Ghia initially made lightweight aluminum-bodied cars, achieving fame with the Alfa Romeo 6C1500, winning Mille Miglia. Between the world wars, Ghia designed special bodies for Alfa Romeo, the factory was rebuilt at Via Tomassi Grossi, after being demolished in an air raid during World War II. After Ghias death, the company was sold to Mario Boano, the Ghia-Aigle subsidiary was established in Aigle, Switzerland. Following differences between Boano and the companys Naples-born chief engineer and designer Luigi Segre, Boano left the company in 1953, the decade between 1953 and 1963 saw many foreign firms ordering Ghia designs, such as Ford and Volvo. Chrysler and its designer Virgil Exner became a partner for 15 years, resulting in eighteen Chrysler Ghia Specials, the K-310, the Chrysler Norseman, the Imperial Crown limousines. There are even a few Ghia-bodied Ferraris, Ghia participated in the short-lived Dual-Ghia venture. Production by Ghia was always in low numbers, giving the companys products even greater exclusivity than those of the other Italian coachbuilders.
In 1953, Boano left for Fiat, the moved to via Agostino da Montefeltro. Ghia brought in Pietro Frua, appointing Frua as head of Ghia Design, after Segres death, Ghia was sold to Ramfis Trujillo, who sold to Alejandro de Tomaso, owner of a rival design house, who took over, but had difficulty in running Ghia profitably. In 1970, he sold his shares to the Ford Motor Company, during this transition period, Ghia had partial involvement in the De Tomaso Pantera, a high-performance, mid-engine car utilizing a Ford V8. After the Dual-Ghia project had ended, the more up-to-date Ghia L6.4 appeared in 1961, fewer Mopar parts were used, but the cars bespoke nature meant an astronomically high price and when production ended in 1963 only 25 cars had been built. The cars 6,277 cc Chrysler V8 has 340 hp SAE, both the front and the rear seats consist of separate buckets. From 1973, the Ghia name became Fords top trim-level in its model range. The trend began in the US and Europe, but soon spread worldwide, in the British market, the practice of using the Ghia name in such a capacity was finally phased out in 2010.
The Titanium name has instead replaced Ghia as the trim level. The British Ford Fiesta retained the Ghia trim designation for the longest period of any model –31 years 8 months, over in the rest of Europe, the Ghia trim was discontinued as well. As of 2012, the Ghia studios produce many various concept cars under the Ford banner, however, it will forever be linked with Fords top-line models. Ghia L6.4 Ghia 1500 GT Ghia 450 Giacinto Ghia Mario Boano Luigi Segre Sergio Sartorelli Giovanni Savonuzzi Giorgetto Giugiaro Tom Tjaarda Pietro Frua An enthusiast site on Ghia history
A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that press outward against a rotating cylinder-shaped part called a brake drum. The term drum brake usually means a brake in which shoes press on the surface of the drum. When shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a disc brake, it is sometimes called a pinch drum brake. A related type called a band brake uses a belt or band wrapping around the outside of a drum. The modern automobile drum brake was first used in a car made by Maybach in 1900 and he used woven asbestos lining for the drum brake lining, as no alternative dissipated heat like the asbestos lining, though Maybach had used a less sophisticated drum brake. In the first drum brakes and rods or cables operated the shoes mechanically, from the mid-1930s, oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons operated the brakes, though some vehicles continued with purely mechanical systems for decades.
Some designs have two wheel cylinders, as the shoes in drum brakes wear, brakes required regular manual adjustment until the introduction of self-adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. Drums are prone to brake fading with repeated use, in 1953, Jaguar fielded three cars equipped with disc brakes at Le Mans, where they won, in large part due to their superior braking over drum-equipped rivals. This spelled the beginning of the crossover of drum brakes to disc brakes in passenger cars, from 1955 to the 1970s, disc brakes gradually replaced drum brakes on the front wheels of cars. Now practically all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, in the United States, the Jeep CJ-5 was the final automobile to use front drum brakes when it was phased out in 1984. However, drum brakes are often used for handbrakes, as it has proven very difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a parked car. Moreover, it is easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves as both service brake and handbrake.
