Lanark is an unincorporated community and former village located in the municipality of Lanark Highlands, Lanark County, in Eastern Ontario, Canada. The village was first settled in 1820 by Scottish immigrants who named it after the town of Lanark in Scotland, it soon became a major hub of the lumbering and textile industries, both of which used the Clyde River which runs through the village, as a source of power and as a transportation route to transport logs east to the Ottawa River. The textile industry lasted for about 170 years, but was defeated by the flood of cheap Asian textiles into North America. Jobs in the textile industry moved overseas. Logging has continued, although in a much reduced manner. Wood is harvested chiefly for firewood. In 1959 a major fire destroyed many of the main commercial structures and a number of homes in the village's centre. Most buildings were inadequately insured. Replacement buildings are functional in their design; the village has the District Museum featuring exhibits of local history.
Until the late 1990s, the major employer in the village was the Glenayr Kitten Mill, which produced clothing and offered their products at several factory outlet stores in the village. Several of the buildings are still known by their numbers to local residents; the Clyde Woolen Mills was the founder of these properties. Lanark has in the past been the location for the Canadian Big League Baseball Championships; this regarded baseball tournament features 18-year-old players from across the country to play at Clyde Memorial Park. According to the 2001 Statistics Canada Census: Population: 869 % Change: 0.5 Dwellings: 362 Area: 4.73 Density: 183.7Race Break Up White: 98.5% Aboriginal: 1.1% Asian:.2% Black:.2%
Lanark: A Life in Four Books
Lanark, subtitled A Life in Four Books, is the first novel of Scottish writer Alasdair Gray. Written over a period of thirty years, it combines realist and dystopian surrealist depictions of his home city of Glasgow, its publication in 1981 prompted Anthony Burgess to call Gray "the best Scottish novelist since Walter Scott". Lanark won the inaugural Saltire Society Book of the Year award in 1982, was named Scottish Arts Council Book of the Year; the book, still his best known, has since become a cult classic. In 2008, The Guardian heralded Lanark as "one of the landmarks of 20th-century fiction." Lanark comprises four books, arranged in the order Three, Two, Four. In the Epilogue, the author explains this by saying that "I want Lanark to be read in one order but thought of in another", that the epilogue itself is "too important" to go at the end. In Book Three, a young man awakes alone in a train carriage, he picks his name from a strangely familiar photograph on the wall. He soon arrives in Unthank, a strange Glasgow-like city in which there is no daylight and whose disappearing residents suffer from strange diseases, orifices growing on their limbs and body heat fading away.
Lanark begins to associate with a group of twenty-somethings to whom he cannot relate and whose mores he cannot understand, soon begins to suffer from dragonhide, a disease which turns his skin into scales as an external manifestation of his emotional repression. Lanark is swallowed by a mouth in the earth, awakes in the Institute, a sort of hospital which cures patients of their diseases but uses the hopeless cases for power and food. Upon learning this, Lanark determines to leave. Books One and Two constitute a realist Bildungsroman beginning in pre-War Glasgow, tell the story of Duncan Thaw, a difficult and precocious child born to impecunious and frustrated parents in the East End of Glasgow; the book follows Thaw's wartime evacuation, secondary education and his scholarship to the Glasgow School of Art, where his inability to form relationships with women and his obsessive artistic vision lead to his descent into madness and eventual suicide by drowning. Book Four sees Lanark begin a bizarre, dreamlike journey back to Unthank, which he finds on the point of total disintegration, wracked by political strife, avarice and economic meltdown, all of which he is unable to prevent.
During various stages of the journey, during which he meets his author, he ages. He finds himself old, sitting in a hilltop cemetery as Unthank breaks down in an apocalypse of fire and flood, his time of death having been revealed to him, he ends the book calmly awaiting it. Lanark could be viewed as Thaw in a personal Hell. However, the connection between the two narratives is ambiguous. Gray has said that "One is a exaggerated form of just about the everyday reality of the other", he writes in the novel itself: "The Thaw narrative shows a man dying because he is bad at loving. It is enclosed by narrative which shows civilization collapsing for the same reason" and "You are Thaw with the neurotic imagination trimmed off and built into the furniture of the world you occupy", he write: "The plots of the Thaw and Lanark sections are independent of each other and cemented by typographical contrivances rather than formal necessity. A possible explanation is that the author thinks a heavy book will make a bigger splash than two light ones".
