Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
The Lamborghini V12 refers to the flagship V12 engine used by Lamborghini. Lamborghini has had two generations of V12 engines through their history, both of which were developed in-house; the first-generation Lamborghini V12 was a sixty degree V12 petrol engine designed by Lamborghini, was the first internal combustion engine produced by the firm. It first entered production in 1963 as a 3.5 litre displacing 3,465 cubic centimetres fitted on Lamborghini's first car, the Lamborghini 350GT. The engine remained in use for fifty years, the final version of 6.5 litre displacement was installed in the Lamborghini Murciélago. Lamborghini discontinued their first-generation V12 after the Murcielago, opting for a brand-new V12 that first saw use on the Lamborghini Aventador; when Ferruccio Lamborghini set out to compete with Ferrari, he contracted Giotto Bizzarrini to design the engine for his car and, according to some accounts, paid him a bonus for every horsepower over what Ferrari's V12 could produce.
The finished 3.5-litre V12, with minor improvements, went on to become the 6.5 litre powering the Lamborghini Murciélago LP 640, completed its service for Lamborghini with the final version of the Murciélago, the Murciélago LP 670-4 SuperVeloce. The engine was designed from the start to be a quad cam 60 degree V12 - as an intentional snub to Ferrari's single overhead camshaft per-bank design; when the 3,464-cubic-centimetre prototype was tested in 1963, it was able to produce 370 brake horsepower at 9,000, or 107 brake horsepower per litre. Bizzarrini insisted the engine was mechanically capable of reaching 400 brake horsepower at 11,000 rpm with an uprated fuel system, but the design was judged adequate, when fitted with production carburettors, all the auxiliary systems, detuned for road use, the engine still made 280 brake horsepower. Over the years, this V12 engine has nearly doubled in displacement - first to 6,192 cubic centimetres, to 6,496 cubic centimetres, it has seen the modification of the cylinder heads to allow four valves per cylinder, the replacement of Weber carburettors with electronic fuel injection, the re-engineering of the lubrication system from a wet to a dry sump design.
However, the engine that powers the current Murciélago LP 640 can trace its lineage directly to the F1-inspired design of Bizzarrini and his team more than forty years ago. When Automobili Lamborghini was purchased in 1998 by the German Volkswagen Group subsidiary Audi AG, the V12 engine continued undergoing constant upgrades, growing its displacement from 5.7 litres to the final displacement of 6.5 litres (Murciélago LP670-4 Superveloce It took years to decide that a new engine was needed to be built from scratch an all-new engine codenamed L539 having a displacement of 6.5 litres for the 2011 Aventador was developed. The new engine has a maximum power output of 700 PS, is 18 kg lighter, is "over-square" and has a different firing order: 1–12–4–9–2–11–6–7–3–10–5–8 instead of 1–7–4–10–2–8–6–12–3–9–5–11. Since the new engine has undergone constant changes and power was increased to 720 PS for the Aventador Anniversario, 740 PS for the Aventador S, 750 PS for the Veneno and the Aventador SV and 770 PS for the Centenario.
Engine configuration — 3.5 & 3.9 60° V12 engine. 5.2: 5,167 cc, bore x stroke: 85.5 mm × 75 mm, compression ratio 9.5:1 and downdraft 6X2 barrel Weber carburetors. 5.7: 5,707 cc, bore x stroke: 87 mm × 80 mm 6.0: 5,992 cc, bore x stroke: 87 mm × 84 mm 6.2: 6,192 cc, bore x stroke: 87 mm × 86.8 mm.
The Lamborghini Jalpa is an entry level sports car produced by the Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini from 1981 to 1988. It debuted at the 1981 Geneva Motor Show alongside the Lamborghini LM001 concept off-road vehicle; the Jalpa was a development of the earlier Silhouette intended to fill a role as a more "affordable" Lamborghini, being much less expensive than the flagship Countach and being designed by Bertone. Compared to the Countach, the Jalpa was much easier to drive, having better visibility and being more tractable in heavy traffic and at slow speeds, although reviewers have noted that it had a heavy steering and accelerator; the name Jalpa Kandachia came from a famous breed of fighting bulls, a tradition followed with the Gallardo. The Jalpa was fitted with a 3.5 L double overhead camshaft version of the V8 engine used in the Silhouette on which it was based. The version used in the Jalpa had a power output of 255 hp at 7,000 rpm and 225 lb⋅ft of torque at 4,000 rpm in European specification.
The engine in the US models had a power output of 250 hp. Fuel flow was managed by four twin-barrel down-draught Weber 42 DCNF carburetors. Lamborghini claimed the Jalpa could accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 6.0 seconds, to 161 km/h in 19.1 seconds and a 1/4 mile time of 15.4 at 148 km/h with a top speed of 249 km/h, Curb weight was 1,510 kg. The performance of the Jalpa was comparable to the entry-level Ferrari 328 which itself was based on the older Ferrari 308. Classic & Sports Car magazine, quoted a 0–97 km/h acceleration time of 6.8 seconds and a 0-161 km/h time of 16 seconds for the Jalpa. Car & Driver however reported a 0–60 mph acceleration time of 5.8 seconds. When the car was sold in 1981, the plastic components were black, the car carried over the rectangular taillights of the Silhouette along with the targa top body style; this was changed in 1984 when round taillights were fitted and the black plastic parts were replaced by parts in body colour. A rear wing like on the Countach was optional.