When working on systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly. The United States Federal Government began to regulate production. Owners initially complained of poor braking with the replacements, however, a majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other countries limit the use of asbestos in brakes, drum brake components include the backing plate, brake drum, wheel cylinder, and various springs and pins. The backing plate provides a base for the other components. Since all braking operations exert pressure on the plate, it must be strong
Pininfarina S. p. A. is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder in Cambiano, Italy. It was founded by Battista Pinin Farina in 1930. On December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufactures to design vehicles. Since the 1980s Pininfarina has designed high-speed trains, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, airplanes, with the 1986 creation of Pininfarina Extra they have consulted on industrial design, interior design and graphic design. Pininfarina was run by Battistas son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008, after Andreas death his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO. At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco, as of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana, on December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, announced a deal to acquire Pininfarina S. p. A. in a deal worth about 168 million euros.
That first year the firm employed eighteen and built 50 automobile bodies, on May 22,1930 papers were filed to become a corporation, Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina headquartered in Turin, Italy, at 107 Corso Trapani. During the 1930s, the company built bodies for Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Isotta-Fraschini, Hispano Suiza, Fiat and this development happened in the mid-1930s when others saw the frameless construction as the end of the independent coachbilder. In 1939, World War II ended automobile production, but the company had 400 employees building 150 bodies a month, the war effort against the Allies brought work making ambulances and searchlight carriages. The Pininfarina factory was destroyed by Allied bombers ending the firms operations, after the war, Italy was banned from the 1946 Paris Motor Show. The Paris show was attended by 809,000 visitors, lines of people stretched from the gate all the way to the Seine. The managers of the Grand Palais said of the display, the devil Pininfarina, but to the press, at the end of 1945 the Cisitalia 202 Coupé was designed.
An elegantly proportioned design with a low hood, it is the car that usually is given credit for establishing Pininfarinas reputation, the Pininfarina design was honored in the Museum of Modern Arts landmark presentation Eight Automobiles in 1951. A total of 170 Coupés where produced by Pininfarina, the publicity of the Museum of Modern Art exhibit brought Pininfarina to the attention of Nash-Kelvinator managers. The subsequent cooperation with Nash Motors resulted in production of Pininfarina designs. In 1952, Mr. Farina visited the U. S, the Nash-Healey sports car body was, completely designed and assembled in limited numbers from 1952 to 1954 at Pininfarinas Turin facilities. Nash heavily advertised its link to the famous Italian designer, much as Studebaker promoted its longtime association with Raymond Loewy, there were 99 Broughams built in 1959 and 101 in 1960. A similar arrangement was repeated in the late 1980s when Pininfarina designed the Cadillac Allanté at the San Giusto Canavese factory, the car bodies were assembled and painted in Italy before being flown from the Turin International Airport to Detroit for final vehicle assembly
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
De Dion tube
A de Dion tube is an automobile suspension technology. It is a form of non-independent suspension and is a considerable improvement over the swing axle, Hotchkiss drive. Because it plays no part in transmitting power to the drive wheels, De Dion suspension uses universal joints at both the wheel hubs and differential, and uses a solid tubular beam to hold the opposite wheels in parallel. Unlike an anti-roll bar, a de Dion tube is not directly connected to the chassis nor is it intended to flex, in suspension geometry it is a beam axle suspension. The de Dion tube was named after Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, the tube, was invented around 1894 by co-founder Charles Trépardoux for use on the companys steam tricycles. Advantages, Reduced unsprung weight compared to the Hotchkiss drive, since the differential, unlike most fully independent suspension there are no camber changes on axle loading and unloading. Fixing the camber of both wheels at 0° assists in obtaining good traction from wide tires and tends to reduce wheel hop under high power operations compared to an independent suspension, the choice of shock absorbers and springs is made easier.
The two wheels may be aligned, allowing for independent camber and track alignment. Disadvantages, A pair of CV or universal joints is required for each wheel, adding complexity and weight. If coil springs are used, a location link is required, plus additional torque links on each side or a combination of lower trailing links. None of these links are required if leaf springs are used. The torque links are not required if the setup uses inboard brakes, like in the Pegaso 1502, Rover P6, sympathetic camber changes on opposite wheels are seen on single-wheel suspension compression, just as in a Hotchkiss drive or live axle. This is not important for operation on improved surfaces but is critical for rough road or off road use. Alfa Romeo is probably the most famous adopter of technology, using it on the Alfa Romeo Alfetta, GT, GTV, GTV6, Alfa 6,90, 75/Milano. A recent vehicle to use this suspension coupled with leaf springs was the Ford Ranger EV, the American built MV-1 van by VPG uses this suspension in the rear with leaf springs and is just starting production in spring 2010.