One of the most characteristically postmodern parts of the book is the Epilogue, in which Lanark meets the author in the guise of the character "Nastler". He makes the first two remarks about the book quoted above, anticipates criticism of the work and of the Epilogue in particular, saying "The critics will accuse me of self-indulgence, but I don't care". An Index of Plagiarisms is printed in the margins of the discussion. For instance, Gray describes much of Lanark as an extended'Difplag' of Charles Kingsley's The Water Babies; some of the supposed plagiarisms refer to non-existent chapters of the book. Gray added an appendix to the 2001 edition of the novel in which he included a brief biography and elaborated on some of the influences on and inspirations for the novel, he cited Kafka as a major influence on the atmosphere of the novel. He referred to his own experiences in the media industry which he states is reflected in Lanark's numerous encounters in labyrinthine buildings with individuals talking in jargon.
The Institute he describes as a combination of Wyndham Lewis's conception of Hell in Malign Fiesta along with three real-life structures: the London Underground, Stobhill Hospital in Glasgow and BBC Television Centre in London. More evident inspiration can be seen in the cathedral and necropolis episodes in Unthank, whose proximity to an urban tangle of roads is mirrored in Glasgow's real-life Townhead area. Glasgow Cathedral is yards away from the Necropolis to the east and the M8 motorway to the north and west. Gray said Glasgow Cathedral was the only location he purposefully visited to make notes about during the writing of the novel. Gray began writing the novel as a student in 1954. Book one was written by 1963; the whole work was finished in 1976, published in 1981 by the small Scottish pu
New Lanark is a village on the River Clyde 1.4 miles from Lanark, in Lanarkshire, some 25 miles southeast of Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 1786 by David Dale. Dale built the mills there in a brief partnership with the English inventor and entrepreneur Richard Arkwright to take advantage of the water power provided by the only waterfalls on the River Clyde. Under the ownership of a partnership that included Dale's son-in-law, Robert Owen, a Welsh philanthropist and social reformer, New Lanark became a successful business and an early example of a planned settlement and so an important milestone in the historical development of urban planning; the New Lanark mills operated until 1968. After a period of decline, the New Lanark Conservation Trust was founded in 1974 to prevent demolition of the village. By 2006 most of the buildings have been restored and the village has become a major tourist attraction, it is one of six UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Scotland and an Anchor Point of ERIH - the European Route of Industrial Heritage.
The New Lanark cotton mills were founded in 1786 by David Dale in a brief partnership with Richard Arkwright. Dale was one of the self-made "Burgher Gentry" of Glasgow who, like most of this gentry, had a summer retreat, an estate at Rosebank, not far from the Falls of Clyde, which have been painted by J. M. W. Turner and many other artists; the mills used the developed water-powered cotton spinning machinery invented by Richard Arkwright. Dale sold the mills and village in the early 19th century for £60,000, payable over 20 years, to a partnership that included his son-in-law Robert Owen. Owen, who became mill manager in 1800, was an industrialist who carried on his father-in-law's philanthropic approach to industrial working and who subsequently became an influential social reformer. New Lanark, with its social and welfare programmes, epitomised his Utopian socialism; the town and mills are important through their connection with Owen's ideas, but because of their role in the developing industrial revolution in the UK and their place in the history of urban planning.
The New Lanark mills depended upon water power. A dam was constructed on the Clyde above New Lanark and water was drawn off the river to power the mill machinery; the water first travelled through a tunnel through an open channel called the lade. It went to a number of water wheels in each mill building, it was not until 1929. Water power is still used in New Lanark. A new water turbine has been installed in Mill Number Three to provide electricity for the tourist areas of the village. In Owen's time some 2,500 people lived at New Lanark, many from the poorhouses of Glasgow and Edinburgh. Although not the grimmest of mills by far, Owen found the conditions unsatisfactory and resolved to improve the workers' lot, he paid particular attention to the needs of the 500 or so children living in the village and working at the mills, opened the first infants' school in Britain in 1817, although the previous year he had completed the Institute for the Formation of Character. The mills thrived commercially, but Owen's partners were unhappy at the extra expense incurred by his welfare programmes.
