Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was used for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century, its most prominent features included the use of the rib vault and the flying buttress, which allowed the weight of the roof to be counterbalanced by buttresses outside the building, giving greater height and more space for windows. Another important feature was the extensive use of stained glass, the rose window, to bring light and color to the interior. Another feature was the use of realistic statuary on the exterior over the portals, to illustrate biblical stories for the illiterate parishioners; these technologies had all existed in Romanesque architecture, but they were used in more innovative ways and more extensively in Gothic architecture to make buildings taller and stronger. The first notable example is considered to be the Abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris, whose choir and facade were reconstructed with Gothic features.
The choir was completed in 1144. The style appeared in some civic architecture in northern Europe, notably in town halls and university buildings. A Gothic revival began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th century Europe and continued for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum, The term "Gothic architecture" originated in the 16th century, was very negative, suggesting barbaric. Giorgio Vasari used the term "barbarous German style" in his 1550 Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, in the introduction to the Lives he attributed various architectural features to "the Goths" whom he held responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, erecting new ones in this style; the Gothic style originated in the Ile-de-France region of northern France in the first half of the 12th century. A new dynasty of French Kings, the Capetians, had subdued the feudal lords, had become the most powerful rulers in France, with their capital in Paris.
They allied themselves with the bishops of the major cities of northern France, reduced the power of the feudal abbots and monasteries. Their rise coincided with an enormous growth of the population and prosperity of the cities of northern France; the Capetian Kings and their bishops wished to build new cathedrals as monuments of their power and religious faith. The church which served as the primary model for the style was the Abbey of St-Denis, which underwent reconstruction by the Abbot Suger, first in the choir and the facade, Suger was a close ally and biographer of the French King, Louis VII, a fervent Catholic and builder, the founder of the University of Paris. Suger remodeled the ambulatory of the Abbey, removed the enclosures that separated the chapels, replaced the existing structure with imposing pillars and rib vaults; this created higher and wider bays, into which he installed larger windows, which filled the end of the church with light. Soon afterwards he rebuilt the facade, adding three deep portals, each with a tympanum, an arch filled with sculpture illustrating biblical stories.
The new facade was flanked by two towers. He installed a small circular rose window over the central portal; this design became the prototype for a series of new French cathedrals. Sens Cathedral was the first Cathedral to be built in the new style. Other versions of the new style soon appeared in Noyon Cathedral; the Gothic style was adapted by some French monastic orders, notably the Cistercian order under Saint Bernard of Clairvaux It was used in an austere form without ornament at the new Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay and the church of Clairvaux Abbey, whose site is now occupied by a French prison. The new style was copied outside the Kingdom of France in the Duchy of Normandy. Early examples of Norman Gothic included Coutances Cathedral. Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the new style was introduced to England and spread from there to Low Countries, Spain, northern Italy and Sicily; the Gothic style did not replace the Romanesque everywhere in Europe. The Late Romanesque continued to flourish in the Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufens and Rhineland.
From the end of the 12th century until the middle of the 13th century, the gothic style spread from the Île-de-France to appear in other cities of northern France. New structures in the style included Chartres Cathedral; the early type of rib vault used of Saint Denis and Notre Dame, with six parts, was modified to four parts, making it simpler and stronger. Amiens and Chartres were among the first to use the flying buttress. At Reims, the buttresses were given greater weight and strength by the addition of heavy stone pinnacles on top; these were decorated with statues of ange
Motif (visual arts)
In art and iconography, a motif is an element of an image. A motif may be repeated in a pattern or design many times, or may just occur once in a work. A motif may be an element in the iconography of a particular subject or type of subject, seen in other works, or may form the main subject, as the Master of Animals motif in ancient art does; the related motif of confronted animals is seen alone, but may be repeated, for example in Byzantine silk and other ancient textiles. Where the main subject of an artistic work such as a painting is a specific person, group, or moment in a narrative, that should be referred to as the "subject" of the work, not a motif, though the same thing may be a "motif" when part of another subject, or part of a work of decorative art such as a painting on a vase. Ornamental or decorative art can be analysed into a number of different elements, which can be called motifs; these may as in textile art, be repeated many times in a pattern. Important examples in Western art include acanthus and dart, various types of scrollwork.
