Around 750 worldwide species of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms compose the genus Russula. They are common large, brightly colored – making them one of the most recognizable genera among mycologists and mushroom collectors, their distinguishing characteristics include brightly coloured caps, a white to dark yellow spore print, attached gills, an absence of latex, absence of partial veil or volva tissue on the stem. Microscopically, the genus is characterised by the amyloid ornamented spores and flesh composed of spherocysts. Members of the related genus Lactarius have similar characteristics but emit a milky latex when their gills are broken; the genus was described by Christian Hendrik Persoon in 1796. Christian Hendrik Persoon first circumscribed the genus Russula in his 1796 work Observationes Mycologicae, considered the defining characteristics to be the fleshy fruit bodies, depressed cap, equal gills, he reduced it to the rank of tribe in the genus Agaricus in 1801. Elias Fries regarded Russula as a tribe of Agaricus in his influential Systema Mycologicum, but raised it to the rank of genus in the Systema Orbis Vegetabilis.
Around the same time, Samuel Frederick Gray recognized Russula as a genus in his 1821 work The Natural Arrangement of British Plants. The name Russula is derived from the Latin word russus, meaning "red". Like the genus Lactarius, russulas have a distinctive flesh consistency, reflected in the appearance of the gills and stipe, makes them recognizable, they have no trace of a veil. The gills are brittle except in a few cases, cannot be bent parallel with the cap without breaking. Hence the genus Russula is sometimes known colloquially as "brittle gills", they have splitting gills and do not exude a milky substance at cut surfaces, contrary to the genus Lactarius. Presence of large spherical cells,'sphaerocysts', in the stipe is an important characteristic feature to distinguish the members of Russulaceae from other mushrooms. In Russula, the stipe breaks like the flesh of an apple, while in most other families it only breaks into fibres; the spore powder varies from white to cream, or orange. While it is easy to identify a sample mushroom as belonging to this genus, it is a significant challenge to distinguish member species of Russula.
This task requires microscopic characteristics, subtle subjective distinctions, such as the difference between a mild to bitter and a mild to acrid flavor. Moreover, the exact phylogenetic relationships of these mushrooms have yet to be resolved in the professional mycological community, may depend on DNA sequencing analysis; the following characteristics are important in identifying individual species: the exact colour of the spore powder, the taste, colour changes in the flesh, the distance from the centre to which the cap skin can be pulled off:. Cap colour, reaction of the flesh to ferrous sulphate, formalin and other chemicals, ornamentation of the spores, other microscopic characteristics, such as the appearance of the cystidia in various mounting reagents. Despite the difficulty in positively identifying collected specimens, the possibility to spot the toxic species by their acrid taste makes some of the mild species, such as R. cyanoxantha and R. vesca, popular edible mushrooms. Russula is free of deadly poisonous species, mild-tasting ones are all edible.
All Russula species are ectomycorrhizal symbionts with higher plants and trees, the genus has a collectively diverse host range. Some species are cosmopolitan and capable of forming associations with one or more hosts in a range of habitats, while others are more constrained in either host or habitat or both; the mycoheterotrophic plant Monotropa uniflora associates with a small range of fungal hosts, all of them members of Russulaceae, including 18 species of Russula. Russula fruit bodies provide a seasonal food source for slugs and deer; some russulas can bioaccumulate high levels of toxic metals from their environment. For example, Russula atropurpurea is capable of concentrating zinc, a property attributed to the presence of metallothionein-like peptides in the mushroom. Russula nigricans can accumulate lead to a level up to five times more concentrated than the soil it grows in, while R. ochroleuca concentrates environmental mercury. Humans collect several species of Russula for food. There is a cultural divide toward interpretation of Russula edibility.