Unwilling to allow the mills to revert to the old ways of operating, Owen bought out his partners. In 1813 the Board forced an auction, hoping to obtain the town and mills at a low price but Owen and a new board, sympathetic to his reforming ideas won out. New Lanark became celebrated throughout Europe, with many statesmen and royalty visiting the mills, they were astonished to find a clean, healthy industrial environment with a content, vibrant workforce and a prosperous, viable business venture all rolled into one. Owen's philosophy was contrary to contemporary thinking, but he was able to demonstrate that it was not necessary for an industrial enterprise to treat its workers badly to be profitable. Owen was able to show visitors the village's excellent housing and amenities, the accounts showing the profitability of the mills; as well as the mills' connections with reform and welfare, they are representative of the Industrial Revolution that occurred in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries and which fundamentally altered the shape of the world.
The planning of employment in the mills alongside housing for the workers and services such as a school makes the settlement iconic in the development of urban planning in the UK. In 1825, control of New Lanark passed to the Walker family when Owen left Britain to start settlement of New Harmony in the US; the Walkers managed the village until 1881, when it was sold to Birkmyre and Sommerville and the Gourock Ropeworks. They and their successor companies remained in control until the mills closed in 1968; the town and the industrial activity had been in decline before but after the mills closed migration away from the village accelerated, the buildings began to deteriorate. The top two floors of Mill Number 1 were removed in 1945 but the building has since been restored and is now the New Lanark Mill Hotel. In 1963 the New Lanark Association was formed as a housing association and commenced the restoration of Caithness Row and Nursery Buildings. In 1970 the mills, other industrial buildings and the houses used by Dale and Owen were sold to Metal Extractions Limited, a scrap metal company.
In 1974 the NLCT was founded to prevent demolition of
Lanark is a small town in the central belt of Scotland. The name is believed to come from the Cumbric Lanerc meaning "clear space, glade". Lanark is traditionally the county town of Lanarkshire, though there are several larger towns in the county. Lanark railway station and coach station have frequent services to Glasgow. There is little industry in some residents commute to work in Glasgow and Edinburgh, its shops serve surrounding villages. There is a large modern livestock auction market on the outskirts of the town. Lanark has served as an important market town since medieval times, King David I made it a Royal Burgh in 1140, giving it certain mercantile privileges relating to government and taxation. King David I realised, he decided to create a chain of new towns across Scotland. These would be centres of Norman civilisation in a Celtic country, would be established in such a way as to encourage the development of trade within their area; these new towns were to be known as Burghs. Bastides were established in France for much the same reason.
When a site had been selected for a new town the King’s surveyors would lay out an area for the town’s market. Each merchant who came to the town was granted a plot of land bordering on the marketplace; these plots were known as rigs. Each feu in a burgh was the same size. In Forres in the north of Scotland each feu was 24 feet 429 feet deep; the layout of the feus in Lanark can still be seen between the north side of Lanark High Street and North Vennel, a lane which runs behind the feus. A motte and bailey castle was constructed at the bottom of Castlegate. Lanark had four town gates, West Port, East port and Castlegate. West Port gate was demolished in the 1770s; the first aviation meeting to be held in Scotland was held at Lanark Racecourse between 6 and 13 August 1910. This location was chosen because the land was flat, the racecourse had facilities for a paying public, there were stables to act as hangars for the aeroplanes and the racecourse was accessible by both road and by rail as The Caledonian Railway Company were prepared to construct a new station near the main entrance.
The aeroplanes were transported to the meeting by rail, as aviation technology at the time was not advanced enough to safely fly there. The Lanark meeting took place shortly after a similar event in Bournemouth at which Charles Rolls lost his life. Influenced by this, it was decided that no aircraft would fly closer than 300 yards away from the spectators. For the first time, aeroplanes were timed over a straight measured distance, allowing the first world records to be set, covering flights over 1 mile; the meeting was described by The Aero magazine as'the most successful yet held in Britain'. A permanent military presence was established in the town with the completion of Winston Barracks in the 1930s; the electorate in Lanark form part of various different constituencies. In local elections, they are part of the Clydesdale North constituency and elect representatives to South Lanarkshire Council; the most recent elections, held in 2012, saw Ed Archer, Catherine McClymont and Vivienne Shaw elected to represent the constituency.