In 1988, after falling sales, the new owners, decided to end Jalpa production despite its being Lamborghini's second most successful V8 car to date, having sold 410 units. History and specifications of the Jalpa
The Lamborghini Espada is a 4-seat grand touring coupé built by Italian car manufacturer Lamborghini between 1968 and 1978. The car was designed by Marcello Gandini at Bertone. Gandini drew inspiration and cues from two of his Bertone show cars from 1967, the Lamborghini Marzal and the Jaguar Piraña; the Espada was a four-seater GT, selling alongside the mid-engined Miura. 1217 Espadas were made, making it the most successful Lamborghini model until the expansion of Countach production in the mid-1980s. The Spanish name "Espada" means "sword", referring to the sword that the torero uses to kill the bull in the corrida. During its ten years in production the car underwent some changes, three different series were produced; these were the S1, the S2 and the S3. Each model featured interior redesigns; the Espada was launched at the 1968 Geneva Motor Show. The original design of the dashboard was inspired by the Marzal concept car, featured octagonal housings for the main instruments, topped by an additional binnacle for the secondary gauges.
Wheels were Campagnolo alloys of the same design seen on the Miura. The tail lights were the same units mounted on the first series Fiat 124 Sport Coupé. 186 were made before January 1970. At the 1970 Brussels Motor Show Lamborghini unveiled the Espada S2. Outside the only change was the deletion of the grille covering the vertical glass tail panel. Inside changes were more radical: all-new dashboard, centre console and steering wheel were installed; the instrument binnacle was with round gauges. A wood-trimmed fascia extended along the entire width of the dashboard. Power output increased to 350 PS due to a higher 10.7:1 compression ratio. Like the series 1. 575 Series II Espada were made, making it the most desirable variant. The Espada S3 was launched in 1972, its 3.9 L V12 engine produced 325 PS With the second redesign the dashboard changed to a aluminium-trimmed cockpit that kept all instruments and most controls within easy reach of the driver. Newly designed wheels on five-stud hubs replaces the earlier knock-off wider wheels fitted with Pirelli Cinturato 215/70WR15 CN12 tyres, making the Espada S3 recognizable.
In 1974, a Borg Warner automatic transmission became available. From 1975 large impact bumpers had to be installed to meet United States safety requirements; the Lamborghini Faena is a one-off 4-door sedan based on the Espada and built by coachbuilder Pietro Frua. It debuted at the 1978 Turin Motor Show, was shown at the 1980 Geneva Motor Show; the Faena was built on a reinforced 1974 Espada Series II chassis, has had its wheelbase extended by 18 centimetres to accommodate rear seats. It is owned by a Swiss collector. In 1999, a new version of the Espada was rumored to be in the works, but it was right at the time Lamborghini wanted to concentrate on a Diablo successor, so little became of the idea aside from a few drawings. In 2006, Edmunds.com reported that Lamborghini intended to revive the Espada in 2009. Lamborghini presented the 4-seat Estoque concept car at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, however no production model has been forthcoming; the Espada used a monocoque steel body. Suspension was independent, with double wishbones, coil springs, hydraulic shock absorbers and anti-roll bars.four wheel disc brakes Twin fuel tanks held 95 l of gasoline.
Its 3,929 cc V12 engine breathed through six Weber side-draft carburators and 24 valves commanded by two chain-driven overhead camshafts per bank. The gearbox was mounted in block with the engine. Most transmissions were manual, the Espada introduced one of the first automatic transmissions able to transfer the torque of a large sporting V12, it had unusual gearing, with 3 ratios: 1 and reverse. When leaving the factory it fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres and from the series 3 onwards it fitted 215/70VR15 Cinturato CN12. Motorbase, Lamborghini Espada An Espada restoration project
The cubic inch is a unit of measurement for volume in the Imperial units and United States customary units systems. It is the volume of a cube with each of its three dimensions being one inch long; the cubic inch and the cubic foot are still used as units of volume in the United States, although the common SI units of volume, the liter and cubic meter, are used in manufacturing and high technology. One cubic inch is 16.387 mL. One cubic foot is equal to 1,728 cubic inches because 123 = 1,728; the following abbreviations have been used to denote the cubic inch: cubic in, cu inch, cu in, cui, CI, c.i. inch³, in³In internal combustion engines, the following abbreviations are used to denote cubic inch displacement: c.i.d. Cid, CID 1 cubic inch is equal to: 0.000578703703703 cubic feet 1 tablespoon about 0.554112552 American/English fluid ounces about 0.069264069 American/English cups about 0.000465025413 American/English bushels about 0.004329 American liquid gallons about 0.00010307 barrels of crude oil 0.016387064 liter 16.387064 milliliters or cubic centimeters 0.000016387064 cubic meters The cubic inch was established decades ago as the conventional unit in North America for measuring the volume of electrical boxes.
