A bathroom is a room in the home or hotel for personal hygiene activities containing a toilet, a sink and either a bathtub, a shower, or both. In some countries, the toilet is included in the bathroom, whereas other cultures consider this insanitary or impractical, give that fixture a room of its own; the toilet may be outside of the home in the case of pit latrines. It may be a question of available space in the house whether the toilet is included in the bathroom or not. Bathing was a collective activity, which took place in public baths. In some countries the shared social aspect of cleansing the body is still important, as for example with sento in Japan and the "Turkish bath" throughout the Islamic world. In North American English the word "bathroom" may be used to mean any room containing a toilet a public toilet; the term for the place used to clean the body varies around the English-speaking world, as does the design of the room itself. A full bathroom is understood to contain a bath or shower, a toilet, a sink.
An ensuite bathroom or ensuite shower room is attached to, only accessible from, a bedroom. A family bathroom, in British estate agent terminology, is a full bathroom not attached to a bedroom, but with its door opening onto a corridor. A Jack and Jill bathroom is situated between and shared by the occupants of two separate bedrooms, it may have two wash basins. A wetroom is a waterproof room equipped with a shower. In the United States, there is a lack of a universal definition. Bathrooms are categorized as "master bathroom", containing a shower and a bathtub, adjoining to the largest bedroom. In some U. S. markets, a toilet and shower are considered a "full bath." In addition, there is the use of the word "bathroom" to describe a room containing a toilet and a basin, nothing else. Bathrooms have one or more towel bars or towel rings for hanging towels Some bathrooms contain a bathroom cabinet for personal hygiene products and medicines, drawers or shelves for storing towels and other items; some bathrooms contain a bidet.
The design of a bathroom must account for the use of both hot and cold water, in significant quantities, for cleaning the body. The water is used for moving solid and liquid human waste to a sewer or septic tank. Water may be splashed on the walls and floor, hot humid air may cause condensation on cold surfaces. From a decorating point of view the bathroom presents a challenge. Ceiling and floor materials and coverings should be impervious to water and and cleaned; the use of ceramic or glass, as well as smooth plastic materials, is common in bathrooms for their ease of cleaning. Such surfaces are cold to the touch, so water-resistant bath mats or bathroom carpets may be used on the floor to make the room more comfortable. Alternatively, the floor may be heated by strategically placing resistive electric mats under floor tile or radiant hot water tubing close to the underside of the floor surface. Electrical appliances, such as lights and heated towel rails need to be installed as fixtures, with permanent connections rather than plugs and sockets.
This minimizes the risk of electric shock. Ground-fault circuit interrupter electrical sockets can reduce the risk of electric shock, are required for bathroom socket installation by electrical and building codes in the United States and Canada. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, only special sockets suitable for electric shavers and electric toothbrushes are permitted in bathrooms, are labelled as such. UK building regulations define what type of electrical fixtures, such as light fittings may be installed in the areas around and above baths, showers. Contrary to some information provided with bathroom light fittings and basins do not affect bathroom zones, as a bathroom is defined as a room containing a bath or shower, by wiring regulations, it is good practice to avoid installing unsuitable fixtures close to sinks, as damage from water splashes may occur. Bathroom lighting should be uniform and must minimize glare. For all the activities like shaving, grooming etc. one must ensure equitable lighting across the entire bathroom space.
