These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, the simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type. Molecular formulas indicate the numbers of each type of atom in a molecule. For example, the formula for glucose is CH2O, while its molecular formula is C6H12O6. This is possible if the relevant bonding is easy to show in one dimension, an example is the condensed molecular/chemical formula for ethanol, which is CH3-CH2-OH or CH3CH2OH. For reasons of structural complexity, there is no condensed chemical formula that specifies glucose, chemical formulas may be used in chemical equations to describe chemical reactions and other chemical transformations, such as the dissolving of ionic compounds into solution. A chemical formula identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol, in empirical formulas, these proportions begin with a key element and assign numbers of atoms of the other elements in the compound, as ratios to the key element.
For molecular compounds, these numbers can all be expressed as whole numbers. For example, the formula of ethanol may be written C2H6O because the molecules of ethanol all contain two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. Some types of compounds, cannot be written with entirely whole-number empirical formulas. An example is boron carbide, whose formula of CBn is a variable non-whole number ratio with n ranging from over 4 to more than 6.5. When the chemical compound of the consists of simple molecules. These types of formulas are known as molecular formulas and condensed formulas. A molecular formula enumerates the number of atoms to reflect those in the molecule, so that the formula for glucose is C6H12O6 rather than the glucose empirical formula. However, except for very simple substances, molecular chemical formulas lack needed structural information, for simple molecules, a condensed formula is a type of chemical formula that may fully imply a correct structural formula.
For example, ethanol may be represented by the chemical formula CH3CH2OH
Punicalagin is an ellagitannin, a type of phenolic compound. It is found in forms alpha and beta in pomegranates, in Terminalia catappa and Terminalia myriocarpa, and in Combretum molle, the velvet bushwillow and these three genera are all Myrtales and the last two are both Combretaceae. Punicalagins are the largest molecule found intact in rat plasma after oral ingestion and were found to no toxic effects in rats who were given a 6% diet of punicalagins for 37 days. Punicalagins are found to be the component responsible for pomegranate juices antioxidant activity. Punicalagin is water-soluble and has high bioavailability and they are known to hydrolyze into smaller phenolic compounds such as ellagic acid in vivo where one potential mechanism is hydrolysis across the mitochondrial membrane of cultured human colon cells. It is a highly active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Valoneic acid is a hydrolysable tannin. It is a component of some hydrolysable tannins such as mallojaponin, the difference with its isomer sanguisorbic acid is that the hydroxyl that links the hexahydroxydiphenoyl group to the galloyl group belongs to the HHDP group. Valoneic acid dilactone Valonea Sanguisorbic acid Plant polyphenols, vegetable tannins revisited, page 136 by Edwin Haslam
In organic chemistry, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol, which is called carbolic acid C 6H 5OH, phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule. Synonyms are arenols or aryl alcohols, phenolic compounds are synthesized industrially, they are produced by plants and microorganisms, with variation between and within species. Although similar to alcohols, phenols have unique properties and are not classified as alcohols and they have higher acidities due to the aromatic rings tight coupling with the oxygen and a relatively loose bond between the oxygen and hydrogen. The acidity of the group in phenols is commonly intermediate between that of aliphatic alcohols and carboxylic acids. Phenols can have two or more hydroxy groups bonded to the ring in the same molecule. The simplest examples are the three benzenediols, each having two groups on a benzene ring.
Organisms that synthesize phenolic compounds do so in response to pressures such as pathogen and insect attack, UV radiation. As they are present in food consumed in human diets and in used in traditional medicine of several cultures, their role in human health. Some phenols are germicidal and are used in formulating disinfectants, others possess estrogenic or endocrine disrupting activity. They can be classified on the basis of their number of phenol groups and they can therefore be called simple phenols or monophenols, with only one phenolic group, or di-, tri- and oligophenols, with two, three or several phenolic groups respectively. The phenolic unit can be found dimerized or further polymerized, creating a new class of polyphenol, two natural phenols from two different categories, for instance a flavonoid and a lignan, can combine to form a hybrid class like the flavonolignans. Nomenclature of polymers, Plants in the genus Humulus and Cannabis produce terpenophenolic metabolites, phenolic lipids are long aliphatic chains bonded to a phenolic moiety.
The majority of compounds are solubles molecules but the smaller molecules can be volatiles. Many natural phenols present chirality within their molecule, an example of such molecules is catechin. Cavicularin is an unusual macrocycle because it was the first compound isolated from nature displaying optical activity due to the presence of planar chirality, natural phenols chemically interact with many other substances. Stacking, a property of molecules with aromaticity, is seen occurring between phenolic molecules. When studied in mass spectrometry, phenols easily form adduct ions with halogens and they can interact with the food matrices or with different forms of silica
The pomegranate ellagitannins, which include punicalagin isomers, are ellagitannins found in the fruit, bark or heartwood of pomegranates. As the chemistry of punicalagins became known it was found to be not unique to pomegranate, punicalagins are present in numerous species of the genus Terminalia, species chebula Retz. myriocarpa and citrina. They have been isolated from Cistus salvifolius and Combretum molle, pomegranate fruits natural phenols can be extracted with ethyl acetate and fractionation can afford the ellagitannin punicalagins. A few dietary supplements and nutritional ingredients are available that contain extracts of whole pomegranate and/or are standardized to punicalagins, extracts of pomegranate are Generally Recognized As Safe by the United States. Pedunculagin, a found in the pericarp of the pomegranate
Castalagin is an ellagitannin, a type of hydrolyzable tannin, found in oak and chestnut wood and in the stem barks of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennoides. Castalagin is the -isomer of vescalagin, during aging of alcohols in oak barrels, vescalagin can be extracted from the wood and can subsequently be transformed into new derivatives by chemical reactions. Vescalagin is one of the most abundant ellagitannins extracted from oak wood using white wine, the flavono-ellagitannin known as acutissimin A is created when the oak tannin vescalagin interacts with a flavonoid in wine. In some plants including oak and chestnut, the ellagitannins are formed from 1,2,3,4, 6-pentagalloyl-glucose, castalagin thus forms from a pentagalloyl-glucose structure. Castalagin and vescalagin can be polymerized in their corresponding dimers roburin A and roburin D. Grandinin is a castalagin glycoside by binding of the pentose lyxose
It is found in the pericarp of pomegranates. It is found in Casuarina and Stachyurus species and in Alnus sieboldiana and it is an isomer of casuarictin. It is a highly active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, in some plants including oak and chestnut, the ellagitannins are formed from 1,2,3,4, 6-pentagalloyl-glucose and further elaborated via oxidative dehydrogenation