4WD variants of the Honda Fit use a De Dion style suspension in lieu of a torsion bar, benefits include simplicity, compactness and a relatively low liftover height for the cargo bed. Forged steel axles were used instead of tubes, setright, L. J. K. De Dion axle, The First Step to Independence, in Ward, executive editor. World of Automobiles, Volume 5, pp. 515–516
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
Overhead valve engine
An overhead valve engine is an engine in which the valves are placed in the cylinder head. This was an improvement over the flathead engine, where the valves were placed in the block next to the piston. Overhead camshaft engines, while overhead valve by definition, are usually categorized apart from other OHV engines. Lifters or tappets are located in the block between the camshaft and pushrods. By contrast, overhead camshaft design avoids the use of pushrods by putting the camshaft directly above the valves in the cylinder head, in 1900, Marr was hired as chief engineer at the Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company in Detroit, where he worked until 1902. Marr said he got the idea of overhead valves when making the small tricycle engine, marrs engine employed pushrod-actuated rocker arms, which in turn pushed valves parallel to the pistons, and this is still in use today. This contrasts with previous designs which use of side valves. Marr left Buick briefly to start his own company in 1902, the Marr Auto-Car.
The OHV engine was patented in 1902 by Buicks second chief engineer Eugene Richard, at the Buick Manufacturing Company, precursor to the Buick Motor Company. The worlds first production overhead valve engine was put into the first production Buick automobile, the 1904 Model B, the engine was designed by Marr and David Buick. Eugene Richard of the Buick Manufacturing Company was awarded US Patent #771,095 in 1904 for the valve in head engine. Arthur Chevrolet was awarded US Patent #1,744,526 for an adapter that could be applied to an existing engine, in 1949, Oldsmobile introduced the Rocket V8. It was the first high-compression I-head design, and is the archetype for most modern pushrod engines, general Motors is the worlds largest pushrod engine producer, producing both I4, V6 and V8 pushrod engines. Nowadays, automotive use of side-valves has virtually disappeared, and valves are almost all overhead, most are now driven more directly by the overhead camshaft system. Few pushrod-type engines remain in production outside of the United States market and this is in part a result of some countries passing laws to tax engines based on displacement, because displacement is somewhat related to the emissions and fuel efficiency of an automobile.
This has given OHC engines a regulatory advantage in those countries, however, in 2002, Chrysler introduced a new pushrod engine, a 5. 7-litre Hemi engine. The new Chrysler Hemi engine presents advanced features such as variable displacement technology and has been an option with buyers. The Hemi was on the Wards 10 Best Engines list for 2003 through 2007, Chrysler produced the worlds first production variable-valve OHV engine with independent intake and exhaust phasing
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, usually ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement, shorter than the inline 4, because of its short length, the V6 fits well in the widely used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout. The V6 engine has become widely adopted for medium-sized cars, often as an engine where an inline 4 is standard. Modern V6 engines commonly range in displacement from 2.0 to 4.3 L, though larger and smaller examples have been produced, such as the 1991 Mazda MX3, some of the first V6-powered automobiles were built in 1905 by Marmon. This firm became something of a V-engine specialist, beginning with V2 engines, V4s, V6s, V8s, and, in the 1930s, Marmon was one of the few automakers of the world to offer a V16-powered automobile. From 1908 to 1913 the Deutz Gasmotoren Fabrik produced benzene electric train sets used a V6 as generator engine.
