H. Rider Haggard
Sir Henry Rider Haggard, was an English writer of Adventure fiction set in exotic locations, predominantly Africa, a pioneer of the Lost World literary genre. He was involved in agricultural reform throughout the British Empire, his stories, situated at the lighter end of Victorian literature, continue to be popular and influential. Henry Rider Haggard known as H. Rider Haggard or Rider Haggard, was born at Bradenham, the eighth of ten children, to Sir William Meybohm Rider Haggard, a barrister, Ella Doveton, an author and poet, his father was born in Russia, to British parents. Haggard was sent to Garsington Rectory in Oxfordshire to study under Reverend H. J. Graham, but unlike his elder brothers who graduated from various private schools, he attended Ipswich Grammar School; this was because his father, who regarded him as somebody, not going to amount to much, could no longer afford to maintain his expensive private education. After failing his army entrance exam, he was sent to a private crammer in London to prepare for the entrance exam for the British Foreign Office, for which he never sat.
During his two years in London he came into contact with people interested in the study of psychical phenomena. In 1875, Haggard's father sent him to what is now South Africa to take up an unpaid position as assistant to the secretary to Sir Henry Bulwer, Lieutenant-Governor of the Colony of Natal. In 1876 he was transferred to the staff of Sir Theophilus Shepstone, Special Commissioner for the Transvaal, it was in this role that Haggard was present in Pretoria in April 1877 for the official announcement of the British annexation of the Boer Republic of the Transvaal. Indeed, Haggard raised the Union flag and read out much of the proclamation following the loss of voice of the official entrusted with the duty. At about that time, Haggard fell in love with Mary Elizabeth "Lilly" Jackson, whom he intended to marry once he obtained paid employment in Africa. In 1878 he became Registrar of the High Court in the Transvaal, wrote to his father informing him that he intended to return to England and marry her.
His father forbade it until Haggard had made a career for himself, by 1879 Jackson had married Frank Archer, a well-to-do banker. When Haggard returned to England, he married a friend of his sister, Marianna Louisa Margitson in 1880, the couple travelled to Africa together, they had a son named Jack and three daughters, Angela and Lilias. Lilias Rider Haggard became an author, edited The Rabbit Skin Cap and I Walked By Night, wrote a biography of her father entitled The Cloak That I Left. Moving back to England in 1882, the couple settled in Ditchingham, Louisa's ancestral home, they lived in Kessingland and had connections with the church in Bungay, Suffolk. Haggard turned to the study of law and was called to the bar in 1884, his practice of law was desultory and much of his time was taken up by the writing of novels which he saw as being more profitable. Haggard lived at 69 Gunterstone Road in Hammersmith, from mid-1885 to circa April 1888, it was at this Hammersmith address. Haggard was influenced by the larger-than-life adventurers whom he met in Colonial Africa, most notably Frederick Selous and Frederick Russell Burnham.
He created his Allan Quatermain adventures under their influence, during a time when great mineral wealth was being discovered in Africa, as well as the ruins of ancient lost civilisations of the continent, such as Great Zimbabwe. Three of his books, The Wizard, Black Heart and White Heart. Haggard belonged to the Athenaeum and Authors' clubs. Years when Haggard was a successful novelist, he was contacted by his former love, Lilly Archer, née Jackson, she had been deserted by her husband, who had embezzled funds entrusted to him and had fled bankrupt to Africa. Haggard saw to the children's education. Lilly followed her husband to Africa, where he infected her with syphilis before dying of it himself. Lilly returned to England in late 1907, where Haggard again supported her until her death on 22 April 1909; these details were not known until the publication of Haggard's 1981 biography by Sydney Higgins. After returning to England in 1882, Haggard published a book on the political situation in South Africa, as well as a handful of unsuccessful novels, before writing the book for which he is most famous, King Solomon's Mines.