Many designs in Islamic culture are motifs, including those of the sun, animals such as horses and lions and landscapes. Motifs can be used for propaganda. In kilim flatwoven carpets, motifs such as the hands-on-hips elibelinde are woven in to the design to express the hopes and concerns of the weavers: the elibelinde symbolises the female principle and fertility, including the desire for children. Pennsylvania Dutch hex signs are a familiar type of motif in the eastern portions of the United States, their circular and symmetric design, their use of brightly colored patterns from nature, such as stars, compass roses, hearts, tulips and feathers have made them quite popular. In some parts of Pennsylvania Dutch country, it is common to see these designs decorating barns and covered bridges; the idea of a motif has become used more broadly in discussing literature and other narrative arts for an element in the story that represents a theme. Geometric repeated: Meander, rosette, gul in Oriental rugs, acanthus and dart, Bead and reel, Sauwastika, Adinkra symbols.
Figurative: Master of Animals, confronted animals, velificatio and the Maiden, Three hares, Sheela na gig. Iconography Three hares Richard. Decorative Flower and Leaf Designs. Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-26869-1 Jones, Owen.'The Grammar of Ornament. Dover Publications, Revised edition, ISBN 0-486-25463-1 Welch, Patricia Bjaaland. Chinese art: a guide to motifs and visual imagery. Turtle Publishing, ISBN 0-8048-3864-X Visual motifs Theater of Drawing
Hexham Abbey is a Grade I listed place of Christian worship dedicated to St Andrew, in the town of Hexham, Northumberland, in northeast England. Built in AD 674, the Abbey was built up during the 12th century into its current form, with additions around the turn of the 20th century. Since the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1537, the Abbey has been the parish church of Hexham. In 2014 the Abbey regained ownership of its former monastic buildings, used as Hexham magistrates' court, subsequently developed them into a permanent exhibition and visitor centre, telling the story of the Abbey's history. There has been a church on the site for over 1300 years since Etheldreda, Queen of Northumbria made a grant of lands to St Wilfrid, Bishop of York c.674. Of Wilfrid's Benedictine abbey, constructed entirely of material salvaged from nearby Roman ruins, the Saxon crypt still remains. For a little while around that time it was the seat of a bishopric. In the year 875, Halfdene the Dane ravaged the whole of Tyneside and Hexham Church was plundered and burnt to the ground.
About 1050, one Eilaf was put in charge of Hexham, although as treasurer of Durham, he never went there. Eilaf was instructed to rebuild Hexham Church which lay in utter ruin, his son Eilaf II completed the work building in the Norman style. In Norman times, Wilfrid's abbey was replaced by an Augustinian priory; the current church dates from c.1170–1250, built in the Early English style of architecture. The choir and south transepts and the cloisters, where canons studied and meditated, date from this period; the east end was rebuilt in 1858. The Abbey was rebuilt during the incumbency of Canon Edwin Sidney Savage who came to Hexham in 1898 and remained until 1919; this mammoth project involved re-building the nave, whose walls incorporate some of the earlier church and the restoration of the choir. The nave was re-consecrated on 8 August 1908; the church was recorded as Grade I listed in 1951. In 1996 an additional chapel was created at the east end of the north choir aisle. Four of the stained glass windows in the Abbey are the work of Jersey-born stained glass artist Henry Thomas Bosdet, commissioned by the Abbey.