The mirror area should have at least two sources of light at least 1 feet apart to eliminate any shadows on the face. Skin tones and hair color are highlighted with a tinge of yellow light. Ceiling and wall lights must be safe for use in a bathroom and therefore must carry appropriate certification such as IP44. All forms of bathroom lighting should be IP44 rated as safe to use in the bathroom; the first records for the use of baths date back as far as 3000 B. C. At this time water had a strong religious value, being seen as a purifying element for both body and soul, so it was not uncommon for people to be required t
A balcony is a platform projecting from the wall of a building, supported by columns or console brackets, enclosed with a balustrade above the ground floor. The traditional Maltese balcony is a wooden closed balcony projecting from a wall. By contrast, a'Juliet balcony' does not protrude out of the building, it is part of an upper floor, with a balustrade only at the front, like a small Loggia. Modern Juliet balconies involve a metal barrier placed in front of a high window which can be opened. Juliet balconies are named after Shakespeare's Juliet, who, in traditional stagings of the play Romeo and Juliet, is courted by Romeo while she is on her balcony—though the play itself, as written, makes no mention of a balcony, but only of a window at which Juliet appears. Various types of balcony have been used in depicting this famous scene; the Julian Balcony is a larger version of the well-known Juliet Balcony, protruding from the wall, unlike the smaller Juliet balcony, spanning at least two windows rather than one.
Sometimes balconies are adapted for ceremonial purposes, e.g. that of St. Peter's Basilica at Rome, when the newly elected pope gives his blessing urbi et orbi after the conclave. Inside churches, balconies are sometimes provided for the singers, in banqueting halls and the like for the musicians. A unit with a regular balcony will have doors that open up onto a small patio with railings, a small Patio garden or Skyrise greenery. A French balcony is a false balcony, with doors that open to a railing with a view of the courtyard or the surrounding scenery below. In theatres, the balcony was a stage-box, but the name is now confined to the part of the auditorium above the dress circle and below the gallery. Balconies are part of the sculptural shape of the building allowing for irregular facades without the cost of irregular internal structures. One of the most famous uses of a balcony is in traditional stagings of the scene that has come to be known as the "balcony scene" in William Shakespeare's tragedy and Juliet.
Manufacturers' names for their balcony designs refer to the origin of the design, e.g. Italian balcony, Spanish balcony, Mexican balcony, Ecuadorian balcony, they refer to the shape and form of the pickets used for the balcony railings, e.g. knuckle balcony. Deck Jharokha Loggia Mashrabiya Mezzanine Minstrel's gallery Patio Porch Verandah Balconing Media related to Balconies at Wikimedia Commons "Balcony". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, dedicated to a specific deity, hero, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines contain idols, relics, or other such objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which votive offerings are made is called an altar. Shrines are found in many of the world's religions, including Christianity, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion and Asatru as well as in secular and non-religious settings such as a war memorial. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches, cemeteries, museums, or in the home, although portable shrines are found in some cultures. A shrine may become a focus of a cult image. Many shrines are located within buildings and in the temples designed for worship, such as a church in Christianity, or a mandir in Hinduism. A shrine here is the centre of attention in the building, is given a place of prominence. In such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine.
In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella. In Hinduism and Roman Catholicism, in modern faiths, such as Neopaganism, a shrine can be found within the home or shop; this shrine is a small structure or a setup of pictures and figurines dedicated to a deity, part of the official religion, to ancestors or to a localised household deity. Small household shrines are common among the Chinese and people from South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu, Buddhist or Christian. A small lamp and small offerings are kept daily by the shrine. Buddhist household shrines must be on a shelf above the head. Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many peoples' gardens, following various religions, including Christianity. Many consist of a statue of Christ or a saint, on a pedestal or in an alcove, while others may be elaborate booths without ceilings, some include paintings and architectural elements, such as walls, glass doors and ironwork fences, etc. In the United States, some Christians have small yard shrines.
Religious images in some sort of small shelter, placed by a road or pathway, sometimes in a settlement or at a crossroads. Shrines are found in many religions; as distinguished from a temple, a shrine houses a particular relic or cult image, the object of worship or veneration. A shrine may be constructed to set apart a site, thought to be holy, as opposed to being placed for the convenience of worshippers. Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage. Shrines are found in many, forms of Christianity. Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism. In the Roman Catholic Code of Canon law, canons 1230 and 1231 read: "The term shrine means a church or other sacred place which, with the approval of the local Ordinary, is by reason of special devotion frequented by the faithful as pilgrims. For a shrine to be described as national, the approval of the Episcopal Conference is necessary. For it to be described as international, the approval of the Holy See is required."Another use of the term "shrine" in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – larger – churches used by parishioners when praying in the church.