In elections to the Scottish Parliament, Lanark elects its representatives as part of the Clydesdale constituency, elects seven additional list members of parliament as part of the South of Scotland region. The current Clydesdale MSP is Aileen Campbell, SNP, who defeated the Labour incumbent, Karen Gillon, in the 2011 election after Gillon had held the seat since 1999. In Westminster elections, Lanark is part of the Hamilton East constituency. Labour MP Jimmy Hood represented the area in Parliament from 1987 till 2015. In elections to the European Parliament, Lanark is part of the Scotland constituency which elects six MEPs. Visitors to the town can visit the nearby World Heritage Site of New Lanark, close to the Falls of Clyde, the Corehouse estate and the Scottish Wildlife Trust's Corehouse Nature Reserve; the Lanark Museum is located inside the YMCA building. A large boating lake, Lanark Loch, adjoins Lanark Golf Club which has a lovely and historic 18 hole course for more experienced golf players and a 9-hole golf course.
The former racecourse now offers pony-trekking activities. The town's Castlebank Park lies near the former site of Lanark Castle, allows access to the River Clyde and the Clyde Walkway. An ornate gas lamp, known as the'Provost's Lamp' stands at the bottom of the high street; the lamp used to be placed outside the home of. One of the churches in the town bears the name of The Old Church of St Kentigern, who set up many medieval churches in the Scottish Lowlands, including Glasgow, died c.612 AD. The town's cemetery stands on the site of The Old Church of St Kentigern, includes many Covenanter graves. St. Nicolas' Parish Church stands at the bottom of the high street; the church bell is believed to date from 1110, may be one of the oldest church bells in the world. It was moved from The Old Church of St Kentigern when St. Nicolas's Church was built in 1774, it has been recast four times, including 1659 and 1983. There is an 8-foot statue of William Wallace in the steeple; this was sculpted by Robert Forrest, from an ancient drawing in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries.
This historic background forms the basis for the Lanark Lanimer celebrations, which t
Lanark is a city in Carroll County, United States. The population was 1,457 at the 2010 census, down from 1,584 at the 2000 census; the city was named in Scotland. Under the auspices of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, Daniel W. Dame purchased 500 acres, laid out the city of Lanark, was elected its first mayor in 1861. In 1886, 40 residents each donated one dollar to form a public library, a primary and secondary school was completed in August 1867. On November 25, 1893, the original school was destroyed by fire. Early in the Twentieth Century, Lanark was home to the Cotta steam car company. In 1986 Lanark High School was consolidated with nearby Shannon High School to form the Eastland School District; the high school and grade school were located in Lanark, with the middle school in Shannon. After the end of the 2012-2013 school year, the Eastland School Board made the decision to close the Elementary building in Lanark, move those students to the Shannon building; the Middle School students were relocated to the High School building in Lanark, now known as the Eastland Jr/Sr High School.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,584 people, 644 households, 441 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,525.7 people per square mile. There were 693 housing units at an average density of 667.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.10% White, 0.06% African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.07% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.25% of the population. There were 645 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.0% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.96. The average age of residents is spread out, with 25.6% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,500, the median income for a family was $45,800. Males had a median income of $31,705 versus $21,576 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,518. About 5.6% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. Lanark is located at 42°6′5″N 89°49′56″W. According to the 2010 census, Lanark has a total area of all land. Lanark is a part of Eastland Community Unit School District #308, which includes Shannon, IL. Lanark and Shannon are the home of the Eastland Cougars. Lanark Chamber of Commerce City of Lanark Homepage Eastland School District Carroll County Government Visit Carroll County
Lanark County, Western Australia
Lanark County was one of the 26 counties of Western Australia that were designated in 1829 as cadastral divisions. It was named after the County of Lanark, birthplace of Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling, it corresponds to the southern part of the Nelson Land District which forms the basis for land titles in the area
HMCS Lanark (K669)
HMCS Lanark was a River-class frigate that served with the Royal Canadian Navy during the Second World War and again from 1956–1965 as a Prestonian-class frigate. She fought in the Battle of the Atlantic as a convoy escort, she was named for Ontario. Lanark was ordered in June 1942 as part of the 1942–1943 River-class building program, she was laid down on 25 September 1943 by Canadian Vickers Ltd. at Montreal and launched 10 December 1943. She was commissioned into the RCN on 6 July 1944 at Montreal; the River-class frigate was designed by William Reed of Smith's Dock Company of South Bank-on-Tees. Called a "twin-screw corvette", its purpose was to improve on the convoy escort classes in service with the Royal Navy at the time, including the Flower-class corvette; the first orders were placed by the Royal Navy in 1940 and the vessels were named for rivers in the United Kingdom, giving name to the class. In Canada they were named after cities though they kept the same designation; the name "frigate" was suggested by Vice-Admiral Percy Nelles of the Royal Canadian Navy and was adopted that year.