The east window was the first project and was installed about 1907. Two smaller windows followed and the large west window was installed in 1918; the crypt is a plain structure of four chambers. Here were exhibited the relics, it consists of a chapel with an ante-chapel at the west end, two side passages with enlarged vestibules and three stairways. The chapel and ante-chapel are barrel-vaulted. All the stones used are of Roman workmanship and many are carved or with inscriptions. One inscription on a slab erased, is: Translated it means The Emperor Lucius Septimus Severus Pius Pertinax and his sons the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antonius Pius Augustus and Publius Geta Caesar the cohorts and detachments made this under the command of ….. The words erased. After the Emperor Geta was murdered by his brother Caracalla, an edict was made at Rome ordering that whenever the two names appeared in combination that of Geta was to be erased; this was so poorly that the name can still be read. The first diocese of Lindisfarne was merged into the Diocese of York in 664.
York diocese was divided in 678 by Theodore of Tarsus, forming a bishopric for the country between the Rivers Aln and Tees, with a seat at Hexham and/or Lindisfarne. This and erratically merged back into the bishopric of Lindisfarne. Eleven bishops of Hexham followed St. Eata. No successor was appointed in 821, the condition of the country being too unsettled. A period of disorder followed the Danish devastations, after which Hexham monastery was reconstituted in 1113 as a priory of Austin Canons, which flourished until its dissolution under Henry VIII. Meantime the bishopric had been merged in that of Lindisfarne, which latter see was removed to Chester-le-Street in 883, thence to Durham in 995. Eata,'bishop of Bernicia', with his seat at Hexham and/or Lindisfarne, died 685, succeeded by John of Beverley Trumbert, 682, as'bishop of Hexham', at the same time as Trumwine's installation, with Eata continuing as bishop at Lindisfarne Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, 685, after Tumbert's din deposition, moving his seat to Lindisfarne to become bishop of Lindisfarne St. John of Beverley.
From on, the seat was at Hexham, the bishopric of Lindisfarne continued independently, with Eadberht succeeding Cuthbert St. Wilfrid, resigning the See of York, died as Bishop of Hexham in 709 St. Acca, Wilfrid's successor, from 709 Frithubeorht 734–766 St. Eahlmund 767–781 Tilbeorht 781–789 Æthelberht 789–797 transferred from Whithorn Heardred 797-800 Eanbehrt 800–813 Tidfrith, last bishop in this line, who died about 821 Canon Barker 1866 – 18 Edwin Sidney Savage 1898 – 1918 James Vaux Cornell Farquhar 1919 – 1945 Archibald George Hardie 1945 – 1962 Rowland Lemmon 1962 – 1975 Bishop Anthony Hunter 1975 -1979 Timothy Withers Green 1979 – 1984 Michael Middleton 1985 – 1992 Canon Michael Nelson 1992 – 2004 Canon Graham Usher 2004 – 2014 Canon Dr Dagmar Winter 2015- Ælfwald I of Northumbria Eata of Hexham Frithubeorht Acca of Hexham Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros The tombstone of Flavinus, is one of the most significant Roman finds in Britain, it can be found in the Abbey in front of a blocked doorway at the foot of the Night Stair.
Flavinus was a Roman cavalry officer who
The lance is a pole weapon designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier. During the periods of classical and medieval warfare, it evolved into being the leading weapon in cavalry charges, was unsuited for throwing or for repeated thrusting, unlike similar weapons of the javelin/pike family used by infantry. Lances were equipped with a vamplate – a small circular plate to prevent the hand sliding up the shaft upon impact. Though best known as a military and sporting weapon carried by European knights, the use of lances was widespread throughout Asia, the Middle East, North Africa wherever suitable mounts were available; as a secondary weapon, lancers of the medieval period bore swords, hammers, or maces for hand-to-hand combat, since the lance was a one-use-per-engagement weapon. The name is derived from the word lancea - the Roman auxiliaries' throwing knife. Compare λόγχη, a Greek term for "spear" or "lance". A lance in the original sense is javelin; the English verb to launch "fling, throw" is derived from the term, as well as the rarer or poetic to lance.