In general, North American field guides tend to list non-edible species and advise caution when consuming any member of the genus. In contrast, European field guides list more edible species. In the Pacific Northwest region of North America, only Russula brevipes parasitized with Hypomyces lactifluorum—known as lobster mushroom—is collected commercially. Several Russula species are sold in the markets of Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park: R. brevipes, R. cyanoxantha, R. mexicana and R. olivacea. In Tlaxcala, wild species sold in market include R. alutacea, R. cyanoxantha, R. delica, R. mariae, R. olivacea, R. romagnesia, R. xerampelina. In Madagascar, species collected from introduced eucalypt forests include Russula madecassense, Russula prolifica, several other species of minor importance, including some that have not yet been described. Russula is the most consumed and economically important mushroom genus in Madagascar Russula prolifica and Russula edulis; this and other edible Russula are stripped of their cap cuticle before sell
Gomphus is a genus of cantharelloid fungi in the family Gomphaceae. Once presumed to be related to chanterelles, molecular study has shown them to be allied with stinkhorns and fairy clubs; the type species of the genus is the pig's ear. Christiaan Hendrik Persoon named the genus in 1797, but did not assign any species to it at the time; the generic name is derived from the Greek'γομφος' gomphos meaning'plug' or'large wedge-shaped nail'. As of September 2015, Index Fungorum accepts 18 species of Gomphus: G. africanus R. H. Petersen 1976 – Africa G. albidocarneus Villegas 2010 – southeastern Mexico G. bonarii Singer 1945 – North America G. brasiliensis Corner 1970 – South America G. brunneus Corner 1966 – Mexico G. calakmulensis Villegas & Cifuentes 2010 – southeastern Mexico G. cavipes Corner 1970 – South America G. clavatus Gray 1821 – Europe, North America G. crassipes Maire 1937 – Spain and North Africa G. megasporus Corner 1970 – Pakistan G. ochraceus Singer 1945 G. orientalis R. H. Petersen & M.
Zang 1996 – China G. pleurobrunnescens Villegas & A. Kong 2010 – southeastern Mexico G. szechwanensis R. H. Petersen 1972 – Tibet G. thiersii R. H. Petersen 1971 – USA G. yunnanensis R. H. Petersen & M. Zang 1996 – ChinaThere are several undescribed species in the forests of Myrtle beech in Tasmania. Bruce Fuhrer noticed in 1992 that the large and ornamented spores of these species resembled those of the genera Ramaria and Beenakia
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae and protozoa. Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. Spores are haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote; this cycle is known as alternation of generations. The spores of seed plants, are produced internally and the megaspores, formed within the ovules and the microspores are involved in the formation of more complex structures that form the dispersal units, the seeds and pollen grains.
The term spore derives from the ancient Greek word σπορά spora, meaning "seed, sowing", related to σπόρος sporos, "sowing," and σπείρειν speirein, "to sow." In common parlance, the difference between a "spore" and a "gamete" is that a spore will germinate and develop into a sporeling, while a gamete needs to combine with another gamete to form a zygote before developing further. The main difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores are unicellular, while seeds contain within them a multicellular gametophyte that produces a developing embryo, the multicellular sporophyte of the next generation. Spores germinate to give rise to haploid gametophytes, while seeds germinate to give rise to diploid sporophytes. Vascular plant spores are always haploid. Vascular plants heterosporous. Plants that are homosporous produce spores of the same type. Heterosporous plants, such as seed plants, spikemosses and ferns of the order Salviniales produce spores of two different sizes: the larger spore in effect functioning as a "female" spore and the smaller functioning as a "male".
Such plants give rise to the two kind of spores from within separate sporangia, either a megasporangium that produces megaspores or a microsporangium that produces microspores. In flowering plants, these sporangia occur within anthers, respectively. Fungi produce spores, as a result of sexual, or asexual, reproduction. Spores are haploid and grow into mature haploid individuals through mitotic division of cells. Dikaryotic cells result from the fusion of two haploid gamete cells. Among sporogenic dikaryotic cells, karyogamy occurs to produce a diploid cell. Diploid cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores. Spores can be classified in several ways: In fungi and fungus-like organisms, spores are classified by the structure in which meiosis and spore production occurs. Since fungi are classified according to their spore-producing structures, these spores are characteristic of a particular taxon of the fungi. Sporangiospores: spores produced by a sporangium in many fungi such as zygomycetes.
Zygospores: spores produced by a zygosporangium, characteristic of zygomycetes. Ascospores: spores produced by an ascus, characteristic of ascomycetes. Basidiospores: spores produced by a basidium, characteristic of basidiomycetes. Aeciospores: spores produced by an aecium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Urediniospores: spores produced by a uredinium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Teliospores: spores produced by a telium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Oospores: spores produced by an oogonium, characteristic of oomycetes. Carpospores: spores produced by a carposporophyte, characteristic of red algae. Tetraspores: spores produced by a tetrasporophyte, characteristic of red algae. Chlamydospores: thick-walled resting spores of fungi produced to survive unfavorable conditions. Parasitic fungal spores may be classified into internal spores, which germinate within the host, external spores called environmental spores, released by the host to infest other hosts. Meiospores: spores produced by meiosis.
