Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
AEK Athens F.C.
AEK Athens Football Club known as AEK FC, is a Greek football club based in Nea Filadelfeia, a suburb of Athens, Greece. The club is known in European competitions as AEK Athens FC. Established in Athens in 1924 by Greek refugees from Constantinople in the wake of the Greco-Turkish War, AEK has become one of the three most popular clubs in Greece and the Greek diaspora, one of the three most successful teams in Greek football, winning 32 national titles and the only one to have won all the competitions organised by the Hellenic Football Federation; the club has appeared several times in European competitions, in which they are the most successful Greek football club in terms of achievements. They were the first Greek team to compete in the group stage of the UEFA Champions League and they are the only Greek team to have reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup, they have reached the quarter-finals of the European Cup once and the quarter-finals of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup twice. The large Greek population of Constantinople, not unlike those of the other Ottoman urban centres, continued its athletic traditions in the form of numerous athletic clubs.
Clubs such as Énosis Tatávlon and Iraklís from the Tatavla district, Mégas Aléxandros and Ermís of Galata, Olympiás of Therapia existed to promote Hellenic athletic and cultural ideals. These were amongst a dozen Greek-backed clubs that dominated the sporting landscape of the city in the years preceding World War I. After the war, with the influx of French and British soldiers to Constantinople, many of the city's clubs participated in regular competition with teams formed by the foreign troops. Taxim and Tatavla became the scene of weekly competitions in not only football, but athletics, cycling and tennis. Of the clubs in the city, football was dominated by Énosis Ermís. Ermís, one of the most popular sports clubs, was formed in 1875 by the Greek community of Pera. Known as "Pera" since the mid 1880s, "The Greek Football Team" when its football department was formed in 1914, it was forced to change its name to "Pera Sports Club", "Beyoğluspor Kulübü" in 1923. Many of its athletes, those of most other sporting clubs, fled during the population exchanges at the end of the Greco-Turkish War, settled in Athens and Thessaloniki.
In 1924, the founders of AEK – a group of Constantinopolitan refugees – met at the athletic shop "Lux" of Emilios Ionas and Konstantinos Dimopoulos on Veranzerou Street, in the center of Athens, created AEK. Their intention was to create a club that provided athletic and cultural diversions for the thousands of predominantly Constantinopolitan and Anatolian refugees who had settled in the new suburbs of Athens; the first team of AEK was: GK: Kitsos, DF: Ieremiadis, DF: Asderis, MF: Kechagias, MF: Paraskevas, MF: Dimopoulos, MF: Karagiannides, FW: Baltas, FW: Milas, FW: Iliades, FW: Georgiades. AEK played its first match against Aias Athinon in November 1924, winning 2–0. AEK's football team grew in popularity during the 1920s, eclipsing the already-established Athens-based refugee clubs, thanks to the large pool of immigrants that were drawn to the club, the significance of the name "Constantinople" for many refugees and Greeks, plus, in no small part, to the political connections and wealth of several of the club's board members.
Not possessing a football ground, AEK played most of its early matches at various locations around Athens, including the grounds of the Temple of Olympian Zeus and the Leoforos Alexandras Stadium. AEK's first president, Konstantinos Spanoudis, a journalist and associate of the Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, petitioned the government to set aside land for the establishment of a sports ground. In 1926, land in Nea Filadelfeia, set aside for refugee housing, was donated as a training ground for the refugees' sports activities. AEK began using the ground for training, albeit unofficially. In 1928, Olympiacos and AEK began a dispute with the fledgling Hellenic Football Federation, decided to break away from the Athens regional league, formed an alliance called POK. During the dispute, POK organised friendly matches against each other and several continental European clubs. In 1929, the dispute ended and AEK, along with the other POK clubs, entered the EPO fold once again. In 1930, the property where AEK trained was signed over to the club.
