Sunbury-on-Thames is a suburban village in the borough of Spelthorne, in the county of Surrey in England. It extends from the left bank of the River Thames and the south-west of the Greater London boundary and is 13 miles from Charing Cross, London. Suburban neighbourhoods make up most of its area, Lower Sunbury, added to, part of the Metropolitan Green Belt including Kempton Park; the town centre is by the London end of the M3 motorway, elsewhere are three shopping parades and riverside public houses. In tourism Lower Sunbury holds regatta each August. Sunbury railway station is on a branch line from London Waterloo. Lower Sunbury contains most of the town's parks and listed buildings, Kempton Park Racecourse, served by its own railway station and a public walled garden which has a large millennium tapestry in its art gallery/café. Offices and hotels form part of its labour-importing economy. Most of Sunbury's riverside forms owned houses or lodges with gardens, including Wheatley's Ait and Sunbury Court Island which are attached by footbridges.
Many schools are based in the town including large secondary schools in the Catholic and Anglican traditions. Sunbury adjoins other settlements Feltham to the north, Hampton to the east, Ashford to the northwest, Shepperton to the southwest and Walton-on-Thames to the south on the opposite bank of the Thames; the earliest evidence of occupation in Sunbury is provided by the discovery of Bronze Age funerary urns dating from the 10th century BC. It is mentioned in the Sunbury Charter in AD 962. Many years the arrival of Huguenot refugees gave the name to French Street; the place-name'Sunbury' is first attested in a Saxon charter circa 960-2, where it appears as Sunnanbyrg. Another charter of 962 lists it as Sunnanbyrig. Sunbury appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Sunneberie; the name means'Sunna's burgh or fortification'. The same first name is found in Sonning in Berkshire. Sunbury's Domesday assets were: 7 hides, it had 5 ploughs, meadow for 6 ploughs, cattle pasture. It had about 22 households, including one priest and included the manor of Kempton, Chenneston, Kenton or Kenyngton, listed separately.
The manor rendered £6 per year to its feudal system overlords. That of Kempton rendered £4. Sunbury's history is in part told by its surviving buildings, see Landmarks, in particular the wealth and community tie of its parish church and mansions built in the'Georgian period', the 18th century. Rev. Gilbert White described Sunbury, in The Natural History of Selborne, letter xii, 4 November 1767 as "one of those pleasant villages lying on the Thames, near Hampton Court". In 1889 a group of music hall stars met in the Magpie Hotel in Lower Sunbury to form the Grand Order of Water Rats; the pub itself was named after the horse that one of the entertainers owned, whilst the Grand Order was named because the Magpie had been described as a drowned water rat. The Three Fishes in Green Street is one of the oldest pubs in Surrey, thought to date back to the 16th century. In the twentieth century, kennels near Sunbury Cross in the town were used for keeping greyhounds for racing at the disbanded stadiums of Wandsworth and Park Royal.
Sunbury-on-Thames is in Middlesex. Under the Local Government Act of 1888 County Councils were established the following year, with Sunbury governed by the new Middlesex County Council; this was further refined by the creation of Sunbury-on-Thames Urban District in 1894. In 1965, most of Middlesex was absorbed into Greater London. However, the Sunbury-on-Thames Urban District was instead transferred to the County of Surrey; the Royal Mail did not adopt the change in 1965 and the postal county remained Middlesex until their official disestablishment in 1996. In 1974 the urban district was abolished and it has since formed part of the borough of Spelthorne. Sunbury is a post town, in part north and south of the M3, varying from 14 to 9m AOD with a term for each part. Lower Sunbury, 51.411°N 0.409°W / 51.411. Southwest of this in Shepperton are parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt including four farms, a golf course, riverside horseriding centre at Beasley's Ait, the Swan Sanctuary, a rugby training centre and Upper Halliford's park.
Lower Sunbury has one of the larger NHS medical general practitioner centres in the Borough. Football and tennis grounds are in both halves of the town with London Irish being the main organised team in the village. Sunbury Park has dog-walking, cycle paths and facilities and a tree-lined linear park, Hawke Park serves the area; the town has been the home to London Irish RFC since 1932 whose premiership team since 2001 has played at the Madejski Stadium in Reading, Berkshire. Many hundreds of players train at Sunbury during the rugby season, its eastern border is Kempton Park Racecourse which has on the far side of the town the main area of historic woodland and wildlife preservation, the Kempton Park Reservoirs SSSI which blends into the park's own ponds, Portman Brook and additional channels in the Green Belt. The neighbourhood has a tapestry known as the Millennium Embroidery, conceived and designed in the 1990s and completed in 2000. Since July 2006 its permanent home is the purpose-built Sunbury Millennium Embroidery Gallery, in a well-tended, free-to-visit Walled Garden adjoining Sunbury Park.
