York, known as the White Rose City, is the county seat of York County, United States, located in the south-central region of the state. The population within York's city limits was 43,718 at the 2010 census, a 7.0% increase from the 2000 count of 40,862. When combined with the adjacent boroughs of West York and North York and surrounding Spring Garden, West Manchester, Springettsbury townships, the population of Greater York was 108,386. York is the 11th largest city in Pennsylvania; the city has been called an "architectural museum," because the downtown features numerous well-preserved historic structures, such as the 1741 Golden Plough Tavern, the 1751 General Horatio Gates House, the 1766 York Meetinghouse, the 1863 Billmeyer House, the 1888 York Central Market, the 1907 Moorish Revival Temple Beth Israel. Other notable buildings are the Laurel-Rex Fire Company House, Forry House, Farmers Market, Barnett Bobb House, Cookes House, United Cigar Manufacturing Company building, Stevens School, York Dispatch Newspaper Offices, York Armory.
The city is home to four national historic districts: Fairmount Historic District, Northwest York Historic District, Springdale Historic District, York Historic District. York known as Yorktown in the mid 18th to early 19th centuries, was founded in 1741 by settlers from the Philadelphia region and named for the English city of the same name. By 1777, most of the area residents were of either Scots-Irish descent. York was incorporated as a borough on September 24, 1787, as a city on January 11, 1887. During the American Revolutionary War, York served as the temporary capital of the Continental Congress; the Articles of Confederation were drafted and adopted in York, though they were not ratified until March 1781. York styles itself the first Capital of the United States, although historians consider it to be the fourth capital, after Philadelphia and Lancaster; the claim arises from the assertion that the Articles of Confederation was the first legal document to refer to the colonies as "the United States of America".
The argument depends on whether the Declaration of Independence, which uses the term, would be considered a true legal document of the United States, being drafted under and in opposition to British rule. This does not, prevent modern businesses and organizations in the York area, such as the First Capital Dispensing Co. First Capital Engineering and First Capital Federal Credit Union from using the name; the Conway Cabal, a political intrigue against General George Washington, had its origins in the Golden Plough Tavern in York. According to U. S. census reports from 1800 through 1840, York ranked within the nation's top 100 most populous urban areas. During the American Civil War, York became the largest Northern town to be occupied by the Confederate army when the division of Major General Jubal Anderson Early spent June 28–30, 1863, in and around the town while the brigade of John B. Gordon marched to the Susquehanna River at Wrightsville and back. Early laid York under tribute and collected food, clothing, $28,000 in cash from citizens and merchants before departing westward obeying the revised orders of Robert E. Lee.
The sprawling York U. S. Army Hospital on Penn Commons served thousands of Union soldiers wounded at the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. In the Postbellum era, York remained a regional center for local agriculture, but became an important industrial center, with such industries as steam engines, railroad manufacturing, papermaking coming to the forefront. York features some unique architecture ranging from colonial era buildings to large gothic churches; the York Motor Car Co. built Pullman automobiles on North George St. from 1905 thorough 1917. An early and unique six-wheeled prototype was involved in one of the city's first known automobile accidents. Another model was driven to San Francisco and back over about one month to prove its reliability several years before the creation of the Lincoln Highway which ran through town, connecting New York and San Francisco; the York area had been home for more than 100 years to the Pfaltzgraff company, which built its first pottery factory in the area in 1895 and continued manufacturing in York until 2005.
Though now produced by The Hershey Company, the York Peppermint Pattie was created in York in 1940. Throughout the middle 20th Century, the black residents of the city were subject to hostile racial prejudice and social injustices. Between 1955 and 1970, the people of York experienced racial discrimination leading to riots, most notably the 1969 York Race Riot, which resulted in the death of Lily Allen and Henry C. Schaad; these murders were left ignored until 31 years when allegations of murder and racial prejudice were raised against the mayor at the time, Charlie Robertson. Additionally, throughout the entire century, the city held unopposed Ku Klux Klan rallies and public meetings, despite continuous racial tensions. Though the murders of Allen and Schaad were solved and the perpetrators were apprehended, the actions, which originate back to the beginnings of the hate group, continue to present day. In 2002, the city faced a budget shortfall of $1,000,000. Mayor John S. Brenner's plan to raise the money by asking York County's 302,000 adult residents to donate $3.32 to the city received national attention.