Examples are the precursor cells of gametophytes of seed plants found in flowers or cones, the zoospores produced from meiosis in the sporophytes of algae such as Ulva. Microspores: meiospores that give rise to a male gametophyte. Megaspores: meiospores that give rise to a female gametophyte. Mitospores: spores produced by mitosis. Fungi in which only mitospores are found are called "mitosporic fungi" or "anamorphic fungi", are classified under the taxon Deuteromycota. Spores can be differentiated by. Zoospores: mobile spores that move by means of one or more flagella, can be found in some algae and fungi. Aplanospores: immobile spores that may potentially grow flagella. Autospores: immobile spores that cannot develop flagella. Ballistospores: spores that are forcibly discharged or ejected from the fungal fruiting body as the result of an internal force, such as buildup of pressure. Most basidiospores are ballistospores, another notable e
Daedalea quercina is a species of mushroom in the order Polyporales, the type species of the genus Daedalea. Known as the oak mazegill or maze-gill fungus, the specific epithet refers to the oak genus Quercus, upon which it grows, causing a brown rot, it is found in Europe, Northern Africa and Australasia. Though inedible, it has been the subject of chemical research; the sessile, fan-shaped fruiting bodies are 3–20 centimetres in diameter and up to 8 centimetres thick. They are found singly or in tiered groups on rotting oak; the upper surface of the cap may be various shades of brown, is sometimes zonate. The pore surface, white to tan in color, is porous, but as the fruit body matures, some of the pore walls break down, forming slits with blunt partitions; this results in the characteristic maze-like appearance. The tube walls are 10–30 mm long, with thick walls; the basidiospores are 5–7 × 2–4 µm, elliptical in shape. In deposit the spores are white; this mushroom is inedible due to its cork-like texture.
A variant has been described that has large, angular pores similar to those in the genus Trametes, named D. quercina forma trametea. Although D. quercina prefers to grow on Quercus species, it has been found on the tree species Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana, Juglans nigra, Ulmus americana. It has been reported from nearly all European countries, following the pattern of oak distribution, it has been reported in Northern Africa, Asia from Caucasus to India, Australia. Fruit bodies of D. quercina have been used as a natural comb, employed for brushing down horses with tender skin. Gilbertson notes that in England, smoldering fruit bodies were used for anesthetizing bees; this species has been investigated for application in bioremediation. The lignin-degrading enzyme laccase and purified from D. quercina, has shown use in biodegrading a variety of toxic dyes and pigments. The compound quercinol, isolated from the oak mazegill, has anti-inflammatory activity, inhibits the enzymes cyclooxygenase 2, xanthine oxidase, horseradish peroxidase.
Mushroom Expert Index Fungorum Synonyms Photos of the oak mazegill Botany Photo of the Day
Lactarius subdulcis known as the mild milkcap or beech milk cap, is an edible mushroom in the genus Lactarius. It is brown in colour, with a large number of gills and a thin layer of flesh in the cap. Mycorrhizal, the mushroom is found from late summer to late autumn at the base of beech trees in small groups or individually, where it is one of the two most common species of fungi. Alternatively, it can be found in large groups in fields, sometimes with more than a hundred individual mushrooms, it is found in Europe, despite previous research to the contrary, is absent in North America. Although considered edible, it is not useful as food due to its ivy-like taste and the fact that more choice mushrooms will be found at the same time. L. subdulcis is known for its abundant, sweet-tasting milk that, unlike the latex of some of its relatives, does not stain fabric yellow. Lactarius subdulcis was first described as Agaricus subdulcis by mycologist Christian Hendrik Persoon in 1801, before English mycologist Samuel Frederick Gray placed it in its current genus Lactarius in 1821 in his The Natural Arrangement of British Plants.
The specific epithet is derived from Latin words sub "under", dulcis "sweet", after the milk's delayed sweet taste. As well as mild milk cap, beech milk cap is an alternate common name. Lactarius subdulcis has a convex cap of 3–7 cm across that develops a depression, it sometimes has a small umbo, in colour can be a reddish-brown, rusty or dark-cinnamon paling to buff, though darker in the middle. The cap can be rigid to flexible, smooth to wrinkled. At first, the margin is incurved though it is sometimes furrowed; the stem is 3–7 cm long and between 6 and 13 mm thick, is cylindrical though can be club-shaped. The stem is sometimes furrowed lengthwise, is the same colour as the cap, though paler at the top; the flesh is pale and there is only a thin layer in the cap. The crowded gills are adnate to decurrent, can be white or pink in colour, it has white, plentiful milk that does not stain fabrics yellow, differentiating it from other species of Lactarius, such as L. decipiens. It has a oily scent.