Another V6-powered car was designed in 1918 by Leo Goosen for Buick Chief Engineer Walter L. Marr, only one prototype Buick V6 car was built in 1918, it was long used by the Marr family. The first series-production V6 was introduced by Lancia in 1950 with the Lancia Aurelia model, Lancia sought a smoother and more powerful engine that would fit into an existing narrow engine bay. A Lancia engineer, Francesco De Virgilio, began analyzing the vibration of alternative V-angles for a V6 engine in 1943 and he found that a V6 with its cylinders positioned at a 60° V-angle could be made uniquely smooth-running in comparison with other possible V-angles. There was resistance to his conclusion, because the V6 was a virtually unknown engine type in the 1950s and his design featured four main bearings and six crankpins, resulting in evenly spaced firing intervals and low vibrations. Other manufacturers took note and soon other V6 engines were designed, the use of the sweet spot of 60 degrees V-angle maximized power while minimizing vibration and exterior dimensions of the engine.
In short, GMC introduced a compact V6 design at a time when the engine was considered the pinnacle of 6-cylinder design. To save design time and expense, it was much like a V8 that had two cylinders chopped off. This uneven firing caused harmonic vibrations in the train that were perceived as a rough-running engine by the buyers. GM sold the tooling to Kaiser-Jeep in 1967, later, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. In 1977, Buick introduced a split pin crankshaft to implement a version of this engine in which cylinders fired consistently every 120°. The V6 does not have the inherent freedom from vibration that the inline-six and flat-six have, counterweights on the crankshaft and a counter rotating balance shaft are required to compensate for the first order rocking motions. This causes an end-to-end rocking motion at crankshaft speed in a straight-three engine and this results in an engine which is short and relatively smooth, but too wide for most engine compartments
A clutch is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power transmission especially from driving shaft to driven shaft. In the simplest application, clutches connect and disconnect two rotating shafts, in these devices, one shaft is typically attached to an engine or other power unit while the other shaft provides output power for work. While typically the motions involved are rotary, linear clutches are possible, in a torque-controlled drill, for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill chuck. The clutch connects the two shafts so they may be locked together and spin at the speed, locked together but spinning at different speeds, or unlocked. This type of clutch has protruding circular edge and a hole for them that engages and disengages during operation and this type is less effective since human foot or hand power on clutching reaches about 10 KN or 1,000 kg. The vast majority of clutches ultimately rely on frictional forces for their operation, the purpose of friction clutches is to connect a moving member to another that is moving at a different speed or stationary, often to synchronize the speeds, and/or to transmit power.
Usually, as little slippage as possible between the two members is desired, various materials have been used for the disc-friction facings, including asbestos in the past. Modern clutches typically use an organic resin with copper wire facing or a ceramic material. Ceramic materials are used in heavy applications such as racing or heavy-duty hauling, though the harder ceramic materials increase flywheel. In the case of wet clutches, composite materials are very common. Since these wet clutches typically use an oil bath or flow-through cooling method for keeping the disc pack lubricated and cooled, friction-disc clutches generally are classified as push type or pull type depending on the location of the pressure plate fulcrum points. In a pull-type clutch, the action of pressing the pedal pulls the release bearing, pulling on the spring and disengaging the vehicle drive. The opposite is true with a type, the release bearing is pushed into the clutch disengaging the vehicle drive. In this instance, the bearing can be known as a thrust bearing. A clutch damper is a device that softens the response of the clutch engagement/disengagement, in automotive applications, this is often provided by a mechanism in the clutch disc centres.
In addition to the damped disc centres, which reduce driveline vibration and these weaker springs are compressed solely by the radial vibrations of an idling engine. They are fully compressed and no longer in use once the main damper springs take up drive, mercedes truck examples, A clamp load of 33 kN is normal for a single plate 430. The 400 Twin application offers a clamp load of a mere 23 kN, bursts speeds are typically around 5,000 rpm with the weakest point being the facing rivet
A carburetor, or carburettor, or carburator, or carburetter is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine in the proper ratio for combustion. It is sometimes shortened to carb in North America or carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet is to blend the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose, carburetors have largely been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection. They are still common on engines for lawn mowers, rototillers. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning carbide, carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon. The first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826, a carburetor was invented by an Italian, Luigi De Cristoforis, in 1876. Another carburetor was developed by Enrico Bernardi at the University of Padua in 1882, for his Motrice Pia, a carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were the surface type, in which air is charged with fuel by being passed over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor for their engine based on the atomizer nozzle, hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars, in 1896, Frederick and his brother built the first gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the performance and power, they re-built the engine the next year into a horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburetor design. Carburetors were the method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline-fueled engines up until the late 1980s. 1991, Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC360 cu in V8 engine, low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors even into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003.
Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006, many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicitys sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992. This legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. Fords first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS2600 in 1970, general Motors launched its first fuel-injected car around the same time, when began to introduce fuel-injected engines to its Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel Ascona range
Sliding pillar suspension
A sliding pillar suspension is a form of independent front suspension for light cars. Steering movement is provided by allowing this same sliding pillar to rotate, sliding pillar independent suspension was first used by Decauville in 1898, the first recorded instance of independent front suspension on a motor vehicle. In this system, the stub axle carrying the wheel was fixed to the bottom of a pillar which slid up, the top of the pillar was fixed and pivoted on a transverse semi-elliptic leaf spring. This system was copied by Sizaire-Naudin a few years later, Lancia continued with sliding pillar suspension until the 1950s Appia. In turn, this was copied for a year by Nash on its unibody 600 model. Sliding pillar suspension systems have used by several cyclecar manufacturers, the French maker Tracta. Morgan introduced a similar system using a sliding stub axle on a fixed pillar, used first on Morgan Motor Company cyclecars. The Morgan design is a sliding pillar, as are most of the designs, the pillar is attached to the chassis. A drawback of the pillar system is that the track changes with differential suspension movement.
This is particularly an issue where the track is narrow in relation to suspension travel, the effective track is the hypotenuse AC or AD of the triangle ABC, where AB is the fixed pillar spacing. However, many types of suspension, such as the swing axle have similar issues, track variation is usually considered less important than changes in wheel camber, which is almost nonexistent in a sliding pillar system. This suspension system is rare, but was used most notably in the groundbreaking Lancia Aurelia coupe, plunger suspension A similar sliding suspension, used for the rear suspension of some motorcycles
They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies and civilians, and the inland carriage of official communications and trade goods. Roman roads were of several kinds, ranging from local roads to broad, long-distance highways built to connect cities, major towns. These major roads were often stone-paved and metaled, cambered for drainage and they were laid along accurately surveyed courses, and some were cut through hills, or conducted over rivers and ravines on bridgework. Sections could be supported over marshy ground on rafted or piled foundations, at the peak of Romes development, no fewer than 29 great military highways radiated from the capital, and the late Empires 113 provinces were interconnected by 372 great roads. The whole comprised more than 400,000 kilometres of roads, in Gaul alone, no less than 21,000 kilometres of roadways are said to have been improved, and in Britain at least 4,000 kilometres. The courses of many Roman roads survived for millennia, some are overlaid by modern roads, livy mentions some of the most familiar roads near Rome, and the milestones on them, at times long before the first paved road—the Appian Way.
Unless these allusions are just simple anachronisms, the referred to were probably at the time little more than levelled earthen tracks. Thus, the Via Gabina is mentioned in about 500 BC, the Via Latina in about 490 BC, the Via Nomentana, in 449 BC, the Via Labicana in 421 BC, and the Via Salaria in 361 BC. There is hardly a district to which we expect a Roman official to be sent, on service either civil or military. They reach the Wall in Britain, run along the Rhine, the Danube, and the Euphrates, and cover, as with a network, a road map of the empire reveals that it was generally laced with a dense network of prepared viae. Beyond its borders there were no paved roads, however, it can be supposed that footpaths, there were, for instance, some pre-Roman ancient trackways in Britain, such as the Ridgeway and the Icknield Way. For specific roads, see Roman road locations below, the Laws of the Twelve Tables, dated to about 450 BC, specified that a road shall be 8 Roman feet wide where straight and twice that width where curved.
Actual practices varied from this standard, the Tables command Romans to build roads and give wayfarers the right to pass over private land where the road is in disrepair. Roman law defined the right to use a road as a servitus, the ius eundi established a claim to use an iter, or footpath, across private land, the ius agendi, an actus, or carriage track. A via combined both types of servitutes, provided it was of the width, which was determined by an arbiter. The default width was the latitudo legitima of 8 feet, Roman law and tradition forbade the use of vehicles in urban areas, except in certain cases. Married women and government officials on business could ride, the Lex Iulia Municipalis restricted commercial carts to night-time access in the city within the walls and within a mile outside the walls. Such roads led either to the sea, or to a town, or to a public river and these roads bear the names of their constructors