Venizelos soon approved the plans to build what was to become AEK's home ground for the next 70 years, the Nikos Goumas Stadium. The first home game, in November 1930, was an exhibition match against Olympiacos that ended in a 2–2 draw. In 1932, AEK won their first Greek Cup title; the team boasted a number of star football players like Kostas Negrepontis, Kleanthis Maropoulos, Tryfon Tzanetis, Michalis Delavinias, Giorgos Mageiras, Spyros Sklavounos. The club's mixed success during the 1930s was highlighted by the first Greek Champio
Player of the match
In team sports, a man of the match award is given to the outstanding player in a particular match. This can be a player from either team, although the player is chosen from the winning team; some sports have unique traditions regarding these awards, they are sought-after in championship or all-star games. In Australia, the term "best and fairest" is used, both for individual games and season-long awards. In some competitions in North America, the terms "most valuable player" or "most outstanding player" are used. In ice hockey in North America, three players of the game, called the "three stars", are recognised. In sports where playoffs are decided by series rather than individual games, such as professional basketball and baseball, MVP awards are given for the series, in ice hockey's NHL, for performance in the entire playoffs. In football, the "man of the match" award goes to a player on the winning side. Players who score a hat-trick, or goalkeepers who keep a clean sheet under pressure get the award.
Hat-trick scorers receive the match ball whether or not they are named man of the match. The man of the match is chosen by a television commentator or a sponsor. However, not all competitions have an official man of the match award, so sometimes accolades are given by websites or newspapers instead. In the Premier League, for example, a player receives a small black and gold trophy for their man of the match performance. In Australian rules football, the player of the game is referred to as having been the "best on ground". Media outlets provide immediate, unofficial recognition, honorary on a 5–4–3–2–1 or 3–2–1 voting basis. Players may receive a Tissot watch as an award for their "best on ground" performance; the AFL recognises the player of the game as being the player awarded the maximum three votes by umpires in the Brownlow Medal count at season's end. Exceptions are made during the season for certain reserved games such as the Western Derby, The ANZAC Day clash, QClash, Showdown, where medallions are rewarded in presentations following the conclusion of the match.
On the day of the AFL Grand Final, a player will be awarded the Norm Smith Medal as being the best on ground voted by an independent panel of Australian rules football experts. In cricket, the man of the match award became; the man of the match title is awarded to the player whose contribution is seen as the most critical in winning the game. In one match held on 3 April 1996, the whole team from New Zealand was awarded the Men of the Match award, it was the first instance. In a test match played between 15,16,17,18 January 1999 between South Africa vs West Indies, the whole South African team was awarded man of the match In Test matches, Jacques Kallis holds the record for the highest number of awards won, with 23 in 166 matches played. In ODIs, Sachin Tendulkar holds the record for the highest number of man of the match titles, with 62 awards in 463 matches played. Tendulkar is followed by Sanath Jayasuriya, along with Ricky Ponting holds the record for the most Man of the Match titles as captain.
In the shortest form of the game, T20 Internationals, this record is held by Shahid Afridi, who has won 11 awards in 99 matches. In the Gaelic games of hurling and Gaelic football, the "man of the match" is awarded after important games. An unusual example was the 2008 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final, where the award was given to Brian Cody, the Kilkenny manager, rather than to a player. In the women's sports of camogie and ladies' Gaelic football, the term "player of the match" is used instead. In North American ice hockey, the three players who perform best in the game either those who accumulate the most points or outstanding goaltenders, are designated the Three stars of the game: the top-performing player is the first star, so on; this tradition originated in the 1930s as a promotion for a "Three Star" brand of gasoline. However, in international play, the three stars concept is used. Instead, other leagues may issue awards to one player. Both codes of rugby, rugby league and rugby union have man of the match or player of the match awards.
In televised or sponsored matches, a commentator or sponsor decides who gets the award, it is presented to the winner after the match. Examples of man of the match awards in professional men's rugby league are the Clive Churchill Medal in the National Rugby League Grand Final, the Karyn Murphy Medal in the NRL Women's Grand Final the Lance Todd Trophy in the Challenge Cup final and the Harry Sunderland Trophy in the Super League Grand Final. In college basketball and college football, the two collegiate sports with the most television coverage in the United States, a top player from each team is honoured as "players of the game." These athletes cannot collect material prizes due to NCAA regulations. Instead, television companies broadcasting the game or corporate sponsors will make donations to the scholarship funds of each school in the names of the winning players. In college basketball's Final Four events, a Most Outstanding Player award is given, for performance across both the semi-final and championship game.