The plan, referred to by some as the "Big Mac" Plan, did not raise all the monies sought. After many years of attempting to secure funding for a stadium and a baseball team to play in it, the first decade of the century saw York realize both goals. In 2007, Santander Stadium, home of the Yo
The Hershey Company
The Hershey Company called Hershey's, is an American company and one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world. It manufactures baked products, such as cookies, milk shake and many more, which increase its variety of range, its headquarters are in Hershey, home to Hersheypark and Hershey's Chocolate World. It was founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894 as the Hershey Chocolate Company, a subsidiary of his Lancaster Caramel Company; the Hershey Trust Company owns a minority stake, but retains a majority of the voting power within the company. Hershey's chocolate is available across the United States, in over 60 countries worldwide, they have three mega distribution centers, with modern labor management systems. In addition, Hershey is a member of the World Cocoa Foundation, it is associated with the Hersheypark Stadium and the Giant Center. After an apprenticeship to a confectioner in 1873, Milton S. Hershey founded a candy shop in Philadelphia; this candy shop was only open for six years, after which Hershey apprenticed with another confectioner in Denver, where he learned to make caramel.
After another failed business attempt in New York, Hershey returned to Pennsylvania, where in 1886 he founded the Lancaster Caramel Company. The use of fresh milk in caramels proved successful, in 1900, after seeing chocolate-making machines for the first time at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Hershey sold his caramel company for $1,000,000, began to concentrate on chocolate manufacturing, stating to people who questioned him, "Caramels are just a fad, but chocolate is a permanent thing." In 1896, Milton built a milk-processing plant so he could create and refine a recipe for milk chocolate candies. In 1899, he developed the Hershey process, less sensitive to milk quality than traditional methods. In 1900, he began manufacturing Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bars called Hershey's Bars or Hershey Bars. In 1903, Hershey began construction of a chocolate plant in his hometown of Derry Church, which came to be known as Hershey, Pennsylvania; the town was an inexpensive place for their families to live.
To increase employee morale, Milton provided leisure activities and created what would become Hersheypark to make sure the citizens enjoyed themselves. The milk chocolate bars manufactured at this plant proved popular, the company grew rapidly. In 1907, he introduced a new candy, bite-sized, flat-bottomed, conical-shaped pieces of chocolate that he named "Hershey's Kiss", they were individually wrapped by hand in squares of aluminum foil, the introduction of machine wrapping in 1921 simplified the process while adding the small paper ribbon to the top of the package to indicate that it was a genuine Hershey product. Today, 80 million of the candies are produced each day. Other products introduced included Mr. Goodbar, containing peanuts in milk chocolate, Hershey's Syrup, semisweet chocolate chips, the Krackel bar containing crisped rice. Labor unrest came to Hershey in the late 1930s as a Congress of Industrial Organizations-backed union attempted to organize the factory workers. A failed sit-down strike in 1937 ended in violence, as loyalist workers and local dairy farmers beat many of the strikers as they attempted to leave the plant.
By 1940, an affiliate of the American Federation of Labor had organized Hershey's workers under the leadership of John Shearer, who became the first president of Local Chapter Number 464 of the Bakery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers' International Union. Local 464 still represents the Hershey workforce. Shortly before World War II, Bruce Murrie, son of long-time Hershey's president William F. R. Murrie, struck a deal with Forrest Mars to create a hard sugar-coated chocolate that would be called M&M's. Murrie had 20% interest in the confection, which used Hershey chocolate during the rationing era during World War II. In 1948, Mars became one of Hershey's main competitors. In June 2006, Philadelphia city councilman Juan Ramos called for Hershey's to stop marketing "Ice Breakers Pacs", a kind of mint, due to the resemblance of its packaging to a kind, used for illegal street drugs. In September 2006, ABC News reported that several Hershey chocolate products were reformulated to replace cocoa butter with vegetable oil as an emulsifier.
