more isolated St Helena Island in Moreton Bay; the station was converted into a nursing home for the elderly and infirmed, one of Queensland's first such facilities. The home was moved to Sandgate in 1946; the main cemetery on the island is found in this small town and contains the graves of over 10,000 people, most of which are unmarked. Other small cemeteries were established for the leper colony. Dunwich Post Office opened on 22 October 1896; some of the remaining buildings from the Dunwich Benevolent Asylum now form part of the North Stradbroke Island Historical Museum, located in Welsby Street, Dunwich. The Dunwich Convict Causeway remains, although it has been expanded to accommodate modern ships. Dunwich has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Bingle Road: Dunwich Cemetery Junner Street: Dunwich Convict Causeway Junner Street: Dunwich Public Reserve Junner Street: St Mark's Anglican Church and Dunwich Public Hall The Redland City Council operates a public library in Ballow Road.
Vehicular ferries which cross Moreton Bay link the mainland with North Stradbroke Island dock at Dunwich. Mining companies have extensive barge docking and loading facilities at Dunwich. In the 2011 census, Dunwich recorded a population of 883 people, 51.9 % male. The median age of the Dunwich population was 39 years, 2 years above the national median of 37. 86.2% of people living in Dunwich were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were New Zealand 3.8%, England 2.4%, India 0.7%, France 0.6%, Germany 0.6%. 90.8% of people spoke only English at home. Redland City South East Queensland Redlands Tourism North Stradbroke Island page State Library of Qld image of Stradbroke Island Benevolent Asylum ca. 1885