In fluid dynamics, laminar flow is characterized by fluid particles following smooth paths in layers, with each layer moving smoothly past the adjacent layers with little or no mixing. At low velocities, the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing, adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards. There are eddies or swirls of fluids. In laminar flow, the motion of the particles of the fluid is orderly with particles close to a solid surface moving in straight lines parallel to that surface. Laminar flow is a flow regime characterized by low momentum convection; when a fluid is flowing through a closed channel such as a pipe or between two flat plates, either of two types of flow may occur depending on the velocity and viscosity of the fluid: laminar flow or turbulent flow. Laminar flow occurs below a threshold at which the flow becomes turbulent; the velocity is determined by a dimensionless parameter characterizing the flow called the Reynolds number, which depends on the viscosity and density of the fluid and dimensions of the channel.
Turbulent flow is a less orderly flow regime, characterized by eddies or small packets of fluid particles, which result in lateral mixing. In non-scientific terms, laminar flow is smooth; the type of flow occurring in a fluid in a channel is important in fluid-dynamics problems and subsequently affects heat and mass transfer in fluid systems. The dimensionless Reynolds number is an important parameter in the equations that describe whether developed flow conditions lead to laminar or turbulent flow; the Reynolds number is the ratio of the inertial force to the shearing force of the fluid: how fast the fluid is moving relative to how viscous it is, irrespective of the scale of the fluid system. Laminar flow occurs when the fluid is moving or the fluid is viscous; as the Reynolds number increases, such as by increasing the flow rate of the fluid, the flow will transition from laminar to turbulent flow at a specific range of Reynolds numbers, the laminar–turbulent transition range depending on small disturbance levels in the fluid or imperfections in the flow system.
If the Reynolds number is small, much less than 1 the fluid will exhibit Stokes, or creeping, where the viscous forces of the fluid dominate the inertial forces. The specific calculation of the Reynolds number, the values where laminar flow occurs, will depend on the geometry of the flow system and flow pattern; the common example is flow through a pipe, where the Reynolds number is defined as R e = ρ u D H μ = u D H ν = Q D H ν A, where: DH is the hydraulic diameter of the pipe. For such systems, laminar flow occurs when the Reynolds number is below a critical value of 2,040, though the transition range is between 1,800 and 2,100. For fluid systems occurring on external surfaces, such as flow past objects suspended in the fluid, other definitions for Reynolds numbers can be used to predict the type of flow around the object; the particle Reynolds number Rep would be used for particle suspended in flowing fluids, for example. As with flow in pipes, laminar flow occurs with lower Reynolds numbers, while turbulent flow and related phenomena, such as vortex shedding, occur with higher Reynolds numbers.
A common application of laminar flow is in the smooth flow of a viscous liquid through a tube or pipe. In that case, the velocity of flow varies from zero at the walls to a maximum along the cross-sectional centre of the vessel; the flow profile of laminar flow in a tube can be calculated by dividing the flow into thin cylindrical elements and applying the viscous force to them. Another example is the flow of air over an aircraft wing; the boundary layer is a thin sheet of air lying over the surface of the wing. Because air has viscosity, this layer of air tends to adhere to the wing; as the wing moves forward through the air, the boundary layer at first flows smoothly over the streamlined shape of the airfoil. Here, the flow is laminar and the boundary layer is a laminar layer. Prandtl applied the concept of the laminar boundary layer to airfoils in 1904. An everyday example is the slow and optically transparent flow of shallow water over a smooth barrier; when water leaves a tap with little force, it first exhibits laminar flow, but as acceleration by the force of gravity sets in, the Reynolds number of the flow increases with speed, the laminar flow can transition to turbulent flow.
Optical transparency is reduced or lost entirely. In waterfalls a large scale version of examples 3 and 4 occurs, as now broad sheets of smoothly flowing water fall over a ridge or edge of the waterfall; the transition to turbulence sets in with speed due to acceleration and foamy aerated water obscures the falling flow. Laminar airflow is used to separate volumes of air, or prevent airborne contaminants from entering an area. Laminar f
Welda is a census-designated place in Anderson County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 129. Welda was platted in 1873, soon after the railroad was extended to that point in 1870; the first post office in Welda was established in 1874 and was named for Welda in Germany. The railroad tracks in Welda have since been converted to a rail trail; the trail is part of the Prairie Spirit Trail State Park. Welda is located at 38°10′9″N 95°17′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.93 square miles, of which 0.0077 square miles, or 0.79%, is water. Unified School District No. 365 operates Mont Ida Elementary School in Welda and Anderson County Junior-Senior High School in Garnett. Welda schools were closed through school unification; the Welda High School mascot was Welda Pirates
Torric Jebrin is a Ghanaian footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder for Dr Congo club TP Mazembe. He began his career at Hearts of Oak. On 3 November 2008 it was announced, that Jebrin had signed a three-year contract with English club Portsmouth FC, collaboration club of Hearts of Oak. Jebrin had been on several trials at the club, during that, he was watched by Arsenal during a match. Chelsea, Atlético Madrid and Inter Milan were all keen to have the player on trials, but his management did not want to masquerade the player at various club trials. Hearts and Portsmouth FC agreed and signed papers in the matter of Jebrin transferring to Portsmouth FC via a club in Belgium from the 1st January 2009. Jebrin was entered in an educational program in Belgium and in England paid for by Portsmouth; the plan was to loan him out to a Belgian club and was loaned out to S. V. Zulte Waregem. In January 2011, Jebrin signed half year deal with Turkish side Bucaspor, he played for the club 26 times, scoring three goals.
In December 2011, Jebrin completed a controversial move to Trabzonspor on a free transfer after terminating his contract with Bucaspor a month earlier without justification. Bucaspor released a statement that Trabzonspor enticed the footballer in violation of transfer regulations and Bucaspor's legal board had filed a complaint with the Turkish Football Federation demanding Trabzonspor receive a transfer ban for their actions. In 31 July Ismaily SC in Egypt announcement on sign a contract with Jebrin for 3 years on free transfer. Jebrin said that he is happy to sign a contract with a big club in Africa and in Arab region and Egypt, he has played for the local national team for home based players and débuted at the age of just 15 against Niger in April 2008, attempting to qualify for the first edition of the African Nations Championship, the new competition for home based African players. Profile at TFF Torric Jebrin at Footballdatabase
Holtville is a city in Imperial County, California. Holtville is located 10.5 miles east of El Centro. The population was 5,939 at the 2010 census, up from 5,612 in 2000; the city was founded by Swiss-German settlers in the 1880s, who entered from Mexico. The construction of railroads in the 1890s, the All-American Canal in the late 1940s, U. S. Route 80 in the 1920s converted to Interstate 8 in the 1970s and the North American Free Trade Agreement economic boom in the 1990s brought more people to Holtville and the Imperial Valley; the city of Holtville, called Holton, was founded in 1903 by W. F. Holt, incorporated on June 20, 1908; the name was changed to Holtville due to a request by the U. S. Postal Service because the name Holton sounded too much like Colton, the regional headquarters of the Southern Pacific Railroad at the time; the name honors W. F. Holt, founder of the community; the city lies on the northeast bank of the Alamo River formed by the floods of 1905-07 when the Colorado River break made the river's course turn west and filled the low-lying depression of water now known as the Salton Sea.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.1 sq mi, with 1.1 square miles land and 0.40% water. This area has a large amount of sunshine year round due to its stable descending air and high pressure. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Holtville has a desert climate, abbreviated "Bwh" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Holtville had a population of 5,939. The population density was 5,152.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Holtville was 3,655 White, 37 African American, 41 Native American, 50 Asian, 4 Pacific Islander, 1,977 from other races, 175 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,858 persons; the Census reported that 5,939 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,799 households, out of which 894 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,033 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 290 had a female householder with no husband present, 106 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 81 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 319 households were made up of individuals and 164 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.30. There were 1,429 families; the population was spread out with 1,850 people under the age of 18, 618 people aged 18 to 24, 1,327 people aged 25 to 44, 1,416 people aged 45 to 64, 728 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. There were 1,937 housing units at an average density of 1,680.3 per square mile, of which 1,799 were occupied, of which 904 were owner-occupied, 895 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.6%. 3,017 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,922 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,612 people, 1,564 households, 1,340 families residing in the city.