A Most Outstanding Player award is given for each of the four regionals, based upon performances in the regional semifinals and final. The National Football League names an MVP for two prominent games on its schedule
Substitute (association football)
In association football, a substitute is a player, brought on to the pitch during a match in exchange for an existing player. Substitutions are made to replace a player who has become tired or injured, or, performing poorly, or for tactical reasons. Unlike some sports, a player, substituted during a match may take no further part in it. Most competitions only allow each team to make a maximum of three substitutions during a game and a fourth substitute during extra time, although more substitutions are permitted in non-competitive fixtures such as friendlies. A fourth substitution in extra time was first implemented in recent tournaments, including the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 2017 CONCACAF Gold Cup final. A fourth substitute in extra time has been approved for use in the elimination rounds at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League; each team nominates a number of players. When the substitute enters the field of play it is said they have come on or have been brought on, while the player they are substituting is coming off or being brought off.
A player, noted for making appearances, or scoring important goals, as a substitute is informally known as a "super sub". The origin of football substitutes goes back to at least the early 1860s as part of English public school football games; the original use of the term "substitute" in football was to describe the replacement of players who failed to turn up for matches. For example, in 1863, a match reports states: "The Charterhouse eleven played a match in cloisters against some old Carthusians but in consequence of the non-appearance of some of those who were expected it was necessary to provide three substitutes." The substitution of absent players happened as early as the 1850s, for example from Eton College where the term "emergencies" is used. Numerous references to players acting as a "substitute" occur in matches in the mid-1860s where it is not indicated whether these were replacements of absent players or of players injured during the match; the first use of a substitute in international football was on 15 April 1889, in the match between Wales and Scotland at Wrexham.
Wales's original goalkeeper, Jim Trainer, failed to arrive. Substitution during games was first permitted in 1958; the use of substitutes in World Cup Finals matches was not allowed until the 1970 tournament. The number of substitutes usable in a competitive match has increased from zero—meaning teams were reduced if players' injuries could not allow them to play on—to one in 1958. With the increases in substitutions allowed, the number of potential substitute players increased to seven; the number of substitutes increased to two plus one in 1994, to three in 1995. Substitutions during matches in the English Football League were first permitted in the 1965–66 season. During the first two seasons after the law was introduced, each side was permitted only one substitution during a game. Moreover, the substitute could only replace an injured player. From the 1967–68 season, this rule was relaxed to allow substitutions for tactical reasons. On 21 August 1965, Keith Peacock of Charlton Athletic became the first substitute used in the Football League when he replaced injured goalkeeper Mike Rose eleven minutes into their away match against Bolton Wanderers.
On the same day, Bobby Knox became the first substitute to score a goal when he scored for Barrow against Wrexham. Archie Gemmill of St Mirren was the first substitute to come on in a Scottish first-class match, on 13 August 1966 in a League Cup tie against Clyde when he replaced Jim Clunie after 23 minutes; the first official substitute in a Scottish League match was Paul Conn for Queen's Park vs Albion Rovers in a Division 2 match on 24 August 1966. On 20 January 1917, a player called Morgan came on for the injured Morrison of Partick Thistle after 5 minutes against Rangers at Firhill, but this was an isolated case and the Scottish League did not authorise substitutes until 1966. In years, the number of substitutes permitted in Football League matches has increased. In England, the Premier League increased the number of players on the bench to five in 1996, it was announced that the number available on the bench would be seven for the 2008–09 season. Substitutions are governed under Law 3 of the Laws of the Game in the Substitution Procedure section.
A player may only be substituted with the permission of the referee. The player to be substituted must have left the field of play before the substitute may enter the field of play; the incoming player may only enter the field at the half-way line. Failure to comply with th
Urbs Reggina 1914
Urbs Reggina 1914 referred to as Reggina, is an Italian football club based in Reggio Calabria. Founded in 1914, they play in Serie C, play their home matches at the 27,763 seater Stadio Oreste Granillo, their majority shareholder is Mimmo Praticò, former regional president of CONI. He took over control of the club in 2015, they are nicknamed the amaranto after their official colours. The club formerly known as Reggina Calcio as well as A. S. D. Reggio Calabria or S. S. D. Reggio Calabria in 2015–16 season; the club was founded on 11 January 1914 as Unione Sportiva Reggio Calabria, changed name many times assuming their current denomination in 1986. In recent years, Reggina have been alternating between the top two levels of the Italian league, they reached the Italian top division Serie A for the first time in 1999. Two years they lost a relegation playoff against Verona, being relegated to Serie B. Reggina finished third in Serie B in 2002, earning a return to Serie A. In 2003, Reggina survived a relegation playout against Atalanta.