Improvements over the corvette design included improved accommodation, markedly better. The twin engines gave only three more knots of speed but extended the range of the ship to nearly double that of a corvette at 7,200 nautical miles at 12 knots. Among other lessons applied to the design was an armament package better designed to combat U-boats including a twin 4-inch mount forward and 12-pounder aft. 15 Canadian frigates were fitted with a single 4-inch gun forward but with the exception of HMCS Valleyfield, they were all upgraded to the double mount. For underwater targets, the River-class frigate was equipped with a Hedgehog anti-submarine mortar and depth charge rails aft and four side-mounted throwers. River-class frigates were the first Royal Canadian Navy warships to carry the 147B Sword horizontal fan echo sonar transmitter in addition to the irregular ASDIC; this allowed the ship to maintain contact with targets while firing unless a target was struck. Improved radar and direction-finding equipment improved the RCN's ability to find and track enemy submarines over the previous classes.
Canada ordered the construction of 33 frigates in October 1941. The design was too big for the shipyards on the Great Lakes so all the frigates built in Canada were built in dockyards along the west coast or along the St. Lawrence River. In all Canada ordered the construction of 60 frigates including ten for the Royal Navy that transferred two to the United States Navy. After working up in Bermuda, Lanark was assigned to the newly formed Mid-Ocean Escort Force escort group C-7 in October 1944; until June 1945, she served as a trans-Atlantic convoy escort with the group as the Senior Officer's Ship. In June 1945, she returned to Canada, beginning a tropicalization refit in mid-July in preparation for service in the South Pacific Ocean; the refit was cancelled on 31 August 1945 due to the Surrender of Japan and Lanark was paid off at Sydney, Nova Scotia on 24 October. Lanark was sold to Marine Industries Ltd. in 1946. In 1954, Lanark was repurchased by the Royal Canadian Navy and sent for conversion to a Prestonian-class frigate.
This meant a flush-decked appearance aft, with taller funnel. Her hull forward was strengthened against ice and the quarterdeck was enclosed to contain two Squid anti-submarine mortars; the conversion was begun in 1954 and completed in 1955. Lanark was re-commissioned into the RCN on 15 April 1956 with the new pennant number 321. Lanark served on the eastern coast with the Seventh Canadian Escort Squadron as a training ship. On 12 January 1960, Lanark was sent to recover the reserve training ship HMCS Porte Saint Louis off Scatari Island, after the training ship had snapped its tow while en route for a refit at Sydney, Nova Scotia. Lanark took the ship in tow in heavy seas after the ocean-going tugboat Riverton was forced to head for shelter due to the heavy seas. Lanark brought the ship to Sydney. In May 1960, the frigate began a tour of the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence Seaway, making several port visits. In March 1961, Lanark was among the ships that took part in a combined naval exercise with the United States Navy off Nova Scotia.
She served until 19 March 1965. She was sold in 1965 and taken to La Spezia, Italy to be broken up in 1966. Arbuckle, J. Graeme. Badges of the Canadian Navy. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 0-920852-49-1. Macpherson, Ken; the ships of Canada's naval forces 1910–1981: a complete pictorial history of Canadian warships. Collins: Toronto, 1981. ISBN 0-00216-856-1 History of the RCSCC Lanark 211