The term from the 17th century came to refer to spears not thrown, used for thrusting by heavy cavalry, in jousting. A thrusting spear, used by infantry is referred to as a pike; the Byzantine cavalry used lances exclusively in mixed lancer and mounted archer formations. The Byzantines used lance both underarm, couched; the best known usage of military lances was that of the full-gallop closed-ranks charge of a group of knights with underarm-couched lances, against lines of infantry, archery regiments, defensive embankments, opposition cavalry. Two variants on the couched lance charge developed, the French method, en haie, with lancers in a double line and the German method, with lancers drawn up in a deeper formation, wedge-shaped, it is believed that this became the dominant European cavalry tactic in the 11th century after the development of the cantled saddle and stirrups, of rowel spurs. Cavalry thus outfitted and deployed had a tremendous collective force in their charge, could shatter most contemporary infantry lines.
Recent evidence has suggested, that the lance charge was effective without the benefit of stirrups. Because of the extreme stopping power of a thrusting spear, it became a popular weapon of infantry in the Late Middle Ages; these led to the rise of the longest type of spears, the pike. This adaptation of the cavalry lance to infantry use was tasked with stopping lance-armed cavalry charges. During the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, these weapons, both mounted and unmounted, were so effective that lancers and pikemen not only became a staple of every Western army, but became sought-after mercenaries. In Europe, a jousting lance was a variation of the knight's lance, modified from its original war design. In jousting, the lance tips would be blunt spread out like a cup or furniture foot, to provide a wider impact surface designed to unseat the opposing rider without spearing him through; the centre of the shaft of such lances could be designed to be hollow, in order for it to break on impact, as a further safeguard against impalement.
They were at least 4m long, had hand guards built into the lance tapering for a considerable portion of the weapon's length. These are the versions that can most be seen at medieval reenactment festivals. In war, lances were much more like stout spears and balanced for one-handed use, with sharpened tips; as a small unit that surrounded a knight when he went into battle during the 14th and 15th centuries, a lance might have consisted of one or two squires, the knight himself, one to three men-at-arms, an archer. Lances were combined under the banner of a higher-ranking nobleman to form companies of knights that would act as an ad-hoc unit; the advent of wheellock technology spelled the end of the heavy knightly lance in Western Europe, with newer types of heavy cavalry such as reiters and cuirassiers spurning the old one-use weapon and supplanting the older gendarme type Medieval cavalry. While many Renaissance captains such as Sir Roger Williams continued to espouse the virtues of the lance, many such as François de la Noue encouraged its abandonment in the face of the pistol's greater armor piercing power and greater general utility.
At the same time the adoption of pike and shot tactic by most infantry forces would neuter much of the power of the lancer's breakneck charge, making them a non-cost effective type of military unit due to their expensive horses in comparison to cuirassiers and reiters, who charging only at a trot could make do with lower quality mounts. After the success of pistol-armed Huguenot heavy horse against their Royalist counterparts during the French Wars of Religion, most Western European powers started rearming their lancers with pistols as an adjunct weapon and as a replacement, with the Spanish retaining the lance the longest. Only the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth with its far greater emphasis on cavalry warfare, large populat
Attlebridge is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. It is situated about 8 miles north-west of Norwich; the civil parish has an area of 5.27 square kilometres and in the 2001 census had a population of 122 in 50 households, increasing to a population of 223 in 96 households at the 2011 Census. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of Broadland; the mediaeval parish church of St Andrew is a grade II* listed building. The village is named after Ætla and the nearby bridge he is credited with constructing. Between the 1880s and 1950s the settlement had its own Attlebridge railway station offering direct trains to Norwich and Kings Lynn, it was closed as a cost-cutting measure by British Rail. During World War II a nearby airfield, designated RAF Attlebridge, was used as an airfield for launching Allied aircraft missions against Axis targets in Europe. Media related to Attlebridge at Wikimedia Commons Information from Genuki Norfolk on Attlebridge.
