A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions. With the development of the internet, they began to online as web comics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in American newspapers alone each day for most of the 20th century, Strips are written and drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist. As the name implies, comic strips can be humorous, starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s, all are called, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that sequential art would be a better genre-neutral name. In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are serialized in comic book magazines, storytelling using a sequence of pictures has existed through history.
One medieval European example in textile form is the Bayeux Tapestry, printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced. William Hogarths 18th century English cartoons include both narrative sequences, such as A Rakes Progress, and single panels, in China, with its traditions of block printing and of the incorporation of text with image, experiments with what became lianhuanhua date back to 1884. The first newspaper comic strips appeared in North America in the late 19th century, the Yellow Kid is usually credited as one of the first newspaper strips. However, the art form combining words and pictures developed gradually, swiss author and caricature artist Rodolphe Töpffer is considered the father of the modern comic strips. In 1865, German painter and caricaturist Wilhelm Busch created the strip Max and Moritz and Moritz provided an inspiration for German immigrant Rudolph Dirks, who created the Katzenjammer Kids in 1897.
Familiar comic-strip iconography such as stars for pain, sawing logs for snoring, speech balloons, hugely popular, Katzenjammer Kids occasioned one of the first comic-strip copyright ownership suits in the history of the medium. When Dirks left William Randolph Hearst for the promise of a better salary under Joseph Pulitzer, it was an unusual move, in a highly unusual court decision, Hearst retained the rights to the name Katzenjammer Kids, while creator Dirks retained the rights to the characters. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw his own version of the strip, Dirks renamed his version Hans and Fritz. Thus, two versions distributed by rival syndicates graced the pages for decades. Dirks version, eventually distributed by United Feature Syndicate, ran until 1979, in the United States, the great popularity of comics sprang from the newspaper war between Pulitzer and Hearst. On January 31,1912, Hearst introduced the nations first full daily comic page in his New York Evening Journal, the history of this newspaper rivalry and the rapid appearance of comic strips in most major American newspapers is discussed by Ian Gordon.
The longest running American comic strips are,1, barney Google and Snuffy Smith 5
An author is narrowly defined as the originator of any written work and can thus be described as a writer. More broadly defined, an author is the person who originated or gave existence to anything, in the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship. The United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of works of authorship. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, copyright is merely the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time its created, an interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon ones death. The person who inherits the copyright is not the author, questions arise as to the application of copyright law. How does it, for example, apply to the issue of fan fiction.
If the media responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors, music. Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books, what powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or even stopping the fan fiction. In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting, in the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea that a text can be attributed to any single author and he writes, in his essay Death of the Author, that it is language which speaks, not the author. The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, with this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, and the limits formerly imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed.
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak. Michel Foucault argues in his essay What is an author and that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that a letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author. For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to certain standards upon the text which. Foucaults author function is the idea that an author exists only as a function of a work, a part of its structure
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
In Western graphic art, labels that reveal what a pictured figure is saying have appeared since at least the 13th century. These were in common European use by the early 16th century, word balloons began appearing in 18th-century printed broadsides, and political cartoons from the American Revolution often used them. They fell out of fashion, but by 1904 had regained their popularity, richard F. Outcaults Yellow Kid is generally credited as the first American comic strip character. His words initially appeared on his shirt, but word balloons very much like those in use today were added almost immediately. For many years, word balloons were less common in Europe than in the USA, the most common is the speech bubble. It comes in two forms for two circumstances, An in-panel character and an off-panel character, an in-panel character uses a bubble with a pointer, called a tail, directed towards the speaker. When one character has multiple balloons within a panel, often only the balloon nearest to the head has a tail.
This style is used in Mad Magazine, due to its call-and-response dialogue-based humor. An off-panel character has several options, some of them rather unconventional, the first is a standard speech bubble with a tail pointing toward the speakers position. The second option, which originated in manga, has the tail pointing into the bubble, the third option replaces the tail with a sort of bottleneck that connects with the side of the panel. It can be seen in the works of Marjane Satrapi, in American comics, a bubble without a tail means that the speaker is not merely outside the readers field of view but invisible to the viewpoint character, often as an unspecified member of a crowd. Thought bubbles come in two forms, the chain thought bubble and the fuzzy bubble, the chain thought bubble is the almost universal symbol for thinking in cartoons. It consists of a large, cloud-like bubble containing the text of the thought, some artists use an elliptical bubble instead of a cloud-shaped one. Often animal characters like Snoopy and Garfield talk using thought bubbles, thought bubbles may be used in circumstances when a character is gagged or otherwise unable to speak.
Another, less conventional thought bubble has emerged, the fuzzy thought bubble. Used in manga, the bubble is roughly circular in shape. Fuzzy thought bubbles do not use tails, and are placed near the character who is thinking and this has the advantage of reflecting the TV equivalent effect, something said with an echo. However, they are restricted to the current viewpoint character, the shape of a speech balloon can be used to convey further information
Comics Revue is a bi-monthly small press comic book published by Manuscript Press and edited by Rick Norwood. Don Markstein edited the publication from 1984 to 1987 and 1992 to 1996, as of 2014, it has published more than 300 issues, making it the longest running independent comic book. In issue #200, Comics Revue featured the only English language publication of The Dark Angels, in 2006, it was revealed in Absolute Crisis on Infinite Earths that the Batman stories published in Comics Revue actually happened on Earth-1289. In October 2009, the magazine re-launched as a title with twice the number of pages. Each issue now includes at least one complete story, issue #300 includes a complete index to all comic strips published in Comics Revue #1-300. Comics Buyers Guide, Rick Norwood has produced this labor of love for years now, tony Isabella, Comics Buyers Guide, Not every strip will be a winner with every reader, but I like Comics Revue enough to give it four Tonys. 112, Comics Revue Ce mensuel propose dans ses 68 pages une belle sélection de grands classiques de la BD américaine avec, Comics Revue The Grand Comics Database
Prince Valiant in the Days of King Arthur, or simply Prince Valiant, is a long-running American comic strip created by Hal Foster in 1937. It is an adventure that has told a continuous story during its entire history. Currently, the strip appears weekly in more than 300 American newspapers, according to its distributor, the Duke of Windsor, called Prince Valiant the greatest contribution to English literature in the past hundred years. The format does not employ word balloons, the story is narrated in captions positioned at the bottom or sides of panels. Events depicted are taken from various periods, from the late Roman Empire to the High Middle Ages. While drawing the Tarzan comic strip, Foster wanted to do his own original newspaper feature, King Features manager Joseph Connelly eventually renamed it Prince Valiant. In 1936, after research, Foster pitched his concept to William Randolph Hearst. Hearst was so impressed that he gave Foster ownership of the strip, Prince Valiant began in full-color tabloid sections on Saturday February 13,1937.
The first full page was strip #16, which appeared in the Sunday New Orleans Times Picayune, the internal dating changed from Saturday to Sunday with strip #66. The full-page strip continued until 1971 when strip #1788 was not offered in full-page format—it was the last strip Foster drew, the strip continues today by other artists in a half page format. Valiant is a Nordic prince from faraway Thule, located near Trondheim on the Norwegian west coast, early in the story, Valiant arrived at Camelot, where he became friends with Sir Gawain and Sir Tristram. Earning the respect of King Arthur and Merlin, he became a Knight of the Round Table, on a Mediterranean island, he met the love of his life, Queen of the Misty Isles, whom he married. He fought the Huns with his powerful Singing Sword, Val traveled to Africa and to America and helped his father regain his lost throne of Thule, usurped by the tyrant Sligon. When the strip started in 1937, Val was five years old, the first episodes followed the youth through the wild Fens district of Britain with his father, the deposed King Aguar of Thule.
When Val encountered the witch Horrit, she predicted he would have a life of adventure, arriving home, Val discovered that his mother had died. As a boy, Val fights a ‘dragon’ that looks a lot like a plesiosaur, when they all at length succeed in killing the beast, Val is outraged that Gawain would still seek to have the man tried before King Arthur. The young prince naturally speaks up in his outrage before the king, his queen Guinevere. Val becomes Gawain’s squire and almost immediately accompanies him on a quest, during which Gawain is captured, on the trip, Gawain is seriously wounded, and the large panel where Val finally gets him back to Camelot is Foster’s first genuine visual show-stopper in the strip
Casey Ruggles is a Western comic strip written and drawn by Warren Tufts that ran from 1949 to 1954. The Sunday strip was launched May 22,1949, and the strip on September 19,1949. Until 1950, the Sunday strip and the daily strip both told the same story, Tufts ghost artists and assistants were Al Plastino, Edmond Good, Alex Toth and Ruben Moreira. Tufts did not write or draw the Sunday strip between August 31,1953, and January 30,1954, the last Tufts daily was April 3,1954, and his last Sunday was on September 5,1954. The strip continued for a short while with Al Carreño as artist, casey Ruggles was an Old West adventurer in California during the Gold Rush. A former sergeant in the U. S. Army, he encountered such historical figures as Kit Carson, William G. Fargo, Millard Fillmore, Jean Lafitte and this story is not yet made into a movie. Nor has it yet been made into a Heavy Metal concept album, spanish Doubloons All of the daily stories except for one week have been reprinted by Pacific Comics Club or Comics Revue.
The first few Sunday stories were reprinted in color in Comics Revue, Henry, A Warren Tufts Retrospective, Western Wind,1980
Frontier refers to a contrasting region at the edge of a European-American line of settlement. American historians cover multiple frontiers but the folklore is focused primarily on the 19th century west of the Mississippi River. As defined by Hine and Faragher, frontier history tells the story of the creation and defense of communities, the use of the land, the development of markets, and the formation of states. They explain, It is a tale of conquest, but one of survival, thus, Turners Frontier Thesis proclaimed the westward frontier as the defining process of American history. As the American frontier passed into history, the myths of the West in fiction and film took firm hold in the imagination of Americans, America is exceptional in choosing its iconic self-image. David Murdoch has said, No other nation has taken a time and place from its past, the frontier line was the outer line of European-American settlement. It moved steadily westward from the 1630s to the 1880s, Turner favored the Census Bureau definition of the frontier line as a settlement density of two people per square mile.
The West was the settled area near that boundary. Thus, parts of the Midwest and American South, though no longer considered western, have a frontier heritage along with the western states. In the 21st century, the term American West is most often used for the area west of the Mississippi River, in the colonial era, before 1776, the west was of high priority for settlers and politicians. The American frontier began when Jamestown, Virginia was settled by the English in 1607, French and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Although French fur traders ranged widely through the Great Lakes and mid-west region they settled down. French settlement was limited to a few small villages such as Kaskaskia. They created a rural settlement in upstate New York. Areas in the north that were in the stage by 1700 generally had poor transportation facilities. The wealthy speculator, if one was involved, usually remained at home, the class of landless poor was small. Few artisans settled on the frontier except for those who practiced a trade to supplement their primary occupation of farming, there might be a storekeeper, a minister, and perhaps a doctor, and there were a number of landless laborers.
However frontier areas of 1700 that had good river connections were transformed into plantation agriculture
Comic strip formats
The first distinction in comic strips formats is between the daily comic strip and the Sunday strip. A daily strip is carried on a standard newspaper page, often alongside other strips. There is a greater variety in Sunday strip formats. Sunday strips are usually in color, published in a special newspaper section, Comics sections usually come in one of two sizes, full page or tabloid. A single comic strip may appear in numerous variations, there is a version, to appear at a given size. Expendable parts may include a topper, throwaway panels, or a title panel or tier. Due to the desire to re-arrange, comics may use a layout of the panels to allow them to be cut up. Full page is a format roughly 20 inches high and 14 inches wide, the Reading Eagle Sunday comics section is full-page size, though today no individual strips are still printed to take up a full page. When Sunday strips first appeared in newspapers, near the beginning of the 20th Century, leading full-page Sundays included Thimble Theater, Little Orphan Annie, Dick Tracy and Bringing Up Father.
Many full-page comic strips had a topper, a strip that ran above or occasionally below the main strip. The topper on Thimble Theater was Sappo, the topper on Little Orphan Annie was Maw Green, Dick Tracy never had a topper while it was still a full page, but much it had a topper, which ran at the bottom of the tabloid page. In the 1940s, comic strips were reduced in size because newspapers wanted to cram in more comics per page, paper rationing during World War II contributed to this, but was not the primary cause. Many strips were reduced in size to half of a page or one-third of a page, collectors call these formats halfs and thirds. Only a few strips, notably Prince Valiant, were published in full-page format after World War II. In the mid-1950s, there were a few attempts to revive the full-page Sunday comic strip, notably Lance and Johnny Reb and these were an artistic but not a commercial success and were reduced to half-page format after a short full-page run. The last full-page Sunday strip was Prince Valiant, which continued in full-page format in newspapers until 1970.
New Prince Valiant stories still appear in newspapers today, but in half-page or smaller formats, only a few books have been published reprinting full-page Sunday strips in their original size, The Golden Age of Tarzan, Prince Valiant, An American Epic and Little Nemo. The format was short-lived, as by 1957-58 these were printed in this format
Born in Lawrence, Blackbeard spent his childhood in this rural town northeast of Indianapolis. His grandfather ran a station, his father, Sydney Blackbeard, was an electrician. When he was eight or nine, the moved to Newport Beach, California. During World War II, Blackbeard served with the 89th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squad, 9th Army, in France, Belgium, in the post-war years, he went to Fullerton College on the G. I. Bill, studying history and American literature and he worked on the staff of the Torch, the college yearbook. Blackbeard vigorously defended comic strips as worthy of study, the comic strip is the only wholly indigenous American art form. Only the tasteless and uninformed consider comic art trivial and he described comic books, by contrast, as meretricious dreck, which may have marginalized him in the broader field of comic art. Comics were still a subject for adults. The study of comic strips was considered to be the domain of morons, most critical articles on the comics, as Bill noted more than once, appeared in the lowly form of the zine, with low distribution and a small readership.
Blackbeard and his wife Barbara, married in 1966, were forced out of several San Francisco addresses by the growth of Bills collections, the Academy found its longest lasting home in a Spanish stucco home at 2850 Ulloa Street in San Franciscos quiet residential Sunset district. A newspaper tearsheet for a comic strip could be reprinted and give readers a good idea of what the strip looked like, Blackbeard asked his local library if he could have the newspapers they were throwing away. He was told that as a citizen he wouldn’t be allowed to. Blackbeard’s solution was to make himself into an institution, becoming the Founder-Director of the San Francisco Academy of Comics Art in 1968. Newly incorporated, Blackbeard was in a position to save and salvage as many newspapers as he could get his hands on before they were sent to the rubbish pile. Blackbeard’s network included two retired bus drivers who criss-crossed the continent on Ryder Trucks packed to the gills with yellowing newsprint, during three decades of acquisition, Blackbeard accumulated 75 tons of material, which filled both the upstairs rooms and the ground-floor garage.
In 1997, he learned that the owner of the home was not going to renew his lease, Blackbeard entered into negotiations with Lucy Shelton Caswell, curator of Ohio State Universitys Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum. In January 1998, six semi-trailer trucks moved the collection from California to Ohio, the focus of the first two years of work on this collection, supported by grants from the Getty Foundation, the Scripps Howard Foundation and the Charles D. The distinction between comic clippings and comic sections is significant, the collectors original intent was to establish a complete run, from beginning to end, of every comic feature to have appeared in an American newspaper
Don Markstein's Toonopedia
Don Marksteins Toonopedia is a web encyclopedia of print cartoons, comic strips and animation, initiated February 13,2001. Markstein began the project during 1999 with several titles, He changed Dons Cartoon Encyberpedia to Don Marksteins Cartoonopedia after learning the word Encyberpedia had been trademarked. During 2001, he settled on his title, Decided to change the name of the site to Don Marksteins Toonopedia. Better rhythm in the name, plus toon is probably a more apt word, in modern parlance, than cartoon, Toonopedia author Donald David Markstein was fascinated with all forms of cartoon art since his childhood. During 1981, Markstein and his wife, GiGi Dane, founded Apatoons and he edited Comics Revue, a monthly anthology of newspaper comics, from 1984 to 1987, and 1992 to 1996. A writer for Walt Disney Comics, Markstein based Toonopedia on American, Toonopedia accumulated over 1,800 articles since its launch on February 13,2001. During 2002, Charles Bowen reviewing the site for Editor & Publisher, For journalists researching stories, a case in point is Don Marksteins simply amazing Toonopedia, a vast repository of information about comics and future.
Now, unless youre a comic book collector or a cartoonist, Markstein worked on the staff of the New Orleans Times-Picayune newspaper, writing feature stories for the Sunday magazine section. His comic book scripts are mainly for licensed characters, including Donald Duck, Mickey Mouse, Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, graphic Novel Review for Libraries was Marksteins periodical guide for librarians. For each 20-page issue of the magazine, he reviewed 25–30 graphic novels. This caused him to be paralyzed on his left side and he died of respiratory failure in March 2012. In 2012, Marksteins family announced plans to continue updating Toonopedia through new articles written by fans, the subject matter of Toonopedia overlaps with the books Markstein wrote and compiled. A Prince Valiant Companion, by Todd Goldberg and Carl J. Horak, was edited by Markstein, the CD-ROM is a digital compendium of stories, movie stills, artwork and music about pirates. Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum Dave Strickler List of newspaper comic strips List of online encyclopedias Don Marksteins Toonopedia, archived from the original on March 11,2012