Lactarius subdulcis has cream spore print with a slight salmon tinge. The spores are oval, with largish warts of around 1 micrometre which are joined by a well-developed network of thin ridges; the spores measure 7.5–11 μm by 6.5–9 μm, are amyloid or ellipsoid in shape. Lactarius subdulcis is found in Europe, it is found in broad-leaved woodland on the floor at the base of beech trees. Along with L. vellereus, L. subdulcis is the most common fungi found on beech trees. The mushrooms can be found from late summer to late autumn, are common, they are found individually, or in small groups. They can be found in fields appearing in large batches, with groups of over a hundred mushrooms not uncommon. Lactarius subdulcis has a mild taste with a bitter after-taste. Though considered edible after cooking, it is not recommended. There are a number of other mushrooms that appear at the same time and in the same areas as L. subdulcis that are preferable to it, including L. mitissimus, meaning that L. subdulcis is not useful as a foodstuff.
The milk is one of distinguishing features, having a sweet taste that turns bitter in the mouth, with L. subdulcis being considered a sweet milk mushroom. List of Lactarius species Lactarius subdulcis at RogersMushrooms
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for the name "mushroom" is Agaricus bisporus. "Mushroom" describes a variety of other gilled fungi, with or without stems, therefore the term is used to describe the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface. Forms deviating from the standard morphology have more specific names, such as "bolete", "puffball", "stinkhorn", "morel", gilled mushrooms themselves are called "agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order Agaricales. By extension, the term "mushroom" can refer to either the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself. Identifying mushrooms requires a basic understanding of their macroscopic structure. Most are gilled, their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result.
At the microscopic level, the basidiospores are shot off basidia and fall between the gills in the dead air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, a powdery impression reflecting the shape of the gills is formed; the color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. Spore print colors include white, black, purple-brown, pink and creamy, but never blue, green, or red. While modern identification of mushrooms is becoming molecular, the standard methods for identification are still used by most and have developed into a fine art harking back to medieval times and the Victorian era, combined with microscopic examination; the presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, tastes, shades of color, habitat and season are all considered by both amateur and professional mycologists. Tasting and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens.
Chemical tests are used for some genera. In general, identification to genus can be accomplished in the field using a local mushroom guide. Identification to species, requires more effort. However, over-mature specimens cease producing spores. Many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints. Typical mushrooms are the fruit bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom, Agaricus campestris. However, in modern molecularly defined classifications, not all members of the order Agaricales produce mushroom fruit bodies, many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders of the class Agaricomycetes. For example, chanterelles are in the Cantharellales, false chanterelles such as Gomphus are in the Gomphales, milk-cap mushrooms and russulas, as well as Lentinellus, are in the Russulales, while the tough, leathery genera Lentinus and Panus are among the Polyporales, but Neolentinus is in the Gloeophyllales, the little pin-mushroom genus, along with similar genera, are in the Hymenochaetales.
Within the main body of mushrooms, in the Agaricales, are common fungi like the common fairy-ring mushroom, enoki, oyster mushrooms, fly agarics and other Amanitas, magic mushrooms like species of Psilocybe, paddy straw mushrooms, shaggy manes, etc. An atypical mushroom is the lobster mushroom, a deformed, cooked-lobster-colored parasitized fruitbody of a Russula or Lactarius and deformed by the mycoparasitic Ascomycete Hypomyces lactifluorum. Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the term "mushroom" is loosely used, giving a full account of their classifications is difficult; some have pores underneath, others have spines, such as the hedgehog mushroom and other tooth fungi, so on. "Mushroom" has been used for polypores, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi and cup fungi. Thus, the term is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. 14,000 species of mushrooms are described. The terms "mushroom" and "toadstool" go back centuries and were never defined, nor was there consensus on application.
Between 1400 and 1600 AD, the terms mushrom, muscheron, mussheron, or musserouns were used. The term "mushroom" and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss. Delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a "mushroom" may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable. Cultural or social phobias of mushrooms and fungi may be related; the term "fungophobia" was coined by William Delisle Hay of England, who noted a national superstition or fear of "toadstools". The word "toadstool" has apparent analogies in German Krötenschwamm. In German folklore and old fair
Lichenology is the branch of mycology that studies the lichens, symbiotic organisms made up of an intimate symbiotic association of a microscopic alga with a filamentous fungus. Study of lichens draws knowledge from several disciplines: mycology, phycology and botany. Scholars of lichenology are known as lichenologists; the taxonomy of lichens was first intensively investigated by the Swedish botanist Erik Acharius, therefore sometimes named the "father of lichenology". Acharius was a student of Carl Linnaeus; some of his more important works on the subject, which marked the beginning of lichenology as a discipline, are: Lichenographiae Suecia prodromus Methodus lichenum Lichenographia universalis Synopsis methodica lichenum Later lichenologists include the American scientists Vernon Ahmadjian and Edward Tuckerman and the Russian evolutionary biologist Konstantin Merezhkovsky, as well as amateurs such as Louisa Collings. Lichens as a group have received less attention in classical treatises on botany than other groups although the relationship between humans and some species has been documented from early times.
Several species have appeared in the works of Dioscorides, Pliny the Elder and Theophrastus although the studies are not deep. During the first centuries of the modern age they were put forward as examples of spontaneous generation and their reproductive mechanisms were ignored. For centuries naturalists had included lichens in diverse groups until in the early 18th century a French researcher Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in his Institutiones Rei Herbariae grouped them into their own genus, he adopted the Latin term lichen, used by Pliny who had imported it from Theophrastus but up until this term had not been employed. The original meaning of the Greek word λειχήν was moss that in its turn derives from the Greek verb λείχω to suck because of the great ability of these organisms to absorb water. In its original use the term signified mosses, liverworts as well as lichens; some forty years Dillenius in his Historia Muscorum made the first division of the group created by Tournefort separating the sub-families Usnea and Lichens in response to the morphological characteristics of the lichen thallus.
After the revolution in taxonomy brought in by Linnaeus and his new system of classification lichens are retained in the Plant Kingdom forming a single group Lichen with eight divisions within the group according to the morphology of the thallus. Over the years research is shedding new light into the nature of these organisms still classified as plants. A controversial issue surrounding lichens since the early 19th century is their reproduction. In these years a group of researchers faithful to the tenets of Linnaeus considered that lichens reproduced sexually and had sexual reproductive organs, as in other plants, independent of whether asexual reproduction occurred. Other researchers only considered asexual reproduction by means of Propagules. Against this background appeared the Swedish botanist Erik Acharius disciple of Linnaeus, today considered the father of lichenology, starting the taxonomy of lichens with his pioneering study of Swedish lichens in Lichenographiae Suecicae Prodromus of 1798 or in his Synopsis Methodica Lichenum, Sistens omnes hujus Ordinis Naturalis of 1814.
These studies and classifications are the cornerstone of subsequent investigations. In these early years of structuring the new discipline various works of outstanding scientific importance appeared such as Lichenographia Europaea Reformata published in 1831 by Elias Fries or Enumeratio Critico Lichenum Europaeorum 1850 by Ludwig Schaerer in Germany, but these works suffer from being superficial and mere lists of species without further physiological studies. It took until the middle of the 19th century for research to catch up using biochemical and physiological methods. In Germany Ernst Itzigsohn and Johann Bayrhoffer, in France Edmond Tulasne and Camille Montagne, in Russia Fedor Buhse, in England William Allport Leighton and in the United States Edward Tuckerman began to publish works of great scientific importance. Scientific publications settled many unknown facts about lichens. In the French publication Annales des Sciences Naturelles in an article of 1852 "Memorie pour servir a l'Histoire des Lichens Organographique et Physiologique" by Edmond Tulasne, the reproductive organs or apothecia of lichens was identified.
These new discoveries were becoming contradictory for scientists. The apothecium reproductive organ being unique to fungi but absent in other photosynthetic organisms. With improvements in microscopy, algae were identified in the lichen structure, which heightened the contradictions. At first the presence of algae was taken as being due to contamination due to collection of samples in damp conditions and they were not considered as being in a symbiotic relation with the fungal part of the thallus; that the algae continued to multiply showed that they were not mere contaminants. It was Anton de Bary a German mycologist who specialised in phytopathology who first suggested in 1865 that lichens were the result of parasitism of various fungi of the ascomycetes group by nostoc type algae and others. Successive studies such as those carried out by Andrei Famintsyn and Baranetzky in 1867 showed no dependence of the algal component upon the lichen thallus and that the algal component could live independently of the thallus.
It was in 1869 that Simon Schwendener demonstrated that all lichens were the result of fungal attack on the cells of algal cells and that all these algae exist free in nature. This researcher was the first to recognise the dual nature of lichens as a result of the capture