They were called Devotional Altars, since they could look like small Side Altars or bye-altars. Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ or a saint – for instance, a statue, mural or mosaic, may have had a reredos behind them. However, Mass would not be celebrated at them. Side altars, where Mass could be celebrated, were used in a similar way to shrines by parishioners. Side altars were dedicated to The Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph as well as other saints. A nativity set could be viewed as a shrine, as the definition of a shrine is any holy or sacred place. Islam's holiest structure, the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, though an ancient temple, may be seen as a shrine due to it housing a venerated relic called the Hajar al-Aswad and being the focus of the world's largest pilgrimage practice, the Hajj. A few yards away, the mosque houses the Maqam Ibrahim shrine containing a petrosomatoglyph associated with the patriarch and his son Ishmael's building of the Kaaba in Islamic tradition; the Green Dome sepulcher of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Medina, housed in the Masjid an-Nabawi, occurs as a venerated place and important as a site of pilgrimage among Muslims.
Two of the oldest and notable Islamic shrines are the Dome of the Rock and the smaller Dome of the Chain built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The former was built over the rock that marked the site of the Jewish Temple and according to Islamic tradition, was the point of departure of Muhammad's legendary ascent heavenwards. More than any other shrines in the Muslim world, the tomb of Muhammad is considered a source of blessings for the visitor. Among sayings attributed to
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
A loft can be an upper storey or attic in a building, directly under the roof or just a storage space under the roof accessed by a ladder. A loft apartment refers to large adaptable open space converted for residential use from some other use light industrial. Adding to the confusion, some converted lofts include upper open loft areas. Within certain upper loft areas exist further lofts, which may contain loft areas of their own, so forth. In US usage a loft is an upper room or story in a building in a barn, directly under the roof, used either for storage. In this sense it is synonymous with attic, the major difference being that an attic constitutes an entire floor of the building, while a loft covers only a few rooms, leaving one or more sides open to the lower floor. In British usage, lofts are just a roof space accessed via a hatch and loft ladder, while attics tend to be rooms under the roof accessed via a staircase. Lofts may have a specific purpose, e.g. an "organ loft" in a church. In barns a hayloft is larger than the ground floor as it would contain a year's worth of hay.
An attic or loft can be converted to form functional living accommodation. Loft apartments are apartments that are built from former industrial buildings; when industrial developments are developed into condominiums instead of apartments, they may be called loft condominiums. The general term warehouse-to-loft conversions may sometimes be used for development of industrial buildings into apartments and condominiums. "Loft-style" may refer to developments where a street-level business occupies the first floor while apartment "lofts" are placed above the first floor. Sometimes, loft apartments are one component of municipal urban renewal initiatives that include renovation of industrial buildings into art galleries and studio space as well as promotion of a new part of the city as an "arts district". Popular with artists, they are now sought-after by other bohemians and hipsters, the gentrification of the former manufacturing sectors of medium to large cities is now a familiar pattern. One such sector is Manhattan's Meatpacking District.
The adoption of the Adaptive Reuse Ordinance in the City of Los Angeles is another example of such legislation to encourage the conversion of no longer economically viable industrial and commercial buildings to residential loft communities. Such is the demand for these spaces that real estate developers have taken to creating ready-made "lofts" in urban areas that are gentrifying or that seem primed to do so. While some of these units are created by developers during the renovation of old buildings, a number of them are included in the floor plans of brand new developments. Both types of pre-fab loft offer buyers or renters proximity to urban amenities afforded by traditional lofts, but without perceived safety risks of living in economically depressed industrial areas. Real estate industry distinguishes between two kinds of lofts. "Hard lofts" are former industrial buildings converted to live/work use. "Soft lofts" are loft-style residential buildings built anew. They are open-concept spaces with high ceilings, large windows and cement ceilings.