The population density was 4,920.8 people per square mile. There were 1,617 housing units at an average density of 1,417.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 54.4% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 39.2% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. 73.8 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 1,564 households out of which 52.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.9% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.3% were non-families. 12.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.5 and the average family size was 3.8. In the city, the population was spread out with 35.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,318, the median income for a family was $39,347. Males had a median income of $31,328 versus $26,477 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,505. About 15.7% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.2% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. The city's major civic event is the annual Carrot Festival, held in late January or early February, it features a parade, a carnival and other activities over a 10-day period. Holtville was famous in the mid 20th century with having the Holtville "Carrot Festival" but was confused with the "Coachella Valley" name from the Bugs Bunny cartoon Bully for Bugs when he reads a map seeking a "Carrot Festival". In the state legislature, Holtville is in the 40th Senate District, represented by Democrat Ben Hueso, the 56th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Eduardo Garcia.
Pandan Indah is a state constituency in Selangor, represented in the Selangor State Legislative Assembly since 2018, replacing Chempaka, used from 2004 until 2018. 2004–2016: The constituency contains the polling districts of Taman Nirwana, Angsana Hilir, Kampung Pandan Dalam Kiri, Lorong Raya Kampung Pandan, Pandan Jaya Utara, Taman Chempaka, Kampung Baharu Ampang Ketiga, Pandan Indah Jalan 1, 4 dan 6, Taman Dagang, Taman Cahaya, Lorong Molek Kampung Pandan, Lorong Bersih Kampung Pandan, Pandan Jaya Selatan, Taman Bakti, Pandan Indah Jalan 5, Pandan Mewah, Pandan Indah Jalan 2 & 3. 2016-present: The constituency contains the polling districts of Taman Nirwana, Angsana Hilir, Kampung Pandan Dalam Kiri, Lorong Raya Kampung Pandan, Pandan Jaya Utara, Taman Chempaka, Kampung Baharu Ampang Ketiga, Pandan Indah Jalan 1, 4 dan 6, Taman Dagang, Taman Cahaya, Lorong Molek Kampung Pandan, Lorong Bersih Kampung Pandan, Pandan Jaya Selatan, Taman Bakti, Pandan Indah Jalan 5, Pandan Mewah, Pandan Indah Jalan 2 & 3.
"Keputusan Pilihan Raya Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya". Election Commission of Malaysia. Retrieved 2016-05-21
Vanessa Zamora Ramírez is a mexican singer and composer, known professionally as Vanessa Zamora. She speaks Spanish fluently. Zamora plays several instruments including acoustic guitar, piano and drums. Vanessa Zamora is a singer and songwriter of Mexican descent born in Tijuana, Baja California on July 22, 1991. Zamora is a daughter of parents, she started attending piano classes at 8 years old at Academia de Música de Mexico acquiring instruction in piano, at 9 years old she was instructed in guitar and drums. She continued with her music as a hobby until she was 18 years old, attending university at Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara, at that time she publicly started showing her music. In 2012 she concluded her first EP'Correr' in 2012'No Sabes', she graduated in communication sciences in 2013 as an honor student. In 2014 she presented her first album Hasta la fantasía. In 2015 she presented the single'Control'. Tornaluna Hasta la fantasía "Correr" "No sabes" "Te quiero olvidar" "Control" Vanessa Zamora's channel on YouTube https://www.vanessazamora.net/ Official Website