He accepted a 10 percent royalty rather than £100 for the copyright. A sequel soon followed entitled Allan Quatermain, followed by She and its sequel Ayesha, swashbuckling adventure novels set in the context of the Scramble for Africa; the hugely popular King Solomon's Mines is sometimes considered the first of the Lost World genre. She is considered to be one of the classics of imaginative literature, and with 83 million copies sold by 1965, it is one of the best-selling books of all time. He is remembered for Nada the Lily and the epic Viking romance, Eric Brighteyes, his novels portray many of the stereotypes associated with colonialism, yet they are unusual for the degree of sympathy with which the native populations are portrayed. Africans play heroic roles in the novels, although the protagonists are European. Nota
Distributed Proofreaders Canada
Distributed Proofreaders Canada is a volunteer organization that converts books into digital format and releases them as public domain books in formats readable by electronic devices. It as of 2018 has published about 4,200 books. Books that are released are stored on a book archive called Faded Page. While its focus is on Canadian publications and preserving Canadiana, it includes books from other countries as well, it is modelled after Distributed Proofreaders, performs the same function as similar projects in other parts of the world such as Project Gutenberg in the United States and Project Gutenberg Australia. Distributed Proofreaders Canada was launched in December 2007 by Michael Shepard. Although it was established by members of the original Distributed Proofreaders site, it is a separate entity, it is a volunteer based non-profit organization. All the administrative and management costs are borne by its members; the software used by DP Canada was downloaded from SourceForge but has been modified since then.
In addition to preserving Canadiana, DP Canada is notable because it is one of the first major efforts to take advantage of Canada's copyright laws which allows more works to be preserved. Unlike copyright law in other countries, Canada has a "life plus 50" copyright term. Works by authors who died more than fifty years ago may be made publicly available in Canada. Other countries have differing copyright laws. Although files available through DP Canada are publicly available in other countries, the onus is on the reader to ensure that they only download material, not in copyright in their country of residence. Notable Canadian authors whose books have been published include Stephen Leacock, L. M. Montgomery, E. T. Seton and Mazo de la Roche. Authors whose works have been released in Canada but not other parts of the world include A. A. Milne, C. S. Lewis, Winston Churchill, E. E. Smith and Amy Carmichael. Eligible books are chosen by members for publication based on personal access. Books are scanned electronically and each page is uploaded to the proofreading website.
A project is made available to the proofreading members. Each book is proofread in three stages called'P1','P2' and'P3'. During the first stage, errors in scanning and other minor errors are corrected. Once all pages in the book have been edited the book pages are promoted to the next stage, P2; the proofreading is repeated and again in stage P3 to ensure no errors make it to the final publication. Once stage P3 is finished the book moves to a set of two formatting stages called'F1', and'F2'. In these stages the book text is changed into a format that allows it to be presented to the reader in a style that resembles the original book as as possible. For example, text appearing in Italic type is placed within formatting tags <i>this text is in italics</i>; when formatted the text appears as this text is in italics. When the formatting stages are complete, a post-processing stage brings all the files together to publish the books in five electronic formats; these include mobi, HTML, PDF and plain text.
The HTML version is made available as a Zip file. Before the books are added to the Faded Page book archive, the books are placed in a final round called'Smooth Reading'. While in this phase, members of DP Canada are encouraged to read them. While the books are in this phase, comments about the book for possible improvements can be sent to the post processor. Once past the Smooth Reading process, the publication is posted on Faded Page; the books that are published by DP Canada in the public domain are made available through the Faded Page book archive. Some of the publications released are posted to the Project Gutenberg Canada website. PG Canada is a book archive. List of digital library projects Distributed Proofreaders Canada Faded Page Book Archive
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Pip, Squeak and Wilfred
Pip and Wilfred was a British strip cartoon published in the Daily Mirror from 1919 to 1956, as well as the Sunday Pictorial in the early years. It was conceived by Bertram Lamb, who took the role of Uncle Dick, signing himself in an early book, was drawn until c. 1939 by Austin Bowen Payne, who always signed as A. B. Payne, it concerned the adventures of an orphaned family of animals. Pip, who assumed the "father" role, was a dog, while the "mother", was a penguin. Wilfred was the "young son" and was a rabbit with long ears; the characters Pip and Alfred were created by Bertram Lamb, a journalist on the Daily Mirror, born in Islington, London, on 14 May 1887 and died in Switzerland in 1938. He never thought up the idea of the characters; the origins of the characters are mentioned in the cartoon strips. Squeak was found in the London Zoological Gardens after hatching on the South African coast years before. Pip was discovered begging by a policeman on the Thames Embankment, was sent to a dogs' home, where he was bought for half-a-crown.