Soft lofts lack the history of hard lofts. A commercial loft refers to upper storey space in a commercial or industrial building with higher ceilings; such adaptation of loft space, can result in better operating efficiencies for ongoing light industrial and work/live use. A Live/work loft is a residential unit located in a commercially zoned building that has either been issued a certificate of residential occupancy or meets specific criteria making it eligible for the protection of loft laws, which vary state by state. In New York State, a live/work loft must meet the following criteria: The building was used for manufacturing or commercial purposes. Loft Law was designed to protect other entrepreneurs working from home. To qualify for the Loft Law protection, the unit must be residential with the commercial purpose being incidental to the residential use. Loft residents consisted of artists and other artisans taking advantage of cheap rents, large spaces and load-bearing floors. Loft residences were illegal and loft dwellers resided under commercial leases, forgoing basic residential rights such as hot water and sanitation.
To relieve their plight, many state legislatures enacted loft laws. A long building at a shipyard with a considerable floor area on which the lines produced by a naval architect can be laid off in their full dimensions. After that the full-size drawings can be copied with the aid of wooden moulds to which, in turn, the steel frames or, in the case of wooden vessels, the hull moulds, are fashioned
A bedroom is a room of a house, castle, hotel, apartment, duplex or townhouse where people sleep. A typical western bedroom contains as bedroom furniture one or two beds (ranging from a crib for an infant, a single or twin bed for a toddler, teenager, or single adult to bigger sizes like a full, queen, king or California king, a clothes closet, a nightstand, a dresser. Except in bungalows, ranch style homes, or one-storey motels, bedrooms are on one of the floors of a dwelling, above ground level. In larger Victorian houses it was common to have accessible from the bedroom a boudoir for the lady of the house and a dressing room for the gentleman. Attic bedrooms exist in some houses; the slope of the rafters supporting a pitched roof makes them inconvenient. In houses where servants were living in they used attic bedrooms. In the 14th century the lower class slept on mattresses that were stuffed with broom straws. During the 16th century mattresses stuffed with feathers started to gain popularity, with those who could afford them.
The common person was doing well. In the 18th century cotton and wool started to become more common; the first coil spring mattress was not invented until 1871. The most common and most purchased mattress is the innerspring mattress, though a wide variety of alternative materials are available including foam, latex and silk; the variety of firmness choices range from soft to a rather firm mattress. A bedroom may have bunk beds. A chamber pot kept under the bed or in a nightstand was usual in the period before modern domestic plumbing and bathrooms in dwellings. Furniture and other items in bedrooms vary depending on taste, local traditions and the socioeconomic status of an individual. For instance, a master bedroom may include a bed of a specific size. Built-in closets are less common in Europe than in North America. An individual’s bedroom is a reflection of their personality, as well as social class and socioeconomic status, is unique to each person. However, there are certain items. Mattresses have a bed set to raise the mattress off the floor and the bed provides some decoration.
There are many different types of mattresses. Night stands are popular, they are used to put various items such as an alarm clock or a small lamp. In the times before bathrooms existed in dwellings bedrooms contained a washstand for tasks of personal hygiene. In the 2010s, having a television set in a bedroom is common as well. 43% of American children from ages 3 to 4 have a television in their bedrooms. Along with television sets many bedrooms have computers, video game consoles, a desk to do work. In the late 20th century and early 21st century the bedroom became a more social environment and people started to spend a lot more time in their bedrooms than in the past. Bedding used in northern Europe is different from that used in North America and other parts of Europe. In Japan futons are common. In addition to a bed, a child's bedroom may include a small closet or dressers, a toy box or computer game console, bookcase or other items. Many houses in North America have at least two bedrooms—usually a master bedroom and one or more bedrooms for either the children or guests.