They would spend the next 7 years maintaining their Serie A status until their eventual relegation in the 2008–09 season. They were indicted in 2006 for sporting fraud as part of the second wave of Serie A scandal investigations. Punished with a 15-point deduction for the Serie A 2006-07 reduced to 11 points following appeal. Despite the heavy deduction of points, Reggina managed to save themselves from relegation, defeating fresh UEFA Champions League winners Milan on the final matchday and ending the season with 40 points, just one single point above the third relegation spot, occupied by Chievo, they however poorly started their 2007–08 campaign, causing head coach Massimo Ficcadenti to be sacked and replaced by Renzo Ulivieri. A third managerial change, with Ulivieri fired and replacing with team scout Nevio Orlandi, proved to be successful as Reggina improved their results and performances, escaping relegation with key wins at Catania, home to Empoli. Orlandi was subsequently confirmed at the helm of the amaranto for the 2008–09 season.
Since their relegation in 2008–09 season, Reggina has become inconsistent in their attempts to return Italy's top flight. The 2009–10 season would see three different coaches at the helm. Despite possessing Bonazzoli, Tedesco and home grown star Missiroli they were unable to gain a better position than 13th. Disappointing for a team just relegated from the top division. Top goal scorer for the campaign was Brienza with 12; the 2010–11 season was regarded as one of the Amaranto's best in Serie B. Shockingly they would conduct their usual coaching merry go round, as Gianluca Atzori would lead them to a 6th-place finish and playoff's to Serie A. they would stumble at the last hurdle losing to Novara in a two legged play off. Top players include. Top goal scorer: Bonazzoli with 19 goalsThe 2011–12 season was another disappointing season from the Amaranto, with a 12th-placed finish. Two coaches took charge of Reggina this season. Unlike the previous season they did not make the play-offs. Top players in this season's squad include: Adejo, Missiroli and Ceravolo.
Top scorcer was Ceravolo with 11 The 2012–13 season would be marred with yet another controversy similar to that of 2006. Reggina were penalised for the latest match fixing scandal that hit Italian shores and were given a −4 penalty as a result. After appeal it was reduced to −2 instead, they were in contention for playoff places right until the last few rounds where poor form saw them end the season in 11th place. The 2013–14 season ended in disaster, as Reggina won just six out of 42 games and finished second bottom, resulting in relegation to Lega Pro; the season marked Foti's retirement from his role as president, handed over to Giuseppe Ranieri. For the club's 2014–15 Lega Pro campaign, Reggina began the season with former captain Francesco Cozza as head coach. After a difficult start to the season and two coaching changes, youth team coach and former player Giacomo Tedesco was hired as head coach for the final three weeks of the season. Despite winning two of the final three matches, Reggina finished last in the league and would have to rely on an appeal of their point penalty to lift them out of the relegation zone.
The appeal was successful and 2 points were returned to move them out of last place. Tedesco guided the team to survival in the playout over rivals Messina. Despite avoiding relegation in the 2014–15 season, Reggina failed to meet the deadline to register for Lega Pro and the club declared bankruptcy. A new club, A. S. D. Reggio Calabria, was reformed to play in Serie D for the 2015–16 season, Reggio Calabria ended the season in 4th place, losing in the first round of playoffs against Cavese. During the season the club re-incorporated from associazione sportiva dilettantistica to società sportiva dilettantistiche a responsabilità limitata legal form. In June 2016, It was reported that the club was renamed from "S. S. D. Reggio Calabria a r.l." to "S. S. D. Urbs Sportiva Reggina 1914 a r.l.. The club was renamed as Urbs Reggina 1914 S.r.l.. Despite finishing as the losing side of the first round of the promotion playoffs of 2015–16 Serie D, the club filed for Lega Pro repechage to fill one of the vacancies for the 2016
PAOK Football Club known as PAOK FC, PAOK Thessaloniki or PAOK, is a professional Greek football club based in Thessaloniki and one of the top clubs in Greece. Established on 20 April 1926 by Greek Constantinopolitans who fled to Thessaloniki from the city of Constantinople in the wake of the Greco-Turkish War, they play their home games at Toumba Stadium, with a capacity of 28,701 seats, their name, along with the club's emblem, the Byzantine-style double-headed eagle with retracted wings, adopted three years after the establishment of the club, honours the memory of the people and places that once belonged to the Byzantine Empire and after the Fall of Constantinople were invaded and conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. Τhe club is one of the founding members of the Hellenic Football Federation, formed in 1926. PAOK plays in the top-flight Super League, which they have won twice, they are six-time winners of the Greek Cup. With a 14th-place finish being the worst position achieved, the team has never been relegated to a lower national division since its establishment in 1926, a feat equalled only by rivals Olympiacos and Panathinaikos.
The team has appeared several times in the UEFA Europa League, but has yet to reach the group stage of the UEFA Champions League. Their best European performance was in the 1973–74 season, when they reached the quarter-finals of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. In addition to this, it is the only Greek team that has more wins than losses in all its European history. PAOK FC is the oldest division of P. A. O. K; the successor of Hermes ACAC, formed in 1875 by the Greek community of Pera, a district of Istanbul. The football club was founded in 1926, it was created by Constantinopolitans who fled to Thessaloniki after the Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War, although it was open to every citizen of Thessaloniki, leading to a minor rivalry with "AEK Thessalonikis", the other Constantinopolitan team of the city, in which played only refugees. The original logo of PAOK was a four-leaf clover. PAOK played their first game on May 4, 1926, at the Thermaikos stadium, defeating Megas Alexandros Thessaloniki 2–1.
The first coach of the club spent five years on the team's bench, was unpaid, Kostas Andreadis. Their first captain was Michalis Ventourelis; the season 1926–1927, PAOK participated in the 2nd division of Macedonia Football Clubs Association Championship, where was AEK Thessalonikis. The first official match of their history was on 12 December 1926, where they defeated Nea Genea 3–1, for the same division. After winning the championship of the 2nd division, forced by the organizing authority, to play with all club's from first division, he had to win them to be promoted, they won all four teams, Thermaikos with 4–1, Aris with 2–1, Atlantas with 1–0 and Iraklis with 1–0, was promoted. In 1927–1928 they participated for the first time in 1st division EPSM; the first professional contract was signed by the club on 5 September 1928. The contract stipulated that the French footballer Raymond Etienne—of Jewish descent from Pera Club—would be paid 4,000 drachmas per month; the contract was signed by Dr. Meletiou, the PAOK chairman, Mr. Sakellaropoulos, the Hon. Secretary.
In early 1929, AEK Thessalonikis was dissolved and its members joined PAOK. PAOK changed their emblem, adopting the two-headed eagle, until today; the double-headed eagle symbolizes the origins of the club in the former Byzantine capital and the legacy of the Greek refugees from the Ottoman Empire. PAOK got possession of AEK's facilities and the area around Syntrivani Square, next to the Childrens Asylum Institution, where today stands the Faculty of Theology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. In 1930–1931 they made their debut in the Pan-Hellenic Championship, playing their first match the 1st of February 1931, against Olympiacos at Piraeus, where they were defeated with 3-1, ended the season in 5th place; the first foreign coach in the team's history was Austrian Rudolf Gasner, who served PAOK in 1931–1932. On 5 June 1932, the Syntrivani Stadium was inaugurated with PAOK's 3–2 victory over Iraklis. Syntrivani was to be their home ground for 27 years. In 1937, PAOK won their first title, the Macedonia Championship, participated in the Pan-Hellenic Championship, finishing second.
The 1937 team included: Sotiriadis, Goulios, Bostantzoglou, Glaros, Ioannidis, Koukoulas, Apostolou, Vasiliadis, Moschidis, Zacapidas. On May 28, 1939, PAOK competed for the first time in a Greek Cup final against AEK and was defeated 2–1 on the Apostolos Nikolaidis. In the same season they competed in the final of the 1939–40 Pan-Hellenic Championship, where they lost in double final from AEK. In 1940 they won the North Greece championship; the beginning of the Greco-Italian War brought the general mobilization in Greece, the end of every sport activity. PAOK's footballers were presented to Hellenic Army and two of them gave their lives to battle. Goalkeeper Nikos left defender Giorgos Vatikis. T
Serie A called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia. It has been operating for over eighty years since the 1929–30 season, it had been organized by Lega Calcio until 2010, when the Lega Serie A was created for the 2010–11 season. Serie A is regarded as one of the best football leagues in the world and it is depicted as the most tactical national league. Serie A was the world's second-strongest national league in 2014 according to IFFHSand has produced the highest number of European Cup finalists: Italian clubs have reached the final of the competition on 27 occasions, winning the title 12 times. Serie A is ranked third among European leagues according to UEFA's league coefficient, behind La Liga, Premier League, ahead of Bundesliga and Ligue 1, based on the performance of Italian clubs in the Champions League and the Europa League during the last five years.
Serie A led the UEFA ranking from 1986 to 1988 and from 1990 to 1999. In its current format, the Italian Football Championship was revised from having regional and interregional rounds, to a single-tier league from the 1929–30 season onwards; the championship titles won prior to 1929 are recognised by FIGC with the same weighting as titles that were subsequently awarded. However, the 1945–46 season, when the league was played over two geographical groups due to the ravages of WWII, is not statistically considered if its title is official. All the winning teams are recognised with the title of Campione d'Italia, ratified by the Lega Serie A before the start of the next edition of the championship; the league hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus and Internazionale, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs from 2000 to 2008, being the first two cited founding members of its successive organisation, European Club Association.
More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any league in the world other than Spain's La Liga. – although Spain's La Liga has the highest total number of Ballon d'Or winners. Juventus, Italy's most successful club of the 20th century and the most successful Italian team, is tied for fourth in Europe and eighth in the world with the most official international titles; the club is the only one in the world to have won all possible official confederation competitions. Milan is joint third club for official international titles won in the world, with 18. Internazionale, following their achievements in the 2009–10 season, became the first Italian team to have achieved a treble. Inter are the only team in Italian football history to have never been relegated. Juventus and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina and Napoli, are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football. Serie A is one of the most storied football leagues in the world. Of the 100 greatest footballers in history chosen by FourFourTwo magazine in 2017, 42 players have played in Serie A, more than any other league in the world.
Juventus is the team that has produced the most World Cup champions, with Inter and Milan, being third and ninth in that ranking. Serie A, as it is structured today, began during the 1929–30 season. From 1898 to 1922, the competition was organised into regional groups; because of growing teams attending regional championships, the Italian Football Federation split the CCI in 1921. When CCI teams rejoined the FIGC created two interregional divisions renaming Categories into Divisions and splitting FIGC sections into two North-South leagues. In 1926, due to internal crises, the FIGC changed internal settings, adding southern teams to the national division leading to the 1929–30 final settlement. No title was awarded in 1927 after Torino were stripped of the championship by the FIGC. Torino were declared champions in the 1948–49 season following a plane crash near the end of the season in which the entire team was killed; the Serie A Championship title is referred to as the scudetto because since the 1924–25 season, the winning team will bear a small coat of arms with the Italian tricolour on their strip in the following season.
The most successful club is Juventus with 34 championships, followed by both Milan and Internazionale, with 18 championships apiece. From the 2004–05 season onwards, an actual trophy was awarded to club on the pitch after the last turn of the championship; the trophy, called the Coppa Campioni d'Italia, has been used since the 1960–61 season, but between 1961 and 2004 was consigned to the winning clubs at the head office of the Lega Nazionale Professionisti. In April 2009, Serie A announced a split from Serie B. Nineteen of the twenty clubs voted in favour of the move in an argument over television rights. Maurizio Beretta, the former head of Italy's employers' association, became president of the new league. In April 2016, it was announced that Serie A was selected by the International Football Association Board to test video replays, which were private for the 2016–17 season, allowing them to become a live pilot phase, with replay assistance implemented in the 2017–18 season. On the decision, FIGC President Carlo Tavecchio said, "We were among the first supporters of using technology on the pitch and we believe we have everything required to offer our contribution to this important experiment."
For most of Serie A's history, there were 16 or 18