Wilfred was found in a field near his burrow and was adopted by Pip and Squeak, who were in turn looked after by Uncle Dick and Angeline, the housemaid of their family house on the edge of London. In 1927 the Pip and Wilfred club began, it was named the Wilfredian League of Gugnuncs and organised many competitions and events for thousands of members at the British South Coast Seaside resorts. "Gugnuncs" is a combination of two baby-talk words used by Wilfred, who as a toddler-aged rabbit cannot speak yet, nunc being his version of uncle. There was a WLOG member's badge in blue enamelled metal, featuring the long ears of Wilfred. Among the WLOG rules was one. A series of silent animated cartoons were produced in 1921 by Lancelot Speed, titled "The Wonderful Adventures of Pip, Squeak & Wilfred". Twenty–five 5-minute shorts were made, were first–shown between 17 February 1921 and 11 August 1921. Titles included'Pip And Wilfred Detectives','Over The Edge Of The World','The Six-Armed Image','The Castaways','Ups And Downs','Popski's Early Life','Wilfred's Nightmare','Wilfred's Wonderful Adventures' and'Trouble In The Nursery'.
None appear to be available in any format. An early book was Pip, Squeak & Wilfred, Their "Luvly" Adventures, issued in 1921 by Stanley Paul & Co, London; this book recapped on the earliest Daily Mirror strips. Luvly being one of Squeak's favourite words. Pip and Squeak Annuals appeared each year from 1922. A separate Wilfred's Annual appeared, dated 1924 to 1938, featuring stories aimed at under-10 year olds; the 1934 Pip & Squeak Annual featured a'magic red frame' which allowed the reader to see hidden pictures on several pages. The 1934 Wilfred's Annual featured a Pantomime cut-out insert; the final Pip & Squeak annual of 1939 incorporated Wilfred's Annual, which had ended the previous year, is the rarest of the series due to low sales and poor quality paper being used. No annual was issued in 1940; the annuals continued the 1920s type of fairyland surrealism in their pages until the last annual, by which time other more popular annuals such as Bobby Bear and Teddy Tail were more contemporary, leaving this series appearing rather dated in comparison, meaning years of Pip and Squeak annual and Wilfred's annual sold in smaller quantities.
There were three Uncle Dick's Annuals issued from 1929 to 1931, dated as the 1930 to 1932 annuals, the first one being named'Uncle Dick's Competition Annual'. These annuals were aimed more at boys, with action stories and little Pip & Squeak content; as their title suggests, the books were in an elaborate competition format where you had to solve quizzes, paint in pictures and similar to win prizes. A short-lived revived Pip, Squeak & Wilfred annual was issued in the mid-1950s, as the characters had been revived in the Daily Mirror a few years previously; this featured the characters updated and now drawn by a new, artist. A newly bow-tied Wilfred and a younger Auntie, both only saying the odd nonsensical word, were now made to speak losing the innocence and surreal charm of the pre-war years, to better fit the 1950s. Stanley, a young penguin, became a regular character, having been introduced in the 1930s annuals; the annual featured stories with the characters as well as cartoon strips and other non-related stories.
A small paperback comic book, Adventures of Pip Squeak & Wilfred was published in the early 1920s in the Merry Miniatures series by Home Publicity of London, was just 1.5 by 3 inches in size. The Daily Mirror featured a Saturday 4-page pull-out comic supplement, starting on Saturday, 15 October 1921, titled The Adventures of Pip and Wilfred: No 1 - Thrills in the Printing Works. Editions were reduced to 3 pages on 25 March 1922 to 2 pages on 8 July 1922 until the supplement ended in 1924; the popularity of Pip, Squeak & Wilfred was immense. The 16 December 1922 edition of the Daily Mirror reported 100,000 copies of the 1923 Pip and Squeak Annual had been sold. After the First World War 1914-18, three medals were awarded to most of the British servicemen who had served from 1914 or 1915, they were either the 1914 Star or the 1914-15 Star, the British War Medal, the British Victory Medal. They were irreverently referred to as Pip and Wilfred and are still so today. After the First World War, the Royal Air Force named its three Blackburn Kangaroo training aircraft Pip and Wilfred.