In some jurisdictions there are basic features that a room must have in order to qualify as a bedroom. In many states, such as Alaska, bedrooms are not required to have closets and must instead meet minimum size requirements. A closet by definition is a small space used to store things. In a bedroom, a closet is most used for clothes and other small personal items that one may have. Walk in closets are more popular today and vary in size. However, in the past wardrobes have been the most prominent. A wardrobe is a tall rectangular shaped cabinet that clothes can be hung in. Clothes are kept in a dresser. Nicer clothes are kept in the closet because they can be hung up while leisure clothing and undergarments are stored in the dresser. In buildings with multiple self-contained housing units, the number of bedrooms varies widely. While many such units have at least one bedroom—frequently, these units have at least two—some of these units may not have a specific room dedicated for use as a bedroom.
Sometimes, a master bedroom is connected to a dedicated bathroom called an ensuite. Bedrooms have a door for privacy and a window for ventilation. In larger bedrooms, a small desk and chair or an upholstered chair and a chest of drawers may be used. In Western countries, some large bedrooms, called master bedrooms, may contain a bathroom. Where space allows bedrooms may have televisions and / or video players, in some cases a personal computer. Cabin Comforter Laundry room Nursery
A closet is an enclosed space used for storage that of clothes. "Fitted closet" are built into the walls of the house so that they take up no apparent space in the room. Closets are built under stairs, thereby using awkward space that would otherwise go unused. A "walk-in closet" is a a small windowless room attached to a bedroom, used for clothes storage. A piece of furniture such as a cabinet or chest of drawers serves the same function of storage, but is not a closet. A closet always has space for hanging, whereas a cupboard may consist only of shelves for folded garments; the word "wardrobe" can refer to a free-standing piece of furniture, but according to the Oxford English Dictionary, a wardrobe can be a "large cupboard or cabinet for storing clothes or other linen", including "built-in wardrobe, fitted wardrobe, walk-in wardrobe, etc." In Elizabethan and Middle English, closet referred to a small private room, an inner sanctum within a much larger house, used for prayer, reading, or study.
The use of "closet" for "toilet" dates back to 1662. In Indian English, this use continues. Related forms include water closet. "Privy" meaning an outhouse derives from "private", making the connection with the Middle English use of "closet", above. Airing cupboard: A closet containing a water heater, with slatted shelves to allow air to circulate around the clothes or linen stored there. Broom closet: A closet with top-to-bottom space used for storing cleaning items, like brooms, vacuum cleaners, cleaning supplies, etc. Coat closet: A closet located near the front door. Used to store coats, hoodies, gloves, hats and boots/shoes; this kind of closet sometimes has shelving. It only has some bottom space used for clothes stored in boxes or drawers; some may have a top shelf for storage above the rod. Custom closet: A closet, made to meet the needs of the user. Linen-press or linen closet: A tall, narrow closet. Located in or near bathrooms and/or bedrooms, such a closet contains shelves used to hold items such as toiletries and linens, including towels, washcloths, or sheets.
Pantry: A closet or cabinet in a kitchen used for storing food, dishes and provisions. The closet may have shelves for putting food on. Utility closet: A closet most used to house appliances and cleaning supplies Walk-in closet: A storage room with enough space for someone to stand in it while accessing stored items. Larger ones used for clothes shade into dressing room. Wall closet: A closet in a bedroom, built into the wall, it may be closed by curtains or folding doors. Wardrobe: A small closet used for storing clothes. Though some sources claim that colonial American houses lacked closets because of a "closet tax" imposed by the British crown, others argue that closets were absent in most houses because their residents had few possessions. Closet organizers are integrated shelving systems. Different materials have advantages and disadvantages: Wire shelving: Moderately difficult to install, wire shelves cannot hold much weight without giving in but are cheap. Wood shelving: Difficult to install, wood shelving is more expensive than wire.
Tube shelving: Easy to install, tube shelving involves few pieces and requires no cutting or measuring. Cubby-hole, one name for the cupboard under the stairs