Information from Broadland District Council on Attlebridge. Attlebridge in the Domesday Book
Church architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion by innovation and by imitating other architectural styles as well as responding to changing beliefs and local traditions. From the birth of Christianity to the present, the most significant objects of transformation for Christian architecture and design were the great churches of Byzantium, the Romanesque abbey churches, Gothic cathedrals and Renaissance basilicas with its emphasis on harmony; these large ornate and architecturally prestigious buildings were dominant features of the towns and countryside in which they stood. However, far more numerous were the parish churches in Christendom, the focus of Christian devotion in every town and village. While a few are counted as sublime works of architecture to equal the great cathedrals and churches, the majority developed along simpler lines, showing great regional diversity and demonstrating local vernacular technology and decoration.
Buildings were at first from those intended for other purposes but, with the rise of distinctively ecclesiastical architecture, church buildings came to influence secular ones which have imitated religious architecture. In the 20th century, the use of new materials, such as steel and concrete, has had an effect upon the design of churches; the history of church architecture divides itself into periods, into countries or regions and by religious affiliation. The matter is complicated by the fact that buildings put up for one purpose may have been re-used for another, that new building techniques may permit changes in style and size, that changes in liturgical practice may result in the alteration of existing buildings and that a building built by one religious group may be used by a successor group with different purposes; the simplest church building comprises a single meeting space, built of locally available material and using the same skills of construction as the local domestic buildings.
Such churches are rectangular, but in African countries where circular dwellings are the norm, vernacular churches may be circular as well. A simple church may be built of mud brick and daub, split logs or rubble, it may be roofed with thatch, corrugated iron or banana leaves. However, church congregations, from the 4th century onwards, have sought to construct church buildings that were both permanent and aesthetically pleasing; this had led to a tradition in which congregations and local leaders have invested time and personal prestige into the building and decoration of churches. Within any parish, the local church is the oldest building and is larger than any pre-19th-century structure except a barn; the church is built of the most durable material available dressed stone or brick. The requirements of liturgy have demanded that the church should extend beyond a single meeting room to two main spaces, one for the congregation and one in which the priest performs the rituals of the Mass. To the two-room structure is added aisles, a tower and vestries and sometimes transepts and mortuary chapels.
The additional chambers may be part of the original plan, but in the case of a great many old churches, the building has been extended piecemeal, its various parts testifying to its long architectural history. In the first three centuries of the Early Livia Christian Church, the practice of Christianity was illegal and few churches were constructed. In the beginning, Christians worshipped along with Jews in private houses. After the separation of Jews and Christians, the latter continued to worship in people's houses, known as house churches; these were the homes of the wealthier members of the faith. Saint Paul, in his first letter to the Corinthians writes: "The churches of Asia send greetings. Aquila and Prisca, together with the church in their house, greet you warmly in the Lord."Some domestic buildings were adapted to function as churches. One of the earliest of adapted residences is at Dura Europos church, built shortly after 200 AD, where two rooms were made into one, by removing a wall, a dais was set up.
To the right of the entrance a small room was made into a baptistry. Some church buildings were built as church assemblies, such as that opposite the emperor Diocletian's palace in Nicomedia, its destruction was recorded thus: When that day dawned, in the eighth consulship of Diocletian and seventh of Maximian while it was yet hardly light, the perfect, together with chief commanders and officers of the treasury, came to the church in Nicomedia, the gates having been forced open, they searched everywhere for an idol of the Divinity. The books of the Holy Scriptures were found, they were committed to the flames; that church, situated on rising ground, was within view of the palace. The sentiment of Diocletian prevailed, who dreaded lest, so great a fire being once kindled, some part of the city might he burnt; the Pretorian Guards came in battle array, with axes and other iron instruments, having been let loose everywhere, they in a few hours leveled that lofty edifice with the ground. From the first to the early fourth centuries most Christian communities worshipped in private homes secretly.
Some Roman churches, such as the Basilica of San Clemente in Rome, are built directly over the houses where early Christians worshipped. Other early Roman churches are b
Beverley Minster in Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire, is a parish church in the Church of England. It is one of the largest parish churches in the UK, larger than one-third of all English cathedrals and regarded as a gothic masterpiece by many. A collegiate church, it was not selected as a bishop's seat during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, it is part of a Grade I listed building. Every year it hosts events in association with local schools, including the Beverley Minster Primary School Nativity Performance and the Beverley Grammar School Speech Night; the Minster owes its origin and much of its subsequent importance to Saint John of Beverley, Bishop of York, who founded a monastery locally c. 700 and whose remains still lie in a vault beneath the nave. Archaeological excavations in 1979–82 confirmed that a major church stood on or near the present Minster site from c. 700 to c. 850. That last date could support a tradition of the sacking of the monastery by Vikings. Another tradition attributes to King Athelstan the refoundation of the monastery as a collegiate church of secular canons.
The establishment of a major minster and its privileges was more a gradual process, but by the early 11th century Bishop John's tomb had become a major pilgrimage center. He was canonized in 1037, his cult encouraged the growth of a town around the Minster; the Archbishops of York, the lords of Beverley throughout the Middle Ages, secured grants for four annual fairs which enhanced the town's trading role. From the 12th century Beverley was a major exporter of wool to the Low Countries. A 12th century charter indicates substantial rebuilding work following the canonisation of St John of Beverley in 1037. Archbishop Kynesige added a high stone tower, he installed a painted and gilded ceiling from the presbytery to the tower. Nothing remains of this Anglo-Saxon church, no records of building work under the Normans survive. However, large quantities of Norman masonry have been found in excavations throughout the town, four large arches built behind the nave triforium during the 14th century are composed of reused Norman voussoirs.
In 1067/68 Gamel, Sheriff of York was informed in a writ by William the Conqueror that Archbishop Ealdred should draw up a privilegium for the lands belonging to the church of St John of Beverley and that they shall be free from the demands of the king, his reeves, all his men, except for those of the archbishop and priests of the church. Saint Thomas Becket of Canterbury was named Provost of Beverley in 1154. A fire in 1188 damaged the Minster and the town. Much of the church was damaged, complete rebuilding was required. Money was collected for the work and reconstruction began at the east end soon after the fire. During the construction, a new lantern tower over the eastern crossing designed to illuminate the Shrine of St John was under construction, but it collapsed c. 1219 necessitating a partial rebuild of the church. Henry III granted 40 oaks from Sherwood Forest in 1252, by c. 1260 the retrochoir, chapter house and crossing were complete. Filled with light, overwhelmingly tall and spacious, speaking to the increasing skills of the stonecarvers, this new work was radically different from the old Saxon and Norman structure it replaced.
It was the product of the novel structural systems and artistic development that together define the Gothic style, originating in France and brought to England in the late 12th century. Work did not progress beyond the first bay of the nave. Of this Early Gothic building campaign, only the chapter house has been lost, although its wonderful staircase survives in the north choir aisle; the only major alteration was the insertion of a great Perpendicular east window, for which money was bequeathed in 1416. A new shrine for St John was ordered from Roger de Faringdon of London in 1292, to which the saint's remains were translated on 25 October 1307. Collections for further rebuilding were resumed in 1308, work on the nave had begun by 1311; the architectural style current in England had developed into something much different from the Early Gothic displayed in the first part of the rebuilding. More structurally daring, more richly decorated forms merge with the earlier, simpler forms in the nave of Beverley Minster, in an effort both to respect the older work and to bring it up to date.
Building on the nave was ongoing in 1334, may have been halted by the Black Death in 1348 as in many other instances across England. Work did not resume until in the century, when the nave was completed and the west front with its two great towers was built, c. 1400. These towers are a superlative example of the Perpendicular style, formed the inspiration for the present west towers of Westminster Abbey, designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor. By the early 15th century, with the building of the north porch, the Minster was structurally complete; the great east window, a chapel funded by the Percys, the choir stalls were the only major work. Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, was buried in the church after being murdered by his own retainers at Cockslodge near Thirsk, in 1489 during the Yorkshire rebellion over high taxes imposed by King Henry VII. In 1548, the Minster was reduced to the status of a parish church, the college of secular canons established before the Norman Conq