During the Second World War, Pip-squeak was the code name of a rad
Andrew Lang was a Scottish poet, literary critic, contributor to the field of anthropology. He is best known as a collector of fairy tales; the Andrew Lang lectures at the University of St Andrews are named after him. Lang was born on 31 March 1844 in Selkirk, he was the eldest of the eight children born to John Lang, the town clerk of Selkirk, his wife Jane Plenderleath Sellar, the daughter of Patrick Sellar, factor to the first duke of Sutherland. On 17 April 1875, he married Leonora Blanche Alleyne, youngest daughter of C. T. Alleyne of Clifton and Barbados, she was variously credited as author, collaborator, or translator of Lang's Color/Rainbow Fairy Books which he edited. He was educated at Selkirk Grammar School, Loretto School, the Edinburgh Academy, as well as the University of St Andrews and Balliol College, where he took a first class in the final classical schools in 1868, becoming a fellow and subsequently honorary fellow of Merton College, he soon made a reputation as one of the most able and versatile writers of the day as a journalist, poet and historian.
In 1906, he was elected FBA. He died of angina pectoris on 20 July 1912 at the Tor-na-Coille Hotel in Banchory, survived by his wife, he was buried in the cathedral precincts at St Andrews, where a monument can be visited in the south-east corner of the 19th century section. Lang is now chiefly known for his publications on folklore and religion; the interest in folklore was from early life. Tylor; the earliest of his publications is Myth. In Myth and Religion he explained the "irrational" elements of mythology as survivals from more primitive forms. Lang's Making of Religion was influenced by the 18th century idea of the "noble savage": in it, he maintained the existence of high spiritual ideas among so-called "savage" races, drawing parallels with the contemporary interest in occult phenomena in England, his Blue Fairy Book was a beautifully produced and illustrated edition of fairy tales that has become a classic. This was followed by many other collections of fairy tales, collectively known as Andrew Lang's Fairy Books.
In the preface of the Lilac Fairy Book he credits his wife with translating and transcribing most of the stories in the collections. Lang examined the origins of totemism in Social Origins. Lang was one of the founders of "psychical research" and his other writings on anthropology include The Book of Dreams and Ghosts and Religion and The Secret of the Totem, he served as President of the Society for Psychical Research in 1911. Lang extensively cited nineteenth- and twentieth-century European spiritualism to challenge the idea of his teacher, that belief in spirits and animism were inherently irrational. Lang used Tyler's work and his own psychical research in an effort to posit an anthropological critique of materialism, he collaborated with S. H. Butcher in a prose translation of Homer's Odyssey, with E. Myers and Walter Leaf in a prose version of the Iliad, both still noted for their archaic but attractive style, he was a Homeric scholar of conservative views. Other works include Homer and the Study of Greek found in Essays in Little and the Epic.
Lang's writings on Scottish history are characterised by a scholarly care for detail, a piquant literary style, a gift for disentangling complicated questions. The Mystery of Mary Stuart was a consideration of the fresh light thrown on Mary, Queen of Scots, by the Lennox manuscripts in the University Library, approving of her and criticising her accusers, he wrote monographs on The Portraits and Jewels of Mary Stuart and James VI and the Gowrie Mystery. The somewhat unfavourable view of John Knox presented in his book John Knox and the Reformation aroused considerable controversy, he gave new information about the continental career of the Young Pretender in Pickle the Spy, an account of Alestair Ruadh MacDonnell, whom he identified with Pickle, a notorious Hanoverian spy. This was followed by a monograph on Prince Charles Edward. In 1900 he began a History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation; the Valet's Tragedy, which takes its title from an essay on Dumas's Man in the Iron Mask, collects twelve papers on historical mysteries, A Monk of Fife is a fictitious narrative purporting to be written by a young Scot in France in 1429–1431.
Lang's earliest publication was a volume of metrical experiments, The Ballads and Lyrics of Old France, this was followed at intervals by other volumes of dainty verse, Ballades in Blue China and Verses Vain, selected by Mr Austin Dobson. Lang was active as a journalist in various ways, ranging from sparkling "leaders" for the Daily News to miscellaneous articles for the Morning Post, for many years he was literary editor of Longman's Magazine, he edited The Poems and Songs of Robert Burns, was responsible for the Life and Letters of JG Lockhart, The Life and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh. Lang discussed lite
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus