Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. It tells of a young girl named Alice falling through a rabbit hole into a fantasy world populated by peculiar, anthropomorphic creatures; the tale plays with logic. It is considered to be one of the best examples of the literary nonsense genre, its narrative course, structure and imagery have been enormously influential in both popular culture and literature in the fantasy genre. Alice was published in 1865, three years after Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed in a boat, on 4 July 1862, up the Isis with the three young daughters of Henry Liddell: Lorina Charlotte Liddell; the journey ended five miles away in the village of Godstow. During the trip Charles Dodgson told the girls a story that featured a bored little girl named Alice who goes looking for an adventure; the girls loved it, Alice Liddell asked Dodgson to write it down for her.
He began writing the manuscript of the story the next day, although that earliest version no longer exists. The girls and Dodgson took another boat trip a month when he elaborated the plot to the story of Alice, in November he began working on the manuscript in earnest. To add the finishing touches he researched natural history for the animals presented in the book, had the book examined by other children—particularly the children of George MacDonald, he added his own illustrations but approached John Tenniel to illustrate the book for publication, telling him that the story had been well liked by children. On 26 November 1864 he gave Alice the handwritten manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground, with illustrations by Dodgson himself, dedicating it as "A Christmas Gift to a Dear Child in Memory of a Summer's Day". Some, including Martin Gardner, speculate there was an earlier version, destroyed by Dodgson when he wrote a more elaborate copy by hand, but before Alice received her copy, Dodgson was preparing it for publication and expanding the 15,500-word original to 27,500 words, most notably adding the episodes about the Cheshire Cat and the Mad Tea-Party.
Chapter One – Down the Rabbit Hole: Alice, a girl of seven years, is feeling bored and drowsy while sitting on the riverbank with her elder sister. She notices a talking, clothed White Rabbit with a pocket watch run past, she follows it down a rabbit hole when she falls a long way to a curious hall with many locked doors of all sizes. She finds a small key to a door too small for her to fit through, but through it she sees an attractive garden, she discovers a bottle on a table labelled "DRINK ME," the contents of which cause her to shrink too small to reach the key which she has left on the table. She eats a cake with "EAT ME" written on it in currants. Chapter Two – The Pool of Tears: Chapter Two opens with Alice growing to such a tremendous size her head hits the ceiling. Alice is unhappy and, as she cries, her tears flood the hallway. After shrinking down again due to a fan she had picked up, Alice swims through her own tears and meets a Mouse, swimming as well, she tries to make small talk with him in elementary French but her opening gambit "Où est ma chatte?" offends the mouse and he tries to escape her.
Chapter Three – The Caucus Race and a Long Tale: The sea of tears becomes crowded with other animals and birds that have been swept away by the rising waters. Alice and the other animals convene on the bank and the question among them is how to get dry again; the Mouse gives them a dry lecture on William the Conqueror. A Dodo decides that the best thing to dry them off would be a Caucus-Race, which consists of everyone running in a circle with no clear winner. Alice frightens all the animals away, unwittingly, by talking about her cat. Chapter Four – The Rabbit Sends a Little Bill: The White Rabbit appears again in search of the Duchess's gloves and fan. Mistaking her for his maidservant, Mary Ann, he orders Alice to retrieve them. Inside the house she finds another little bottle and drinks from it; the horrified Rabbit orders his gardener, Bill the Lizard, to climb on the roof and go down the chimney. Outside, Alice hears the voices of animals; the crowd hurls pebbles at her. Alice eats them, they reduce her again in size.
Chapter Five – Advice from a Caterpillar: Alice comes upon a mushroom and sitting on it is a blue Caterpillar smoking a hookah. The Caterpillar questions Alice and she admits to her current identity crisis, compounded by her inability to remember a poem. Before crawling away, the caterpillar tells Alice that one side of the mushroom will make her taller and the other side will make her shorter, she breaks off two pieces from the mushroom. One side makes her shrink smaller than while another causes her neck to grow high into the trees, where a pigeon mistakes her for a serpent. With some effort, Alice brings herself back to her normal height, she stumbles upon a small estate and us
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Kibblesworth is a village 2 miles west of Birtley and Wear, England. Kibblesworth was a rural community until the development of the pit and brickworks and the resulting increase in population. Now, after the closure of the pit, few of the residents work in the village. In County Durham, it was transferred into the newly created county of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the village's name means "Cybbel's Enclosure". Kibblesworth is in the parish of Lamesley. While the area was agricultural, this was the centre of worship for the people of Kibblesworth. After the development of the mining industry, the Primitive Methodist Chapel and Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, provided social as well as religious life for the village; the present chapel was built by the Wesleyan Methodists in 1913. The Primitive Methodist Chapel has now been converted into flats. Although there had been coal-mining in the Kibblesworth area from medieval times few men were employed in the industry until the sinking of Robert Pit in 1842. From this date the fortunes of the village followed those of the industry with particular black spots during the strikes of 1921 and 1926 and the depression of the 1930s, high spots in the boom of the 1950s and 60s, closure of the pit in 1974.
The Bowes Railway was used for the transport of coal from Kibblesworth to the River Tyne at Jarrow. The line was started by George Stephenson in 1826 and extended to Kibblesworth when Robert Pit was sunk in 1842; the railway used three types of power - locomotives, stationary steam engines and self-acting inclines. There is now a cycletrack; the square at Spout Burn was built to house the miners of Robert Pit. It was demolished between 1965 and 1966, replaced by old people's bungalows the following year and the Grange Estate from 1973. Better known as'the Barracks', Kibblesworth Old Hall was divided up into tenements; the memory survives, in the street named Barrack Terrace. The hall was demolished and replaced by the Miner's Institute in 1934; the area has been redeveloped for housing. In 1855 a short test tunnel for the London Underground was built in Kibbleworth, because it had geological properties similar to London; this test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train.
Kibblesworth Hall was for many years the home of the colliery manager. It was demolished in 1973; the original Kibblesworth School was built in 1875, closed in 1972. It has since been redeveloped using Lottery funding to house the village community centre known as the'Millennium Centre'; the present school opened in 1972. 1842 The sinking of Robert Pit 1842-1850 The Square and Barrack Terrace built Old Hall converted to tenements 1855 Metropolitan Railway dug a small tunnel to test digging skills before moving onto London. 1862 Causey Row built 1864 The Opening of Primitive Methodist Chapel 1867 The Opening of Wesleyan Methodist Chapel 1875 The Opening of school 1901 School extensions built, Coronation Terrace built 1908 The Old Plough Inn demolished 1913 The Opening of New Wesleyan Chapel 1914 The Crescent built and Grange Drift opened 1921 Miners' strike 1922 First aged miners' homes, opposite Liddle Terrace 1926 General Strike 1932 Closure of Grange Drift 1934 Barracks demolished and Miners' Welfare Institute built on site 1936 First council housing in Ashvale Avenue and Laburnum Crescent 1947 Nationalisation of the pits 1965 The Square demolished 1974 Closure of the pit Si King, TV presenter.
Michael Aynsley, Pet Detective. Media related to Kibblesworth at Wikimedia Commons
Angel of the North
The Angel of the North is a contemporary sculpture, designed by Antony Gormley, located in Gateshead and Wear, England. Completed in 1998, it is a steel sculpture of an angel, 20 metres tall, with wings measuring 54 metres across; the wings are angled 3.5 degrees forward. The angel, like much of Gormley's other work, is based on a cast of his own body, it stands on the hill of Birtley, at Low Eighton in Lamesley, overlooking the A1 and A167 roads into Tyneside, the East Coast Main Line rail route, south of the site of Team Colliery. According to Gormley, the significance of an angel was three-fold: first, to signify that beneath the site of its construction, coal miners worked for two centuries. Work began on the project in 1994, cost £800,000. Most of the project funding was provided by the National Lottery; the Angel was installed on 15 February 1998. Due to its exposed location, the sculpture was built to withstand winds of over 100 mph. Thus, foundations containing 600 tonnes of concrete anchor the sculpture to rock 70 feet below.
The sculpture was built at Hartlepool Steel Fabrications Ltd using COR-TEN weather-resistant steel. It was made in three parts—with the body weighing 100 tonnes and two wings weighing 50 tonnes each—then brought to its site by road; the components were transported in convoy—the body on a 48-wheel trailer—from their construction site in Hartlepool, up the A19 road to the installation site 28 miles away. The Angel aroused some controversy in British newspapers, at first, including a "Gateshead stop the statue" campaign, while local councillor Martin Callanan was strong in his opposition. However, it has since been considered to be a landmark for North East England and has been listed by one organisation as an "Icon of England", it has been used in film and television to represent Tyneside, as are other local landmarks such as the Tyne Bridge and the Gateshead Millennium Bridge. The sculpture is humorously known by some local people as the "Gateshead Flasher", because of its location and appearance.
Several maquettes were produced during the development stage of the project. A life-size model from which the sculpture was created was sold at auction for £2.28 million in July 2008. An additional bronze maquette used in fundraising in the 1990s, owned by Gateshead Council, was valued at £1 million on the BBC show Antiques Roadshow on 16 November 2008—the most valuable item appraised on the programme. In 2011 German fashion designer Wolfgang Joop sold his life-size maquette at an auction at Christie's in London for £3.4 million to an anonymous bidder. Another maquette was donated to the National Gallery of Australia in 2009, stands in its Sculpture Garden. Inspired by the Angel of the North, several similar projects have been proposed; the Angel of the South title has been given by some to the Willow Man, which sits to the side of the M5 in Somerset, while the White Horse at Ebbsfleet has been proposed for Ebbsfleet Valley, Kent. The sculpture Brick Man was proposed for the Holbeck area of Leeds.
Angel of the West List of statues by height Star of Caledonia Wicker man Gateshead Council's Angel of the North website Angel of the North – Antony Gormley's official website The Angel of the North at icons.org, featuring pictures of the sculpture under construction "In praise of... the Angel of the North". The Guardian. London. 30 January 2008. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2008. Photo showing a maquette in the garden of German fashion designer Wolfgang Joop's mansion'Villa Wunderkind' in Potsdam, Germany
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear, in North East England. The borough forms the south west part of the county, it is named after its largest town, but spans the towns of Rowlands Gill, Whickham and Ryton. It is bordered by five other local authorities: Newcastle upon Tyne to the north, Northumberland to the west, County Durham to the south, Sunderland to the south east, South Tyneside to the east; the district has some 201,000 inhabitants and is located within the historic county boundaries of County Durham. It is south of the historic county boundary between Northumberland and Durham; the metropolitan borough was formed in 1974 through the merger of the county borough of Gateshead with the urban districts of Felling, Blaydon and part of Chester-le-Street Rural District, with the borough placed in the new metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. In 1986 Tyne and Wear county council was abolished, with the borough of Gateshead becoming a unitary authority.
There were two civil parishes in Gateshead - Birtley and Lamesley, both from the Chester-le-Street RD. Birtley Town Council and parish were abolished on 1 April 2006. In national government the borough contains two parliamentary constituencies and Blaydon; the Gateshead constituency covers the centre and east of the borough. The MP, elected in 2010, is Ian Mearns; the Blaydon constituency covers the west of Birtley to the south. It is represented by Liz Twist. Jarrow takes in the eastern tip of the borough, including Pelaw, it is represented by Stephen Hepburn. In total there are twenty two electoral wards in the borough, each ward elects three councillors; the twenty two wards are: - Birtley Blaydon Bridges Chopwell and Rowlands Gill Chowdene Crawcrook and Clara Vale Deckham Dunston and Teams Dunston Hill and Whickham East Felling Heworth High Fell Lamesley Leam Lane Estate Lobley Hill and Bensham Low Fell Pelaw and Heworth Ryton and Stella Park Saltwell Wardley and Leam Lane Whickham North Whickham South and Sunniside Windy Nook and Whitehills Winlaton and High SpenGateshead Council is Labour controlled.
In total there are 54 Labour councillors and 12 Lib Dem councillors. In general, the Whickham area along with Low Fell tend to favour the Liberal Democrats. Pelaw and Dunston Hill are more evenly matched between the two parties, the rest of the borough is dominated by Labour the East. UKIP were able to get 23% of the vote in Winlaton and High Spen in 2016, while the Liberal Party have one of their few strongholds in Birtley, where they once held; the Conservatives get more than 10%, polling best in Bridges and Saltwell wards. Gateshead has hosted two major political conferences; the first of these was Labour's spring conference, ahead of the 2005 general election. The Conservatives held a conference at the Sage Gateshead in March 2008; the Conservatives do not have any councillors in Gateshead and at the time only had one MP in the whole of the north east region. That conference was seen as an attempt to connect to voters in the area. Gateshead has a number of schools across the borough at both secondary level.
Results are well with a number of outstanding schools. Indeed, Gateshead has amongst secondary schools in the country overall. A range of schools are present in Gateshead, including Jewish, Roman Catholic, Church of England and non-religious state schools. There is one independent school in Chase school in Whickham. Further independent schools can be found in Newcastle and Tynedale. Gateshead town itself has a further education college, Gateshead College, a leading Jewish higher education institution. Gateshead has a variety of landscapes and industrial areas include the town itself and Blaydon in the east, with more semi-rural and rural locations in the west including Ryton and Rowlands Gill. Overall though, it is a green area with over half of the borough being green belt or countryside. Most of this is located away from built up Tyneside to the south of the borough into Derwentside/Chester-le-Street and to the west into Tynedale. In total, there are over twenty countryside sites in the borough, from ancient meadows and woodland to local nature reserves.
Notable features of Gateshead's countryside include Ryton Willows, found at Old Ryton Village on the banks of the Tyne at Ryton. Ryton Willows is 43 hectares of locally rare grassland and ponds located near to an affluent village with Georgian and Victorian houses; because of this it is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The Derwent Valley, in the south/south west of the borough, offers panoramic views and pleasant walks, it was in the Derwent Valley, near Rowlands Gill, that the Northern Kites Project re-introduced red kites. This was part of a national project to introduce the birds, that were once so commonplace across the country, back into the wild; this scheme has proven to be a big success, with birds being spotted across the west of the borough, from Crawcrook to Rowlands Gill itself. The borough contains one National Trust site, the expansive Gibside estate near Rowlands Gill, containing a stately home and a chapel, parts of its grounds have been given SSSI status. In the more urban areas of the borough, in Gateshead itself and to the east, efforts have been made to maintain green spaces and wildlife sites.
One such project is Bill Quay Community Farm in east if the borough. Offering a rural experience within an urban setting, it provides an important educational tool for local schools; the 2001 cens