The opening of a café within the ga
E. D. Abbott Ltd
Abbott of Farnham, E D Abbott Limited was a British coachbuilding business based in Farnham, trading under that name from 1929. A major part of their output was under sub-contract to motor vehicle manufacturers, their business closed in 1972. Edward Dixon Abbott had been employed in the design department of Wolseley Motors before he joined coachbuilders Page and Hunt who had started operations in 1920. Abbott became their London Sales Manager and when Page and Hunt's business failed in 1929 he took over their Farnham works forming a new company using his own name. Many of the early orders were for commercial vehicles which kept the business afloat during the worst of the depression but some car body making continued. From 1931 Abbott took a stand each year at the London Motor Show. Cars fitted with bodies included the Austin 7, Daimlers and Talbots. Abbott built a glider called the Farnham Sailplane and in 1931 the company established a subsidiary Abbott-Baynes Sailplanes Ltd to build more sailplanes.
The parent company continued to advertise the sailplanes. In 1934 Abbott won a major contract from Lagonda to provide all the bodies for the new small Rapier and work from Frazer-Nash for coachwork on imported BMW chassis. During the second world war the company manufactured experimental radar aerials for the Royal Aircraft Establishment. After World War 2 the company restarted its coachbuilding activities building production runs of coupés for Sunbeam-Talbot and Healey, as well as some special bodies for Jowett and Lanchester. Large orders came from Ford for estate car versions of their Consul and Zephyr models which kept the firm in business during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after which Ford estate production was done by Ford themselves as the level of demand had shown mass production was viable; the days of the special coachbuilding industry were numbered and orders declined through the 1960s and the company closed in 1972. 1951 Jaguar XK120 four-seater open tourer by E D Abbott 1952 Bentley R-Type coupé by E D Abbott Talbot Ten, drophead coupé by E D Abbott 1970 Ford Capri Convertible by E D Abbott Walker, Nick.
A-Z of British Coachbuilders, Bay View Books, 1997. ISBN 1-870979-93-1
Graham-Paige was an American automobile manufacturer founded by brothers Joseph B. Graham, Robert C. Graham, Ray A. Graham in 1927. Automobile production ceased in 1940, its automotive assets were acquired by Kaiser-Frazer in 1947; as a corporate entity, the Graham-Paige name continued until 1962. After successful involvement in a glass manufacturing company brothers Joseph B. Robert C. and Ray A. Graham began in 1919 to produce kits to modify TTs into trucks; that led to the brothers building their trucks using engines of various manufacturers and the Graham Brothers brand. They settled on Dodge engines, soon the trucks were sold by Dodge dealers; the Grahams expanded from beginnings in Evansville, opening plants in 1922 on Meldrum Avenue in Detroit, Michigan, of 13,000 square feet, in 1925 on Cherokee Lane in Stockton, California. The Canadian market was supplied by the Canadian Dodge plant. Dodge purchased the Graham Brothers truck firm in 1925, the three Graham brothers took on executive positions at Dodge.
The Graham Brothers brand lasted until 1929, Chrysler Corporation having taken over Dodge in 1928. In 1927, with the banking syndicate controlling Dodge trying to sell the company, the Graham brothers decided to enter the automobile business on their own. In 1927, they purchased the Paige-Detroit Motor Company, makers of Paige and Jewett automobiles, for $3.5 million. Joseph became Robert vice-president and Ray secretary-treasurer of the company; the company's initial offering included a line of Graham-Paige cars with six- and eight-cylinder engines. For a while a line of light trucks was offered under the Paige name, soon discontinued when Dodge reminded the Grahams about the non-competition agreement they had signed as part of the sale of the Graham Brothers Company. Grahams earned a reputation for quality and sales rose. Graham had some success in racing, which helped boost sales; the Graham company logo included profiles of the three brothers and was used in insignia on the cars including badges and taillight lens.
Graham-Paige made most of their own engines. The Graham brothers had solved a long-standing Paige body supply dilemma by purchasing the Wayne Body Company in Wayne and expanding the factory along with other body plants, they did not have a foundry and contracted with Continental for these services relative to their engines. Some models did use Continental stock engines. Graham-Paige's own engineering department designed most of the engines used in Graham-Paige cars; the 1938–1940 "Spirit of Motion" cars and Hollywood models are incorrectly stated to use Continental engines. After World War II Continental produced a lesser version of Graham-Paige's 217-cubic-inch-displacement engine used in the mentioned models; these engines were used in the post-war Frazer automobiles. Graham-Paige withstood the onset of the depression well, but sales fell as the decade wore on; the 1932 models were designed by Amos Northup. This particular design has been noted as the "single most influential design in automotive history."
The new 8-cylinder engine was called the "Blue Streak." However, the press and public adopted the name "Blue Streak" for the cars themselves. The design introduced a number of innovative ideas; the most copied was the enclosed fenders, thus covering the grime built up on the underside. The radiator cap was moved under the hood, which itself was modified to cover the cowl, end at the base of the windshield. For engineering, the rear kickup on the chassis frame was eliminated by the adoption of a'banjo' frame. Unlike contemporary practice, the rear axle was placed through large openings on both sides of the frame, with rubber snubbers to absorb any shock if the car axle should make contact; this in turn permitted a wider body. To help lower the car, the rear springs were mounted on the outer sides of the chassis frame and not under the frame; this idea was copied by other manufacturers - Chrysler, for example, in 1957. For 1934, Graham introduced a crankshaft-driven supercharger, designed in-house by Graham Assistant Chief Engineer Floyd F. Kishline.
At first offered only in the top eight-cylinder models, when the eights were dropped for 1936, the supercharger was adapted to the six. Through the years, Graham would produce more supercharged cars than any other automobile manufacturer until Buick surpassed them in the 1990s. By 1935, the "Blue Streak" styling was getting rather dated. A restyling of the front and rear ends for 1935 proved to be a disaster, making the cars appear higher and narrower. Having no money for a new body, Graham signed an agreement with Reo Motor Car Company to purchase car bodies, paying Reo $7.50 in royalties for each Hayes-built body. The engines did have new full water jackets. Graham added new front end styling and revised detailing to these bodies to create the 1936 and 1937 Grahams. Amos Northup of Murray Body was hired to design a new model for 1938, but he died before the design was complete, it is believed. The new 1938 Graham was introduced with the slogan "Spirit of Motion"; the fenders, wheel openings and grille all appeared to be moving forward.
The design was praised in the American press and by American designers. It won the prestigious Concours D'Elegance in Paris, France. Wins were recorded in the Prix d'Avant-Garde at Lyon, the Prix d'Elegance at Bordeaux, the Grand Prix d'Honneur at Deauville, France, its cut-back grille gained the car the name "sharknose", which appears to have origins in the 1950s. The styling was
SU carburettors are a brand of carburettor of the constant depression type. The design remained in quantity production for much of the twentieth century; the S. U. Carburetter Company Limited manufactured dual-choke updraught carburettors for aero-engines such as the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Rolls-Royce Griffon. Herbert Skinner, pioneer motorist and an active participant in the development of the petrol engine, invented his Union carburettor in 1904, his much younger brother Carl Skinner a motoring enthusiast, had joined the Farman Automobile Co in London in 1899. He helped Herbert to develop the carburettor. Herbert's son could remember his mother sewing the first leather bellows, it would be given on loan to The Science Museum, South Kensington in 1934. In 1905 Herbert applied for a patent, granted in early 1906. Carl sold his interest in footwear business Lilley & Skinner and became a partner in G Wailes & Co of Euston Road, manufacturers of their carburettor. Herbert continued to develop and patent improvements through to the 1920s including the replacement of the leather bellows by a brass piston though he was a full-time director and divisional manager of Lilley & Skinner.
S. U. Company Limited —Skinner-Union— was incorporated in August 1910 to acquire Herbert's carburettor inventions and it began manufacture of the carburettors in a factory at Prince of Wales Road, Kentish Town in North London. Sales were slow. Following the outbreak of war in 1914 carburettor production nearly stopped with the factory making machine gun parts and some aircraft carburettors. With peace in 1918 production resumed but sales remained slow and the company was not profitable so Carl Skinner approached his customer, W. R. Morris, managed to sell him the business. Carl Skinner became a director of Morris's held empire and remained managing director of S. U. until he retired in 1948 aged 65. Production was moved to the W R Morris owned Wolseley factory at Birmingham. In 1936 W R Morris sold many of his held businesses including S. U. to his listed company, Morris Motors. Manufacture continued, now by The S. U. Carburetter Company Limited, incorporated 15 September 1936 as part of the Morris Organization known as the Nuffield Organization.
The S. U. Carburetter Company Limited of 1936 was voluntarily liquidated in December 1994. In 1996 the name and rights were acquired by Burlen Fuel Systems Limited of Salisbury which incorporated an new company with the name The S. U. Carburetter Company Limited which continues to manufacture carburettors and components for the classic car market. S. U. carburettors were used not only in Morris's Morris and MG products but Rolls-Royce, Rover, Turner, Jaguar and Swedish Volvo, Saab 99 automobiles for much of the twentieth century. S. U. produced carburettors for aircraft engines including the early versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin, but these were of the conventional fixed-jet updraught type rather than the firm's patented constant-depression design. They remained on production cars through to 1993 in the Mini and the Maestro by which time the company had become part of the Rover Group. Hitachi built carburettors based on the SU design which were used on the Datsun 240Z, Datsun 260Z and other Datsun Cars.
While these appear the same, only their needles are interchangeable. SU carburettors featured a variable venturi controlled by a piston; this piston has a tapered, conical metering rod that fits inside an orifice which admits fuel into the airstream passing through the carburettor. Since the needle is tapered, as it rises and falls it opens and closes the opening in the jet, regulating the passage of fuel, so the movement of the piston controls the amount of fuel delivered, depending on engine demand; the exact dimensions of the taper are tailored during engine development. The flow of air through the venturi creates a reduced static pressure in the venturi; this pressure drop is communicated to the upper side of the piston via an air passage. The underside of the piston is open to atmospheric pressure; the difference in pressure between the two sides of the piston lifts the piston. Opposing this are the weight of the piston and the force of a spring, compressed by the piston rising; because the spring is operating over a small part of its possible range of extension, its force is constant.
Under steady state conditions the upwards and downwards forces on the piston are equal and opposite, the piston does not move. If the airflow into the engine is increased - by opening the throttle plate, or by allowing the engine revs to rise with the throttle plate at a constant setting - the pressure drop in the venturi increases, the pressure above the piston falls, the piston is pushed upwards, increasing the size of the venturi, until the pressure drop in the venturi returns to its nominal level. If the airflow into the engine is reduced, the piston will fall; the result is that the pressure drop in the venturi remains the same regardless of the speed of the airflow - hence the name "constant depression" for carburettors operating on this principle - but the piston rises and falls according to the rate of air delivery. Since the position of the piston controls the position of the needle in the jet and thus the open area of the jet, while the depression in the venturi sucking fuel out of the jet remains constant, the rate of fuel delivery is always a definite function of the rate of air delivery.
The precise nature of the function is determined by the profile of the needle. With appropriate selection of the needle, the fuel delivery can be m
Carlton Carriage Company
The Carlton Carriage Company was a respected London coachbuilder that provided bespoke coachwork for some of the finest car makers of the 1920 and 30's. They are best known for their drophead coupes. Carlton Carriage Company was founded in 1924 under the name of the Kelvin Carriage Company and changed its name to Carlton Carriage Co in 1925; the founders had close connections with Motor Car Industries and the Waverly car company. Carlton began exhibiting at Olympia in 1926; the firm's business offices were in Shepherd Bush and their manufacturing operations were located at Waldo Works, Waldo Rd. These moved to Trenmar Gardens Willesden London NW 10, their design team during the 1930s was sought after for their drophead designs on Rolls-Royce and Bentley chassis. Their last designer was Cyril James Ingram who among other things specialized in reboding pre-war Rolls-Royces in the 1950s/60s. Carlton created bodies for both American manufacturers; the main European manufactures for which Carlton provided bodies included: Alfa Romeo, Daimler, Hipano-Suiza, Lancia, Mercedes, MG, Rolls-Royce, Talbot and Waverly.
The main American manufacturers that they created bodies for included: Buick, Essex, Oldsmobile and Pontiac. Carlton worked as a contract manufacturer for other coachbuilders including Connaught and Offord, they offered a full range of designs and are best known for their drophead coupe, coupe-de-villes, continental tourer, sport salons and 2-seater sport roadster designs. Some of their more admired designs have a distinctive deco flair. Many of their designs have elements that are similar to American styles of the period, which could be due to their work with American manufacturers and their American clientele. Carlton's bespoke coachwork business ended by 1939; the company continued coachwork including re-boding pre-war Rolls-Royces until it closed in 1965. Bentley - The Carlton Carriage Company produced bodies for both W. O. Bentleys and Derby Bentleys, they built eleven twelve individual bodies on the "Silent Sports Car" Bentley Chassis between 1934 and 1939 including B55KU, B44MR, B56JD, B203KU and B193GPJ.
Daimler - In 1939, Winston Churchill commissioned Carlton to build a drophead coupe on the Daimler DB18 chassis. Never used until post-World War II, he used it to campaign both the 1948 general elections. Mercedes-Benz –. One of the most famous Mercedes-Benz bodied by Carlton is the George Milligen, 1929 Mercedes-Benz 38/250 Model SSK which delighted visitors at the 2009 Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance; the SSK was known as the faster sports car in the world in the late 1920s. Rolls-Royce - About 50 bodies were created for Rolls-Royce chassis between 1924 and 1939, their designs included some of the most archetypal drophead coupes of the period such as 6GX, 32MS, 67GX, 127RY, GBT80, GFT78 and GGA29. The Carlton drophead body was so successful. Carlton bodied Rolls-Royces have won numerous awards and recognition at major auto shows and concours around the world