According to the company, this change was made to reduce the costs of producing the products instead of raising their prices or decreasing the sizes. Some consumers complained that the taste was different, but the company stated that in the company-sponsored blind taste tests, about half of consumers preferred the new versions; as the new versions no longer met the Food and Drug Administration's official definition of "milk chocolate", the changed items were relabeled from stating they were "milk chocolate" and "made with chocolate" to "chocolate candy" and "chocolaty."In April 2014, the Hershey chocolate plant on East Chocolate Avenue in Hershey Pennsylvania was demolished to make way for mixed-use development. A 2016 attempt to sell Hershey to Mondelez International was scuttled because of objections by the Hershey Trust. Harry Burnett Reese invented Reese's Peanut Butter Cups after founding the H. B. Reese Candy Company in 1923. Reese died on May 1956 in West Palm Beach, Florida leaving the company to his six sons.
On July 2, 1963 the H. B. Reese Candy Company was acquired by the Hershey Chocolate Corporation in a tax free stock-for-stock merger
Lancaster is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities; the Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the U. S. and second largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area. The city's primary industries include healthcare, public administration and both professional and semi-professional services. Lancaster hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than cities such as Boston or San Francisco, despite controversy among residents. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nation's 15th president, to congressman and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens. Called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright, its symbol, is from the House of Lancaster. Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penn's Woods Charter of William Penn, was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734.
It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818. During the American Revolution, Lancaster was the capital of the United States for one day, on September 27, 1777, after the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, captured by the British; the revolutionary government moved still farther away to York, Pennsylvania. Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg. In 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England; the prison remains in use, was used for public hangings until 1912. It replaced a 1737 structure on a different site; the first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, which makes up part of the present-day U. S. Route 30. Opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon McAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word "macadam" in lieu of asphalt.
This name is a reference to the paving process named for McAdam. The city of Lancaster was home to several important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancaster's most popular attractions. Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney. Stevens gained notoriety for his abolitionism; the Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had local schools named after them. After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center. Two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster: the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle; the Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River. The innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U.
S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott. During his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful "five and dime" store in the city of Lancaster, the F. W. Woolworth Company. Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000. On October 13, 2011, Lancaster's City Council recognized September 27 as Capital Day, a holiday recognizing Lancaster's one day as capital of the United States in 1777. Lancaster is located at 40°02'23" North, 76°18'16" West, is 368 feet above sea level; the city is located about 34 miles southeast of Harrisburg, 70 miles west of Philadelphia, 55 miles north-northeast of Baltimore and 87 miles northeast of Washington, D. C; the nearest towns and boroughs are Millersville, Willow Street, East Petersburg, Landisville, Mountville and Leola.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.4 square miles of it is land and 0.14% is water. Lancaster has a humid subtropical climate with hot or warm summers; as of the 2010 census, the city was 55.2% White, 16.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, 5.8% were two or more races. 39.3 % of the population were of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 56,348 people, 20,933 households, 12,162 families residing in the city; the population density was 7,616.5 people per square mile. There were 23,024 housing units at an average density of 3,112.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 61.55% White, 14.09% African American, 0.44% Native American, 2.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 17.44% from other races, 3.94% from two or more races. 30.76 % of the population were Latino people of any race. The largest ethnic groups in Lancaster as of recent estimates are: Puerto Rican 29.2% German 21.2% African American 12.8% Irish 8.6% English 8.2% Italian 4.1% Dominican 3.2% Polish 2.0% Scottish 1.9% Mexican 1.8% Cuban 1.7% West Indian 1.0%In 2010, 29.2% of Lancaster residents were of P
Milton S. Hershey
Milton Snavely Hershey was an American chocolatier and philanthropist. Trained in the confectionery business, Hershey pioneered the manufacture of caramel, using fresh milk, he launched the Lancaster Caramel Company, which achieved bulk exports, sold it to start a new company supplying mass-produced milk chocolate a luxury. The first Hershey Bars were sold in 1900, proved so popular that he was able to build his own company town of Hershey, reflecting his beliefs about the effect of comfortable living conditions on staff morale. Hershey's philanthropic agenda extended to a boarding school for local orphans, but now accommodating 2000 students. In World War II, the company developed a special non-melting bar for troops serving overseas; the Hershey Company, known as Hershey's, is one of the world's biggest confectionery manufacturers. Milton Hershey was born on September 1857 to Henry and Veronica "Fanny" Snavely Hershey. Born the son of a Christian father, his family were members of Pennsylvania's Mennonite community.
His ancestors had settled in Pennsylvania in the early 1700s. He grew up speaking Pennsylvania Dutch. In April 1862, Hershey's sister Sarena Hershey was born in Derry Township, Dauphin County and died in 1867 at age 4. Like many rural young people of the time, Milton was expected to help out on the family farm, he learned early on of the value of hard work and perseverance. Henry Hershey stayed anywhere long, was prone to leaving his wife and child for long periods; because of this, Hershey had a limited education with no schooling after 4th grade. In 1871, Milton Hershey left school for good and was apprenticed to a local printer, Sam Ernst, who published a German-English newspaper, he did not like that kind of work and he thought it was boring. One day at work there, he accidentally dropped his hat in one of the machines; because his boss was hot-tempered, he was fired shortly after. He was worried to see, his father asked Ernst to take him back, he did decide to give him a second chance, but Mattie Snavely, his aunt, his mother had a different idea.
They wanted him to learn the trade of candy making instead. So, his mother arranged for the 14-year-old Hershey to be apprenticed to a confectioner named Joseph Royer in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Over the next four years, Hershey learned the craft of creating confections. In 1876, he moved to Philadelphia to start his first confectionery business. Milton traveled to Denver and, finding work at a local confectioners, learned how to make caramels using fresh milk, he went to New Orleans and Chicago looking for opportunities, before settling in New York City in 1883 and training at Huyler's. He started his second business which, while successful, lasted only three years, closing in 1886. Hershey returned to Lancaster in 1883, he borrowed money from the bank to start the Lancaster Caramel Company, which became an outstanding success. He used the caramel recipe. From his previous travels, he learned that caramels sell better in bulk, so, what he did; this company soon became a success. He loved Hershey's candies once he placed a big order to be delivered to Britain.
Hershey was able to pay off the debt from the bank and had some money left over to buy more ingredients and equipment. By the early 1890s Lancaster Caramel Company had gotten big, employing over 1,300 workers in two factories. After a travel to Chicago for the World's Columbian Exposition, he sparked an interest in chocolate. After a long time of deciding, he took a risk and sold Lancaster Caramel Company for one million dollars to start the famous Hershey Chocolate Company. Using the proceeds from the 1900 sale of the Lancaster Caramel Company, Hershey acquired farm land 30 miles northwest of Lancaster, near his birthplace of Derry Township. There, he could obtain the large supplies of fresh milk needed to perfect and produce fine milk chocolate. Excited by the potential of milk chocolate, which at that time was a luxury product, Hershey was determined to develop a formula for milk chocolate and market and sell it to the American public. Through trial and error, he created his own formula for milk chocolate.
The first Hershey bar was produced in 1900. Hershey's Kisses were developed in 1907, the Hershey's Bar with almonds was introduced in 1908. On March 2, 1903, he began construction on what was to become the world's largest chocolate manufacturing company; the facility, completed in 1905, was designed to manufacture chocolate using the latest mass production techniques. Hershey's milk chocolate became the first nationally marketed product of its kind; the factory was in the center of a dairy farmland, but with Hershey's support, businesses, churches and a transportation infrastructure accreted around the plant. Because the land was surrounded by dairy farms, Hershey was able to use fresh milk to mass-produce quality milk chocolate. Hershey continued to experiment and perfect the process of making milk chocolate using the techniques he had first learned for adding milk to make caramels when he had moved to Drexel Hill. Since Hershey and his wife could not have children, they decided to help others, establishing the Hershey Industrial School with a Deed of Trust in 1909.
In 1918, Hershey transferred the majority of his assets, including control of the company, to the Milton Hershey School Trust fund, to benefit the Industrial School. The trust fund has a majority of voting shares in the Hershey Company, allowing it to keep control of the company. In 1951, the school was r
Daniel F. Lafean
Daniel Franklin Lafean was a Republican member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. Lafean was born in Pennsylvania to German immigrants from Posen, he was engaged in banking in York. He served as a director of the Gettysburg College and trustee of the Gettysburg Seminary in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, he was the first president of the American Caramel Company and was a co-founder and president of the Keystone Color Works. He was a Freemason and served as Worshipful Master of Zeredatha Lodge No. 451, York, in 1895. Lafean was elected as a Republican to the four succeeding Congresses, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1912. He was elected to the Sixty-fourth Congress, but was not a candidate for renomination in 1916, he was appointed commissioner of banking of the State of Pennsylvania in 1917. He again died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Interment in Prospect Hill Cemetery in York, Pennsylvania. United States Congress. "Daniel F. Lafean". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
The Political Graveyard Lafean and York Fair of 100-Years-Ago – York Daily Record Zeredatha-White Rose Lodge No. 451, F.&A. M. Works by or about Daniel F. Lafean at Internet Archive
Chocolate is a sweet, brown food preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods; the earliest evidence of use traces to the Olmecs, with evidence of chocolate beverages dating to 1900 BC. The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including Aztecs. Indeed, the word "chocolate" is derived from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl; the seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried and roasted; the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are ground to cocoa mass, unadulterated chocolate in rough form. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor; the liquor may be cooled and processed into its two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Baking chocolate called bitter chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions, without any added sugar.
Powdered baking cocoa, which contains more fiber than it contains cocoa butter, can be processed with alkali to produce dutch cocoa. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter and milk, but no cocoa solids. Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, many foodstuffs involving chocolate exist desserts, including cakes, mousse, chocolate brownies, chocolate chip cookies. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate, bars of solid chocolate and candy bars coated in chocolate are eaten as snacks. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes are traditional on certain Western holidays, including Christmas, Valentine's Day, Hanukkah. Chocolate is used in cold and hot beverages, such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate, in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao.
Although cocoa originated in the Americas, West African countries Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, are the leading producers of cocoa in the 21st century, accounting for some 60% of the world cocoa supply. With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018. However, international attempts to improve conditions for children were failing because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand, more intensive farming of cocoa, continued exploitation of child labor. Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, dates chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating earlier, to 1900 BC; the residues and the kind of vessel in which they were found indicate the initial use of cacao was not as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink.
An early Classic-period Mayan tomb from the site in Rio Azul had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink, suggests the Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD. Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life; the Maya grew cacao trees in their backyards, used the cacao seeds the trees produced to make a frothy, bitter drink. By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture, they associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans, identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice. In contrast to the Maya, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chile pepper, allspice and honey; the Aztecs were not able to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire.
Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed "tribute". Cocoa beans were used as currency. For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost 100 cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans; the Maya and Aztecs associated cacao with human sacrifice, chocolate drinks with sacrificial human blood. The Spanish royal chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo described a chocolate drink he had seen in Nicaragua in 1528, mixed with achiote: "because those people are fond of drinking human blood, to make this beverage seem like blood, they add a little achiote, so that it turns red.... and part of that foam is left on the lips and around the mouth, when it is red for having achiote, it seems a horrific thing, because it seems like blood itself." Until the 16th century, no European had heard of the popular drink from the Central American peoples. Christopher Columbus and his son Ferdinand encountered the cacao bean on Columbus's fourth mission to the Americas on 15 August 1502, when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain cacao beans among other goods for trade.
Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés may have been the first European to encounter it, as the frothy drink was part of t
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult. In general, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, bakers' confections and sugar confections. Bakers' confectionery called flour confections, includes principally sweet pastries and similar baked goods. Sugar confectionery includes candies, candied nuts, chewing gum, bubble gum and other confections that are made of sugar. In some cases, chocolate confections are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections; the words candy and lollies are common words for the most common varieties of sugar confectionery. The confectionery industry includes specialized training schools and extensive historical records. Traditional confectionery goes back to ancient times and continued to be eaten through the Middle Ages into the modern era. Before sugar was available in the ancient western world, confectionery was based on honey.
Honey was used in Ancient China, Ancient India, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome to coat fruits and flowers to preserve them or to create sweetmeats. Between the 6th and 4th centuries BC, the Persians, followed by the Greeks, made contact with the Indian subcontinent and its "reeds that produce honey without bees", they adopted and spread sugar and sugarcane agriculture. Sugarcane is indigenous to Southeast Asia. In the early history of sugar usage in Europe, it was the apothecary who had the most important role in the production of sugar-based preparations. Medieval European physicians learned the medicinal uses of the material from the Arabs and Byzantine Greeks. One Middle Eastern remedy for rheums and fevers were little, twisted sticks of pulled sugar called in Arabic al fänäd or al pänäd; these became known in England as alphenics, or more as penidia, pennet or pan sugar. They were the precursors of barley sugar and modern cough drops. In 1390, the Earl of Derby paid "two shillings for two pounds of penydes."
As the non-medicinal applications of sugar developed, the comfitmaker, or confectioner came into being as a separate trade. In the late medieval period the words confyt, comfect or cumfitt were generic terms for all kinds of sweetmeats made from fruits, roots, or flowers preserved with sugar. By the 16th century, a cumfit was more a seed, nut or small piece of spice enclosed in a round or ovoid mass of sugar; the production of comfits was a core skill of the early confectioner, known more in 16th and 17th century England as a comfitmaker. Reflecting their original medicinal purpose, comfits were produced by apothecaries and directions on how to make them appear in dispensatories as well as cookery texts. An early medieval Latin name for an apothecary was confectionarius, it was in this sort of sugar work that the activities of the two trades overlapped and that the word "confectionery" originated. In 1847, the candy bar was invented by Joseph Fry, who discovered a way to mix melted cacao butter back into cocoa powder along with sugar by creating a paste that could press into a mold.
Confections are defined by the presence of sweeteners. These are sugars, but it is possible to buy sugar-free candies, such as sugar-free peppermints; the most common sweetener for home cooking is table sugar, chemically a disaccharide containing both glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose gives a mixture called invert sugar, sweeter and is a common commercial ingredient. Confections commercial ones, are sweetened by a variety of syrups obtained by hydrolysis of starch; these sweeteners include all types of corn syrup. Bakers' confectionery includes sweet baked goods those that are served for the dessert course. Bakers' confections are sweet foods that are baked. Major categories include cakes, sweet pastries, doughnuts and cookies. In the Middle East and Asia, flour-based confections predominate. Cakes have a somewhat bread-like texture, many earlier cakes, such as the centuries-old stollen, or the older king cake, were rich yeast breads; the variety of styles and presentations extends from simple to elaborate.
Major categories include butter cakes and foam cakes. Confusingly, some desserts that have the word cake in their names, such as cheesecake, are not technically cakes, while others, such as Boston cream pie are cakes despite seeming to be named something else. Pastry is a large and diverse category of baked goods, united by the flour-based doughs used as the base for the product; these doughs are not always sweet, the sweetness may come from the sugar, chocolate, cream, or other fillings that are added to the finished confection. Pastries can be elaborately decorated. Doughnuts may be baked. Scones and related sweet quick breads, such as bannock, are similar to baking powder biscuits and, in sweeter, less traditional interpretations, can seem like a cupcake. Cookies are small, sweet baked treats, they originated as small cakes, some traditional cookies have a soft, cake-like texture. Others are hard. Sugar confections include sweet, sugar-based foods, which are eaten as snack food; this includes sugar candies, candied fruits and nuts, chewing gum, sometimes ice cream.
In some cases, chocolate confections are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections. Different