Because of the extensive export of electrical equipment to other countries, some usage of the non-SI unit can be found outside North America. The cubic inch was used by the automotive industry and aircraft industry in North America to express the nominal engine displacement for the engines of new automobiles, aircraft, etc; the cubic inch is still used for this purpose in classic car collecting. The auto industry now uses liters for this purpose, while reciprocating engines used in commercial aircraft have model numbers based on the cubic inch displacement; the fifth generation Ford Mustang has a Boss 302 version that reflects this heritage - with a five-liter engine similar to the original Boss. Chevrolet has revived this usage on its 427 Corvette. Dodge has a "Challenger 392". In the UK, engine displacement is now denoted in litres. However, cubic inches were sometimes used in the past to denote model numbers. An example is the AEC Reliance bus, available with five different engines: AH470, 470 cubic inches, 7.7 litres AH505, 505 cubic inches, 8.1 litres AH590, 590 cubic inches, 9.6 litres AH691, 691 cubic inches, 11.3 litres AH760, 760 cubic inches, 12.4 litresFor more information and a list of cubic-inch-to-liter displacement conversions, see engine displacement.
Conversion of units Cubic centimeter Cubic foot Orders of magnitude Square inch
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. Various definitions have been used; the international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb. The unit is descended from the Roman libra; the English word pound is cognate with, among others, German Pfund, Dutch pond, Swedish pund. All derive from a borrowing into Proto-Germanic of the Latin expression lībra pondō, in which the word pondō is the ablative case of the Latin noun pondus. Usage of the unqualified term pound reflects the historical conflation of weight; this accounts for the modern distinguishing terms pound-force. The United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations agreed upon common definitions for the pound and the yard. Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound has been defined as 0.45359237 kg. In the United Kingdom, the use of the international pound was implemented in the Weights and Measures Act 1963; the yard or the metre shall be the unit of measurement of length and the pound or the kilogram shall be the unit of measurement of mass by reference to which any measurement involving a measurement of length or mass shall be made in the United Kingdom.
An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to 7,000 grains. The conversion factor between the kilogram and the international pound was therefore chosen to be divisible by 7, an grain is thus equal to 64.79891 milligrams. In the UK, the process of metrication and European units of measurement directives were expected to eliminate the use of the pound and ounce, but in 2007 the European Commission abandoned the requirement for metric-only labelling on packaged goods there, allowed for dual metric–imperial marking to continue indefinitely; when used as a measurement of body weight the UK practice remains to use the stone of 14 pounds as the primary measure e.g. "11 stone 4 pounds", rather than "158 pounds", or "72 kilograms" as used elsewhere. The US has not adopted the metric system despite many efforts to do so, the pound remains used as one of the key United States customary units. In different parts of the world, at different points in time, for different applications, the pound has referred to broadly similar but not identical standards of mass or force.
The libra is an ancient Roman unit of mass, equivalent to 328.9 grams. It was divided into ounces; the libra is the origin of the abbreviation for pound, "lb". A number of different definitions of the pound have been used in Britain. Amongst these were the avoirdupois pound and the obsolete Tower, merchant's and London pounds. Troy pounds and ounces remain in use only for the weight of certain precious metals in the trade; the pound sterling was a Tower pound of silver. In 1528, the standard was changed to the Troy pound; the avoirdupois pound known as the wool pound, first came into general use c. 1300. It was equal to 6992 troy grains; the pound avoirdupois was divided into 16 ounces. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the avoirdupois pound was redefined as 7,000 troy grains. Since the grain has been an integral part of the avoirdupois system. By 1758, two Elizabethan Exchequer standard weights for the avoirdupois pound existed, when measured in troy grains they were found to be of 7,002 grains and 6,999 grains.
In the United Kingdom and measures have been defined by a long series of Acts of Parliament, the intention of, to regulate the sale of commodities. Materials traded in the marketplace are quantified according to accepted units and standards in order to avoid fraud; the standards themselves are defined so as to facilitate the resolution of disputes brought to the courts. Quantifying devices used by traders are subject to official inspection, penalties apply if they are fraudulent; the Weights and Measures Act of 1878 marked a major overhaul of the British system of weights and measures, the definition of the pound given there remained in force until the 1960s. The pound was defined thus "The... platinum weight... deposited in the Standards department of the Board of Trade... shall continue to be the imperial standard of... weight... and the said platinum weight shall continue to be the Imperial Standard for determining the Imperial Standard Pound for the United Kingdom". Paragraph 13 states that the weight in vacuo of this standard shall be called the Imperial Standard Pound, that all other weights mentioned in the act and permissible for commerce shall be ascertained from it alone.
The First Schedule of the Act gave more details of the standard pound: it is a platinum cylinder nearly 1.35 inches high, 1.15 inches diameter, the edges are rounded off. It has a groove about 0.34 inches from the top, to allow the cylinder to be lifted